Skip to main content

Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (July-Dec. 1879)"

See other formats

□ EDO? lESftnSb 

California Stale i , , : . 

Volume XVIII.] 


Number i. 

The Fourth of July. 

Again comes the season for uncorking vials of 
patriotism, that tributes to the glorious past, 
the unparalleled present, and the transcendant 
future of our country may flow forth. The idea 
is one, whether it throbs in the heart beneath 
the round-about, or flutters within the sacqueof 
silk, or whether it beat with tumultuous emo- 
tion against the obverse of an immaculate shirt 
front. Though the idea be one and the same in 
all these situations, the manner of its expres 
sion is difiFerent, and ranges from the bang of 
cracker and phiz of squib, through the swell of 
patriotic music heard in leafy groves, to the 
ponderous eloquence of the platform and the 
pomp of the parade. Let each one choose his 
patriotic expression as he will, for freedom is 
the genius of the day, and its language is in 
words to this eflFect: " That all men are created 
equal; that they are endowed by their Creator 
with certain inalienable rights; that amonc 
these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happi 
ness." Therefore we insist on the widest free 
dom in the choice of method for commemorating 
the nation's birth, and invoke the unchecked 
flow of all spirits save the alcoholic. 

The growth of the country is properly the 
standard theme for Fourth of July comments. 
It is well to stop once each year, j take new 
bearings to learn the speed and direction of our 
progress. This year's occasion will yield abund 
ant material for rejoicing. The clouds of de 
pressiou which have enclothed the industries of 
the country for the last few years seem indeed 
to be breaking away, and, as light follows dark 
ness, 80 we may expect an era of wide pros 
perity to succeed the hardship which has been 
so widespread. The grievous years have been 
a severe experience,, but their lessons have been 
salutary. In the wisdom of events it was neces 
sary that our people should be purged of the 
inflated, extravagant and corrupt ideas which 
followed the waste of war, and every element of 
the country, from Government to individual, 
should be forced again into the narrow paths of 
true economy, industry and honesty. The 
hardships we have undergone have probably 
been the salvation of the nation — the refiner's 
fire and the fuller's soap which expelled our 
baseness and cleansed our minds of tendencies 
which would have soon brought us to the verge 
of ruin. It is fair now to hope that with a 
purified public service, and with truer aims and 
methods in the individual, we shall go f'^rward 
into the possession of a future which we feel 
strong to realize, and which all the nations 

fenerously accord us. Let the Republic live, 
let it still stand before the world as the expo- 
nent of the people's rights— the light to guide 
all nations in the reforms which are now in 
progress in all the countries of the globe ; re- 
fonns which promise to usher in a day of uni- 
versal liberty , liberty which shall conform all 
existing dynasties to the truths of humanity or 
sweep them from the earth. 

To California the coming of the national holi- 
day is of special significance this year, because 
at this time we come for the first time beneath 
the authority of the new Constitution. It is 
true that only those parts relating to the choice 
of new public servants, for which the Constitu- 
tion provides, come now into effect ; and that 
existing laws are unchanged. And yet it may 
be claimed that now the most vital issues 
will begin their course, for after all a constitu- 
tion is a distant agency compared with the 
groups of legislators, judges and executive offi- 
cers, who are to reduce its precepts to practical 
application. Therefore from this day let the 
thought of the people be upon the quality 
of the men who are claiming their suffrages. 
Lot present professions be judged by their con. 
eistency with what is known of the men's lives 
and associations, with the course of their earlier 
thoughts, principles and actions. Never before 
in the history of the State, perhaps, has it been 
so important that the elective franchise be exer- 
cised with the fullest wisdom, honesty and 

\Vhile we speak of thoughts of duty as per- 
taining to the day, we do not forget the wisdom 

which lies in wholesome amusement and recrea- 
tion. Let the national holiday in remote homes 
be a memorable occasion. Borrow from its 
traditional glories to gild the pathway of the 
young. Speak to the children of the significance 
of the day, and stir them with thoughts of the 
perils attending the early declaration and the 
joy which crowned the success of the fathers of 
the republic. Incite them to manly and 
womanly thoughts by assurance that upon each 
of them will rest a part of the responsibility of 
maintaining the freedom and equality so glori- 
ously attained. Give them joy, and teach them 
that there is a deep significance in the rejoicing. 
Thus will the day discharge the duty which the 

Restraining Early Buds. — -Those who find 
their buds prone to start early and thus subject 
themselves to nipping frosts, may be interested 
to hear of a root-chilling process used by a 
Rhenish land owner. If the trees are inclined 
to blossom too soon, he digs' trenches round 
about their roots, throws in a few blocks of ice, 
and covers these over with the soil. Thus 
sheltered, the ice melts very slowly, and by its 
refrigerative action retards the further develop- 
ments of the buds till all danger of night frosts 
is over. The trouble with this prescription in 
the warm parts of California is the absence of 
ice, except that made artificially, and it is in the 

MARIPOSA TULIP -Calochortus. 

fathers placed upon it by its selection as a 
national holiday. 

International Floriculture. — Since the 
recent notable improvements in means for 
transportation there is hardly anything which 
does not come within the reach of international 
exhibitions. The latest proposed is an interna- 
tional floral exhibition to be held in London 
next year. There was something of the kind in 
18G6, but now we may expect something embrac- 
ing & much larger list of countries and a better 
show. It will indeed be a notable occasion and 
our coast will doubtless be represented by the 
many of our floral gems which have been intro- 
duced in English gardens and hot-houses. 

parts where there is no ice that the need Qf a bud- 
repressing process is most felt. A method of sav- 
ing the fruit by protecting the buds also coming, 
in this instance, from German sources, but not 
new, is to place large vessels of water in the 
immediate neighborhood of the trees, taking 
care to renew it as it evaporates, and to remove 
all ice that may form on the surface as it ap- 
pears. This plan is said to be specially service- 
able in the case of apricot and peach trees. The 
theory is that the water, by virtue of its supe- 
rior powers of attraction for cold, absorbs it to 
such an extent as to protect the trees, when a 
moderate degree of frost only is present. It 
must be considered easioi to get up a smoke 
than to arrange water tanks near each tree. The 
smoke method has succeeded well in this State. 

Mariposa or Butterfly Tulips. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Prof. J. G. Lfmmon. 

"Mariposa" is a sweet, euphonious Spanish 
name for "butterfly." The name was given to 
a certain river of the Sierra in an early day, 
then to a county and a town, etc. Legendary 
lore hath it that a beautiful lily, or rather tulip, 
was first found here that so closely resembled 
certain gaudy butterflies that inspiratively 
"Mariposa" became the beauty's name. 

The less pretty, but most characteristic name 
of Calochortus, has been given by botanists to this 
interesting family of plants, but in the common 
vernacular they are called "butterfly tulips". 
There are perhaps 20 or more species of them, 
scattered from end to end of the State, and from 
seaside to Sierra summit. 

A glance at the illustrations on this page and 
on page nine, will serve to instruct one in recog- 
nizing the family, however modified the many 
species. They are of all colors of the spectrum, 
and vary in size from tiny yellow bells to mag- 
nificent tea-cups. 

Some peep from out morass and grassy banks, 
some seek the shady grove, others boldly spread 
their gaudy corollas on the bare mountain crag. 
Some have already met with appreciation and 
awakened in spring to delight foreign eyes; 
others hide from the sight of all save the na- 
tive tribes or the intrusive botanist. Within a 
few years several of the most showy species have 
been brought to light, chiefly in the hot, forbidding 
plains of southern California and the interior 
desert. Notably of these is the superb, purple 
and golden species oiCalochoHus citrinua, found 
by Mrs. Bartlett, in Glen Loch near Santa Bar- 
bara, and the C. clovatus, found near San Luis 
Obispo by the writer. A splendid flame-colored 
species, C. Kennedyi, was lately found by sev- 
eral parties out in the interior. 

All the species yield readily to cultivation, 
being propagated by bulbs, gathering them after 
flowering and planting in spring. Few for- 
eign families of plants exceed in beauty and 
hardiness our own native Mariposa tulips. Let 
every flower-lover try them. 

Absorption of Moisture by Grain. — A very 
interesting and important subject is brought 
forward in the graduating thesis of Mr. Edmond 
O'Neil, which is printed on page 10 of this issue. 
Mr. O'Neil graduated at the College of Agricul- 
ture last month and did well in the selection of 
his final topic of research at the institution to 
take a matter of much practical importance to 
our grain growers. The gain of weight in grain 
stored in a moist atmosphere has often been 
commented upon by warehouse men, but we 
are not aware that accurate experiments to 
ascertain the possible amount of this gain have 
hitherto been made in this State. Mr. O'Neil 
describes his methods and states the resulti 
with such clearness that it is only necessary to 
refer the reader to them. The practical con- 
siderations which are influenced by the possible 
gain in weight under certain conditions are 
certainly worth looking into, and the possibility 
of applying this gain to offset the cost of storage 
and interest, in calculations as to the expense of 
holding grain for future sale, should be worked 
out by those jvho have had experience in holding 
grain in store. Any observations of our readers 
in this connection will be gladly received for 

Applying Bisulphide. — Those who 'are ex- 
perimenting with bisulphide of carbon for 
ground pests may like to try the French method, 
which is said to consist of dipping a few little 
pieces of brick in the liquid and placing them 
in the holes, then closing up the hole with dirt. 
This is said to be an efi'ectual dose for rabbits 
in France and may suit our squirrels. 

Foliage and Rainfall. — In the course of an 
investigation of the relation between forests and 
the rainfall, M. Fautrat of the Paris Academy 
of Sciences has ascertained that leafy trees allow 
58% of the rain-water which falls on them to go 
to the ground, while pine trees retain more than 
half in their branches. 



[July 5. 1879. 


We admit, uneudoreed, opinions of correspondents.— Ed8. 

Rus in Urbe— A California Home. 

Editors Press: — In the sweet fresh air of 
this lovely June morning, I took an early drive 
through Mr. J. P. Pierce's place, in the western 
part of Santa Clara, in order to carry out a 
purpose I had formed of taking some notes of 
his place for the readers of the Rural Press. 
And, although I had been on the premises be- 
fore, I had never formed a correct idea of the 
extent, the neatness and the varied attractions 
of this beautiful California home. 

The location first strikes the visitor as being 
peculiarly favorable for just such a beautiful 
place as we Hud it to be. Fronting, as it does, 
in its whole length, one of our principal streets, 
and the entrance to it, the outlook from 
the front door commands a perspective view of 
the principal business street of the town. As 
wo approach tlie wide open gate, a wide and 
faultlessly smooth avenue bordered witli large 
maple trees leads back to the house, half hid 
away among trees and vines peculiar to this 
climate. A large spreading cypress tree stand- 
ing in the center of a circular plot of grass, 
divides the carriage way on either side of the 
house, forming a distinctive feature of the front 
yard. After passing the house, the carriage way 
to the stable is through one of the grandest and 
the moat beautiful grape arbors I have ever 
seen. This arbor is about 22 feet wide and 320 
feet in length, with a hight corresponding to its 
width, the pavement as solid as rock and as 
smooth as a floor. The framework of the arbor 
is substantial in structure and most graceful in 
its design; it is painted white and the frame of 
the arches and the long, straight lattice work 
contrasts finely with the fresh green foliage of 
the grapevines that cover it so evenly in every 
part. The vines, which are of the Isabella va- 
riety, seem to be exceedingly vigorous, and have 
been pruned and trained in the most artistic 
manner, to cover so evenly every part of the 
arbor. I have seen this arbor when the fruit on 
it was ripe, when great purple clusters of lus- 
cious graues were hanging down thick and even- 
ly through the network of white and green, for 
its whole length — certainly the fisiest tiling of 
the kind I have ever seen, and worth a trip of 
many miles to see. 

Besides this spacious arbor there are several 
of less width but about the same length, all 
substantially built and neatly covered with 
grapevines; four of these run parallel with the 
main one, two on either side, and at uniform 
distance from it. Crossing these at right angles 
are two other long arbors, forming a grand sys- 
tem of beautiful arbored walks of several hun- 
dred yards in length, all kept scrupulously neat 
and clean, as in fact may be said of the whole 
premises in every department. The squares 
formed by the arbors are filled with trees, vines 
and flowers, all under high cultivation. 

But Mr. Pierce's place consists of about 100 
acres of lan4, two-thirds, perhaps, of which is 
devoted to a mixed system of ornamental and 
business cultures, embracing nearly all the 
fruits, nuts and ornamental trees and flowers, 
under high cultivation, adapted to this climate. 
So a detailed account of everything of interest 
would far surpass the necessary limits of these 

Irrigation Arrangements. 

His arrangements for irrigation and supplying 
water for all purposes, seemed very permanent 
and complete. On the sontli side of the place 
are located his wells, tank-house and large reser- 
voir. Well elevated in this substantial building 
are two iron tanks, one of sufficient capacity to 
hold 90,000 gallons. The water is elevated l>y 
means of a steam engine and a large windmill 
that surmounts the peak of this unique build- 
ing. From these tanks, the house, barns, 
fountains and lawn sprinklers are supplied. 
Then there is a large reservoir on the 
east side of the tank-house sufficiently ele- 
vated to irrigate all the grounds where water 
is needed. The reservoir is enclosed by a neat 
railing, and surrounded by an elevated walk 
bordered with trees, and on the water were 
some light pleasure boats. 

The grounds immediately about the house on 
every side, are beautifully and artistically laid 
out and ornamented. There are smooth ram- 
bling walks under the trees, and through vel- 
vety plats of grass, clumps of flowers, rustic 
arbors, fountains, rookeries and beautiful views 
and vistas, with sunshine and shadows every- 

The house itself, though in the midst of such 
elegant surroundings, is plain and unpreten- 
tious, wearing the air of home comfort and con- 
venience, rather than that of architectural dis- 
play. Another noteworthy feature of Mr. 
Pierce's place is the number and elegance of the 
carriage ways. You can visit nearly every part 
of it without alighting. Many of them seem 
smooth and hard as of cement, and bordered by 
neatly painted curbings. The barns, stables, 
sheds, shops, tool-house, and houses for his 
employees, are neatly and conveniently arranged 
in a block some considerable distance west and 
back of the house. Back of these are corrals, 
poultry yards,, and a pig yard densely shaded 
by a grove of young locust trees. 

In the southwestern portion of the place the 
drive winds around among flue groves of euca- 

lyptus trees; and fruit trees are everywhere 
looking thrifty and all full of fruit. 

A large portion of the northern part of the 
place is devoted to a variety of the best foreign 
grapes. All the avenues that divide this vine- 
yard into square blocks, are bordered with a 
row of trees on each side. This large vineyard, 
like every other part of the place, bears the 
marks of neatness and high .cultivation. One 
row of English walnut trees, the oldest on the 
place, I noticed were hanging full of nuts, 
rhese trees are about 10 years old, and have 
borne well for several years. 

As to the financial question in connection 
with this kind of farming, I have no facts or 
figures to give — I only write from a passing 
observer's standpoint. Obviously, this is not 
to make money. Many other investments would 
have paid better. The 100 acres of land if de- 
voted to grain or fruit alone, would have 
brought in better net pi-ofits. An energetic 
business man, engaged in other pursuits, wished 
to make a beautiful home for his family, cost 
what itwould, ofTsettingtheaccount at the same 
time with the most that could be made from the 
farm. That is the way it looks to me. And 
this seems a better use for money than fancy 
stocks or large tracts of unproductive land. To 
keep up a place like this, gives employment to 
many men; creates a demand for much mate- 
rial of different kinds, and many tools and 
machines are wanted. Every really valuable 
improvement in a place, adds something to the 
value of every other property on the place. Be- 
side, surrounding our homes with the beautiful 
in nature and art does much to elevate the 
standard of public taste. G. W. M. 

Santa Clara, Cal, June 18th, 1879. 

Present State of Agriculture in England. 

Editors Press: — It would bo alike satisfac- 
tory to you and to me if I could draw a bright 
picture of the state of the farming interest in 
the old country instead of a dark one, for a 
prosperous condition here aflFects in no small 
measure the farmers of your State of the setting 
sun in the same way, and a depressed condition 
here has its ill effect on the agriculture of Cali- 
fornia. It is not necessary for me to go into 
argument to convince your readers that farming 
is in a sorry plight in old England, for they 
know it already to their cost and sorrow in 
diminished prices of wheat and corn — the chief 
farm products that you export to this country, 
but I may point out a few facts that will indi- 
cate the extent of the depression under which 
our farmers are groaning. 

So far as we are concerned you are interested 
most in wheat, and I will therefore take it first 
in order. You have frequently heard it stated 
in recent years that British wheat growers could 
with the greatest difficulty sustain the sharp 
competition of the Western States of the Union, 
and if such a statement was true two years or 
one year ago how much more emphatically true 
is it now. It is estimated that with our careful 
and concentrated style of husbandry we pro- 
duce on the average about twenty-eight bushels 
per acre of wheat in England, and the great 
bulk of our farmers, as you are aware, pay an 
annual rent to their landlords, in addition to im- 
perial taxes and local rates, of say 20 to 50 shill- 
ings an acre according to quality; and besides 
these things, our dense, heavy, sticky wheat 
soils are vastly more costly to work than are the 
wheat soils I have seen in some of your Middle 
States, and good crops can be grown in them 
only by a system of alternate husbandry, under 
which the preceding crops of roots and clover in 
the rotation are designed in a great measure as a 
preparation for the wheat which follows them. 
Thus you will easily see that even the large 
average yield of 28 bushels sold at a fairly good 
price is necessary to unable our wheat growers 
to pay their way and make their profit. Well, 
in the past two years wheat has gone down 
in price about half a crown a bushel, and this 
represents a loss to our farmers of 70 shillings, or 
nearly .§14 per acre, which is about twice as 
much as the average rent they have to pay. 
Here is the ruin that is staring our farmers in 
the face, and at present prices many of them, on 
our heaviest soils, could not make a living out 
of wheat growing even if they had their land 
rent free. 

Take next dairy produce, and we find things 
almost as bad as in wheat. During the last 
four or five years cheese has gone down about 
30 shillings per cwt., or six cents a pound, and 
butter is little if any more than half the price it 
was two years ago. These drops are equal to the 
rent of the land, so that our dairy farmers 
would be no better off rent free now than they 
were when paying 30 shillings an acre three or 
four years ago. If we go on to sheep fanning we 
find ourselves in a similar slough of despond, for 
fat sheep are worth quite 20 shillings a head less 
at the present time than they were two years 
ago, and wool is less than half the price it was 
half a dozen years ago. I know more than one 
farmer who has seven years' wool stored up; for 
the first year's S4 cew^i a pound was refused; 
prices have been dropping relentlessly ever 
since, and now none of the seven years' wool 
would fetch ^4 cents a pound. It is bad to hold 
anything at high prices. 

I have given you the true position of current 
agriculture in this country, and I will now 
allude briefly to some of the causes to which it 
is attributable, after which I will turn for a 
moment to some of the necessary remedies. 

You are aware that England has of late 
years been, and still is, governed by a ministry, 
who have a vulgar weakness for bra^ and 
bluster; who have got us into two mean and 
cowardly little wars, the one in Asia and the 
other in Africa, and who did their utmost to 
drag us into a big and foolish war in Europe. 
Six years ago we had great numbers of silly peo- 
ple in this country who were prospering, and 
who, therefore, thirsted for somebody's blood; 
these people are now known as "Jingoes," be- 
cause, when their pockets and stomachs were 
full and their heads empty, they were constantly 
singing in season and out of season : 

We don'; want to fielit, 
But by jinjfo if »e do. 

We've yot llie ships, we've got the men. 
We've got the money, too. 

These foolish people sent the present British 
Cabintit to power, and we see the result in a 
ruined trade and commerce frightened away 
by the warlike policy of the government. The 
Jingoes are quiet enough now, for they are 
hungry. Their thirst after blood has changed 
into hunger for food, and w hat a diflerence this 
little change makes in bullies and cowards ! 

Other causes of the decline of trade are found 
in the action of our working classes— in strikes 
and trade-unions; these have driven our manu- 
facturers to produce inferior goods in order to 
compete with those of other countries where 
wages are much lower. Auother cause is found 
in the fact that other countries do not follow 
our example in free trade; and yet auother, in 

It has always appeared extraordinary to me 
that a great and enlightened country like 
America should still cling to protective duties 
and tariffs, for it is abundantly evident that no 
combination of circumstances, which we have 
the slightest reason to expect, can prevent your 
country from quickly becoming the richest and 
most powerful the world has ever seen; and 
knowing this, it is the more surprising that 
with regard to your intercourse with foreign 
countries, and particularly with England, your 
statesmen have not yet got beyond the alphabet 
of politics. Again, I am even more astonished 
that the farmers of your vast continent should 
not set about showing your statesmen how to 
get out of the alphabet of diplomacy, for the 
protective policy of your country is an injury to 
your farmers to the benefit of your artisans. 
If there was free trade between your country 
and ours your farmers would get better 
prices for what they have to sell and would 
pay lower ones for what they have to buy. Your 
manufacturers of all kinds have a monopoly, 
and your farmers are the chief victims. If your 
country would receive our manufactured goods 
as we receive yours, duty free, your farmers 
would get their clothing, their implements, their 
furniture, everything, at less money, for we 
should compete with your manufacturers in 
these things; and we should be able to pay you 
better prices for, and to purchase larger quanti- 
ties of your wheat, your corn, your cheese, 
butter, beef, mutton, etc. So your farmers are 
robbed at both ends — in what they buy and in 
what they sell — in order to bolster up your 
manufacturing classes. If any English govern- 
ment followed such a policy our farmers would 
soon teach them a lesson they would not quickly 
forget. Your protective policy is out of joint 
with your republican principles, and the sooner 
j'ou get rid of the anomaly the better it will be 
for your country. We cannot be eternally 
piping to you unless you begin to dance. 

J. P. Sheldon. 

Sheen, Ashbourne, England, June, 10th, 1879. 

[We hear with becoming respect our English 
friend's lecture on the tariff question. It is an 
issue which is better understood in this country 
than he seems to think, and one which we have 
not space to discuss. It only occurs to us to re- 
mark that England lecturing the United .States 
on their folly in not accepting free trade, is like 
the mother of wayward children instructing her 
neighbor on the proper way to bring up a family. 
England's offspring, her colonies, are, we believe 
for themost part, upholders of vigorousprotectivo 
tariffs which are operating to the detriment of 
England's home industries. If this be so, let 
England's missionary efforts begin under her 
own flag. — En.s. Press.] 

Agriculture at tie Stockton Asylum. 

Editors Press : — Owing to the kindness of 
Dr. Shurtleff, Superintendent of the State 
Insane Asylum at .Stockton, in exhibiting his 
live stock and gardens to your correspondent, 
the following is presented : One hundred and 
seven acres of land belong to the Asylum, all 
being within the city limits of Stockton. Im- 
mediately in front of and around the buildings 
are shade trees and ornamental plants; a large 
number of century plants were set out about 10 
years ago, and no less than 20 have bloomed in 
the last four years. The remainder of the land 
is set apart for gardening and hay raising; all 
of the ordinary vegetables thrive, and are culti- 
vated entirely by convalescent iiatients. The 
soil is rich, but for gardening requires irrigation, 
the water being raised by steam power. Five 
large stacks of hay await the hungry cattle of 
I the coming winter, and in the cattle and hogs 
; we find much to interest the breeder. To pas- 
1 ture these cattle the Asylum secures a field 
' which adjoins its property for $200 a year; a 

field containing about 150 acres, which is well 
shaded rich land and furnishes a heavy yield of 
clover. Here the 15 fine Durham cows, one 
Devon cow and a thoroughbred Durham bull, 
roam at will and enjoy the continuous feast of 
plenty. The display is an unusually fine one, 
the stock being the product of long continued 
breeding and sorting. The cows furnish all the 
milk used among the 1,135 patients now at the 
Asylum, and the calves sold each year bring in 
a small remuneration. 

The refuse from the Asylum feeds 175 pigs, 
which are as fine as the cattle. A long and 
neatly whitewashed shed with rows of styes on 
each side occupies the middle of the pig yard. 
The styes are eight feet square and connect with 
enclosures within the shed of about the same 
size. In these the sows are kept when breeding; 
while a little back of the shed they have access 
to shade trees and a pond of water. All pork 
raised is consumed on the place. The breeds 
consist of Suffolk and Berkshire, the former 
being known as Prince Albert Suffolk, posses- 
sing a white thin skin so apt to blister if exposed 
to the hot sun; and the latter, the old-fashioned 
Berkshire. This farming, small as it may seem, 
being carried on with care and order amply 
proves that economy is consistent with State 
control, although seldom associated with it. 

J. H. W. 

Stockton, Cal. 

Nevada Agriculture.— No. 2. 

Editors — The progress of Carson, the 
silver capital, in connection with the general 
progress of the great mineral State, is one very 
clearly marked from year to year, though not 
with entire uniformity. The lands in the vici- 
nity, reclaimed by irrigation from the dry, 
sage brush plain, are more extendeiL Tho 
fields and gardens are better cultivated. Lines 
of trees, groves, orchards, and ornamental 
shade trees are increasing in size and beauty. 
Family residences and permanent buildings are 
gathering all lovely attractions around them, 
while within the neatness and adornments and 
luxuries of life, are greatly increasing. The 
stores, shops, manufactories, hotels, and busi- 
ness houses are larger, better supplied and finer 
in interior and external appearance; the streets 
are in good order, level, graded by nature, and 
free from mud. The two public school build- 
ings, the three churches, the State caiiitol, and 
United States Mint, are of their kind fine 
structures, each in character with its design. 
The streets and houses are lighted by gas, and 
the whole city, in all parts, is well supplied 
with abundance of the best of water. 

The scenery around is romantic, rugged and 
grand. A little to the west, perhaps a mile and 
a half, the great, varied Sierra range rises ab- 
ruptly near four thousand feet into the heavens, 
with summits rarely if ever entirely free from 
snow, with sides once wooded nearly to the tops 
now mostly cut away for lumber and firewood 
in the mines. To the north and south barren 
spurs from the Sierras, broken and irregular, 
extend across to the east to connect with higher 
ranges, running north and south, shutting in 
the regions of the city as one enclosed, even, 
pleasant, valley; one which might be made to 
flourish as a garden in beauty, if a large irrigat- 
ing ditch could be dug for tlie watering of the 
whole. This can be done, and will be ulti- 
mately, when needed by the immense population 
which must dwell in America a hundred and 
twenty years from now. This, at the rate we 
have increased the last hundred years, will be 
over 1,000,000,000 of people. We shall soon 
need all the land possibly available for cultiva- 
tion for our own population, without any from 

Though this valley appears shut in, yet the 
Carson river, coming down from the south, 
passes along the eastern edge and cuts its zig- 
zag deep canyon way through the eastern ranges 
on to its lake of evaporation, sixty miles to the 
northeast. Down this river, from forests in the 
mountains at its head, are floated some 60,00il 
cords of wood yearly for use in the mines and 
mining towns. Yet this is not probably over 
one-fourth of the amount of wood and timber 
used in connection with all the mining in the 
region. The larger supply comes by the rail- 
road, some even from California, but much of it 
reaching the road by long water V-flumes or 
chutes, bringing down the wood from the 
region of forests seven, or even twenty,' miles 
away in the mountains. By this process thou- 
sands of acres of timbered lands on the eastern 
steep slope of the Sierras, are being yearly 
swept clean of all trees, left, in appearance, as 
barren as if they never had any growth of trees 
upon them. Some scientists say this will cause 
these slopes to be forever barren, and diminish 
the already very slight fall of rain through the 
whole country. We very much doubt this, for 
if so then the denuding of more than one-half 
the vast region of continuous forests east of the 
lower Mississippi, Ohio and Missouri rivers to 
the Atlantic ocean, and the covering of the im- 
mense prairies of Illinois, Missouri, Iowa and 
Wisconsin with cultivated groves of trees ought 
to have produced decided changes in the rain- 
fall, proved so by reliable statistics. Certainly 
such denudation does affect the springs and the 
moisture in the soil, and also the uniform flow 
of the streams and rivers; yet we doubt its very 
sensible effect upon the average fall of rain. 
Caiclcen Soup Spring. 

There is, a mile and a quarter north of Car- 
son in the open plains, a large hot flowing 
spring. Its perfect analysis has not been made, 

July 5, 1879.] 

but there is a little sulphur with iron, maa- 
ganese, etc., in such very moderate quantities 
that the fountain appears to differ but little from 
that of common hot water. But by merely 
stirring into a bowl or glass of it some common 
salt and pepper the color changes to accord with 
the taste, which is so like good palatable 
chicken soup, a stranger would not detect the 
difference. Certainly, to us, the resemblance 
was perfect, as we drank it, and we believe that 
had it been given us in the city at a restaurant 
for chicken soup, we should not have detected 
the imposition. The water is also said to be 
excellent forall rheumaticaiid kindred disorders, 
and is remarkably excellent for bathing, pro- 
ducing no lassitude like other hot springs by 
one remaining in it a length of time. 

In the hills surrounding Carson and its beauti- 
ful valley quite a number of mining claims have 
been laid and partially opened, some with really 
encouraging prospects. Still, as yet, none of 
them have been made to pay the expenses of 
working. Copper, lead, antimony, silver, gold, 
iron and even coal have been found, and in time 
these may be worked to advantage, though not 
at present. S. V. B. 

Dairy Cows and their Management. 

I. C. Steele, of Steele Bros., long and well 
known as cheese dairymen, writes for the Pa- 
tron some of his ideas and experiences with 
. dairy cows as follows: 

To secure the best results in the dairy busi- 
ness, cows must be selected that possess quali- 
ties suited to the branch of dairying that is to 
be pursued, and the locality selected. For a 
butter dairy the milk should be rich in oil or 
butter-producing qualities. The best butter 
cows do not, as a rule, give large quantities of 
milk. Cows that give large quantities are more 
valuable for cheese than butter. The cream 
rises quickly on milk adapted to butter making, 
and is converted into butter with comparatively 
little labor in churning, while butter produced 
from milk containing a small amount of butter 
materia] requires more labor to produce butter 
of an inferior quality; when milk containing a 
large percentage of butter, and milk containing 
but little are used together for butter, there is 
considerable loss, because the cream taken from 
poor milk requires more churning, and the but- 
ter globules are not all broken, but remain in 
the buttermilk. 

For the cheese dairy, milk that contains a 
large percentage of cheese is desirable, and cows 
that give large quantities of milk will produce 
more cheese with less waste. For any dairy, 
avoid cows with long, swinging bags, for their 
teats get filthy and sore. A neat, compact ud- 
der with teats of medium size are most desir- 

Large cows are only suited to level land, and 
should never be selected to be pastured on steep 
hills. Small ones will thrive much better. 
Large cattle will decrease in size when grazed 
on rough land, and small cattle will increase in 
size when grazed on level land. These hints of 
nature are valuable. 

Feed and water must be abundant and of good 
quality to secure success in the dairy business. 
It is beyond the power of man to get anything 
out of a cow that has not been put into her. 

Cows must be kindly treated, their disposi- 
tions studied, and their confidence and good will 
secured by their milker to obtain a full flow of 
milk. The annual loss in most dairies from the 
ill-nature of milkers is great. Some of the most 
valuable cows never will give all their milk to 
one they do not like, and soon become valueless 
in the dairy from that cause. Unskillful milk- 
ing destroys the proHts of dairying. To obtain a 
full flow of milk the milking must be done regu- 
larly, rapidly and tlioroughly. Changing milk- 
ers should be avoided as much as possible, for 
every cause that rufHes a cow's temper, or in 
any way excites her, effects the products of the 
dairy unfavorably. One hundred well-selected 
cows, with good food and water in abundance, 
and well managed, will produce as much butter 
or cheese as 150 with scant feed and bad man- 
agement; and the profits from the 100 will be 
as much greater as the number is less. We 
were invited, a short time since, to see a herd of 
young Durham cows. They were grazing on a 
steep hillside nearly covered with brush. The 
owner of the cows remarked: "I am making a 
little over three-quarters of a pound of butter 
per day to the cow. Don't you think that a 
pretty good yield, considering the feed?" We 
did thiuk it was, and we also thought he could 
not afford to treat fine blooded cows in that 
way. We know of a two-year-old Jersey heifer 
that produces two and a half pounds of butter 
per day. If three-quarters of a pound will pay 
expenses two and a half pounds leaves a large 
margin for profits. 

There is another consideration. The thor- 
ough, intelligent dairyman not only secures a 
larger amount of produce, but it is of a better 
quality and commands a better price in the 
market. The shiftless farmer robs the soil of 
its fertility, impoverishes himself and family, 
and fills the atmosphere with the germs of 
weeds, parasites and destructive insects to the 
injury of his neighbors. 


Purity of the Italian Bee in California. 

Editors Press:— Having seen an article in 
the Rural on the purity of the Italian bee in 
this State and the remark that in cool weather 
they did not show tliree bands but two, one, 
and even in some cases none at all, I would 
state that as a breeder of the pure Italian bee 
I cannot let such an opinion pass by unnoticed. 
I have waited until now to see whether some 
one else would take up the matter. Mr. 
Editor, some seven years ago I visited my East- 
ern home in old Massachusetts after an absence 
of some 12 years, and then became interested 
in the Italian bee, the old folks liaving a swarm 
or two of the breed, and though I believe not 
what was called pure they looked sfine and 
worked well apparently. When I returned I 
took considerable pains to find where I could 
get pure Italian queens. I was swindled badly 
at first, but finally I succeeded and since then 
have had three-banded workers almost exclu- 
sively. Sometimes when a young queen mates 
she might have mated a black drone or drone 
from a hybrid queen, and occasionally her 
workers might have a mixture, but as soon as I 
perceive that mixed stock she does no more 
breeding forever; and now I invite any one in- 
terested to inspect my apiary and I will take 
pains to show them some where you cannot see 
any but all three-banded. In looking at the 
brood of one of my imported queens I found 
some of them four-banded, the three bands 
were very distinct and the fourth baud was a 
clear line of yellow, or nearer leather color. I 
have not had to kill many this season, and the 
most of those were from some queen cells of 
hives that had swarmed out or made prepara- 
tions, and I overhauled before swarming. I 
have had swarms from the first of March to the 
present writing, and in the early part of the 
season the only notice that I had of it was when 
the bees were in the air. Now just imagine 21 
frames of bees, Langstroth size, in the air at 
one time, and sometimes two or three swarms 
at the same time, and no help to attend them 
but myself, and you might think times and bees 
were lively; but you see I have them trained, 
and there is nothing mysterious about that. I 
clip the wings of all queens as soon as I am sat- 
isfied they are laying, and have the hives low to 
the ground and about five feet apart in the 
row and the rows about eight feet apart. Her 
ladyship comes out and in almost every instance 
gets back to the hive unaided. I take an 
empty hive, take out all the frames, cut out 
queen cells, put the frames back, put on sec- 
tions and the bees begin to miss the queen and 
come back home, and the thing is done. In 
case two or more swarms come at the same 
time, I watch them close, pick up the queens, 
put them in a wire cloth cage and lay them in 
front of their respective hives, and when a hive 
has more bees than another I cover it with a 
sheet and the bees go where they hear the loud- 
est calling. Sometimes they will settle on a 
limb or bush, but I generally have the run of 
them. Many a time I have just got through 
with one when another would just commence. 

I have not made any swarms except when I 
had to. I tried to work for comb honey in 
small sections, but the weather would not be 
favorable more than two or three days at a 
time, and a section would be nearly sealed over 
when a cold spell would come and appear to 
stop the secretion of the flowers. 

My hives are all full of honey and strong in 
bees at this date. I shall take some honey by 
extracting; in fact, the brood department is 
now too full for the accommodation of the queen. 
The moth has not troubled me; in fact, I have 
not seen a dozen worms this season. 

Most of the honey gathered has been from 
blue sage and wild buckwheat. My bees work 
on the "Yerba Santa" or mountain balm, the 
honey from which is thick and very nice. 

The honey taken in May had a nice almond 
flavor. Blackberries helped out very well, 
there being some 10 or 12 acres in my neighbor- 
hood. At this time my bees are just frantic on 
the bloom of what is named the bear bush or 
"hawberry,"a bush that grows in most of the 
canyons and largely in the high land through- 
out this vicinity. So far our mountain honey 
has been most delicious. I do not think that 
as a general thing this vicinity will beat the 
lower country for quantity, but will venture to 
say that it does in quality. 

I have letters from the lower country and 
they all represent a very poor season. I think 
that one trouble is in their stock of bees. As a 
general thing there has been too much in-and- 
breeding, and that will run any stock out. I 
don't regret the expense that I have been to to 
instill new blood in my stock, as this season 
will more than pay me in honey alone. I have 
increased from 47 to 62 swarms and have the 
combs all built out to good worker combs, and 
in many cases have two tiers of combs, besides 
sections to the hives. What old combs I had 
that were not perfect I trimmed out the imper- 
fections and gave them to young queens as soon 
as they began laying, which built them com- 
plete to all worker comb. 

Most of ray queens have been renewed this 
season. I have had a number superseded by 
the bees in spite of all precautions, and have 
had only one swarm get away this season. 
I have introduced a good many queens this 


season and lost none so far. I consider it no 
trick with the present appliances to introduce 
queens without the bees realizing the change. 
I think from experience that the most of fail- 
ures in losing queens in the introduction is on 
the part of the operator. As a general thing 
never open a hive for 10 days after introducing 
a queen, and the chances are more favorable. 
I have accidentally opened hives before that 
time without loss, but at first like others was 
anxious for my valuable queen and opened the 
hive (as my experience shows me) too soon, the 
consequence was my loss of queen. I have 
tried I think all ways of introducing, and they 
are many. 

With regard to doubling up swarms, although 
the season is poor in most section.^ of the coun- 
try and bees probably are robbing severely, it 
may be done by bringing the hives to be 
doubled gradually nearer to each other, say a 
foot or so at a time about every hour, and in 
case a strong swarm has to be passed the hive 
being moved could be reversed by degrees so as 
to pass in the rear and the entrances at the ex- 
treme end when they get together. In that 
way place the fronts alike and the hives side 
by side; then the next day or late the same day 
alternate the comb bees and all after killing one 
queen, in one hive, shake the balance of the 
bees on top of the frames and cover it as soon 
as possible and place a board against the en- 
trance of the hive to obstruct the flying of the 
bees. When they perceive this they will take a 
new bearing and find the hive on returning. 
The bees will not be so apt to quarrel by alter- 
nating the comb as they get confused. 

To feed bees to prevent robbing the best 
time is at dusk. They will clean all up before 
morning. J. D. Enas. 

Napa, Cal. 

The Situation in the Southern Counties. 

A repetition of the disastrous calamity to the 
apiacultural interests of 1877 has returned upon 
us in 1879, with every prospect of equal fatality 
and more general in its blighting sweep. The 
long visit of chilly winter that lingered in the 
lap of flowery spring and now fans with chilly 
breath sunny summer, has drank up and ab- 
sorbed the nectar in the thousands of flowers 
that deigned to lift their tiny heads and assert 
their rights in the face of this cool intruder. 
Not only has it been the case in southern Cali- 
fornia, but the world over, as far as the hum of 
civilization is heard. Bees are eking out a 
mere living — are seen searching every drooping 
flower in blighted nature, and, like their keep- 
ers, many of whom keenly feel the tightening 
grasp of grim want, and are searching for some 
other occupation to sustain the connecting link 
between soul and body until the return of a 
more favorable auspice. Hope for a pound of 
surplus honey this season is entirely gone, and 
bee men have hung their harps on the willows 
of disappointment and are wandering down the 
cold stream of despair. But we would say, do 
not give up the ship in disgust; there is still 
hope that the coming late feed will afford a liv- 
ing support for the little pets until after the 
rainy season shall set in, when it is hojied that 
a more favorable season will come to our relief. 
"It is an ill wind that blows no one any good;" 
this universal failure will consume all the honey 
in the market, leaving it destitute another sea- 
son, when good prices will return, and what we 
may loose this season, we may make another. 
Our advice to apiarists is to double up their 
colonies as they grow weak, saving their best 
queens and preserve all empty comb by fumiga- 
ting with brimstone, and hanging up so that the 
combs do not touch each other, in some dark 
and dry place — empty comb is worth its weight 
in gold in building up an apiary and propagating 
early swarms. 

The season has been one of the most peculiar 
that has ever been known, creating a general 
depression in every department of industry. 
While the agriculturists and horticulturists 
may produce a meager support, the apiaculturist 
produces nothing, and is left penniless with the 
wolf at his door, and for the present, will be 
compelled to seek some other vocation, but in 
the meantime the must pick his flint and try 
again. — Levering, in Los Angeles Journal. 

Poisoning Gopher.s. — A Kansas farmer gives 
his experience as follows: "I found that the 
ground was completely honey-combed by pocket 
gophers. I procured several small sweet pota- 
toes and cut them into slices one-half of an inch 
long, then with the point of a knife I inserted 
in each slice a crystal of strychnine the size of a 
pin head. Then with these poisoned bits of 
sweet potatoes and spade in hand I went all 
over my land, and wherever I saw a fresh sign, 
I dug till I found its roadway, into which I 
thrust one of the poisoned pieces then covered 
up the hole again. I continued to repeat this 
operation at intervals of two weeks; or as often 
as I discovered fresh signs; and to my great re- 
lief, found that gophers soon got so scared that 
their damage was hardly noticed, and for the 
last three years I have been bothered but very 
little with them." 

New Scale. — By making a miniature of an 
object, such as a spider line, and examining it 
with a microscope. Dr. Royston Pigott has 
found that objects even as small as the mil- 
lionth of an inch could be seen; and in a late 
communication to the Philosophical Society, 
Cambridge, took exception to the view gener- 
ally prevailing among opticians, that it is use- 
lesfi to attempt further pcrtcction of the micro- 


French Methods of Fattening Fowls. 

From a letter in the Live Stock Journal, giving 
accounts of methods of fattening poultry in 
Europe, we take the following extracts: 

In France two principal methods of fattening 
are employed, viz: with solid or semi-fluid food; 
the latter being now preferred, at least for fin- 
ishing off with. In either system, as carried 
on by the best feeders, each bird is penned in a 
compartment narrow enough to keep it from 
turning round, and the bottom of which is of 
open bars, to allow of all offensive matter falling 
through. It is also necessary to keep together 
fowls at the same stage of fattening, and not to 
have fowls of different sexes near each other; 
for though they may only hear each other's 
voices, it is found to retard fattening. Under 
the coops it is usual to have a floor of dry earth, 
which is frequently raked clean. 

Madame Millet Robinet (it is remarkable how 
much is done by women in this business in 
France), states that the best food for solid cram- 
ming is buckwheat flour mixed with sweet milk 
into a dough. This is rolled the size of a finger, 
and cut into pellets two inches and a half long. 
Barley or oatmeal are not found so good, and 
my own opinion is that much of the transparent 
whiteness of French poultry is due rather to the 
use of buckwheat than any peculiarity of race. 
In cramming, the operator dips each pellet in 
water before administering it, and pushes it 
down with the end of the finger. At first only 
two or three pellets are given, but this is 
rapidly increased to 12 or 1.5. But here is an 
important point in all cramming of poultry. 
The birds must of course be in perfect health, 
first, or they will only get ill with the confine- 
ment. They should then be fasted some hours 
before any food is given at all, so as to take 
their first meal with a good appetite, which is 
kept up by the first scanty rations. After that 
the crop is felt at each meal. If any is left, a 
meal must be missed, and less given next time; 
for one atom too much retards the process 
seriously, or may make the bird "go off' alto- 
gether. Two meals per day are given in this 
method, 12 hours apart; and the time, again, 
must be exactly kept, for if either fed before or 
after, the fowl suffers by fretting or indigestion. 
It is chiefly in these apparently small details Eng- 
lish operators fail. The process is complete in 
15 to 25 days; occasionally it can be carried on 
for .30, but when the desired point is once 
reached, the fowl goes back and rapidly deterso- 
rates, or may even die, consequently, it requires 
good judgment to preserve every advantage. 

Semi-fluid food is mixed about as thick as 
very thick arrowroot. Mr. Lacque says that 
barley meal with the bran sifted out will an- 
swer for this, and it is mixed with equal parts 
of milk and water. If more milk is used, the 
fowls turn sick in a few days. Some breeders 
add a little maize meal and a portion of lard; 
others, again, employ a portion of rice meal. 
The original method of giving this food was to 
place a tin funnel down the bijd's throat, into 
which the food was poured from a spoon; but 
large feeders now employ machines, which hold 
the pap in a large cylinder, and force it out 
through a flexible tube by the pressure of a pis- 
ton. Fowls crammed with semi-liquid food are 
fed three times a day, or every eight hours, 
such food being more quickly digested. The 
process is also quicker than the other, few 
fowls requiring over 20 days. Cleanliness and 
quiet are of the utmost importance; but above 
all stands that constant watch on the state of 
the birds already alluded to. The fowls rarely 
struggle after the first two or three meals, but 
on the contrary, look out eagerly for their 
feeder. In Sussex, where fattening is carried 
on to perhaps its greatest perfection as regards 
England, the chickens are generally reared on 
white oats ground tine, and sold m good condition 
to fatters. By these latter they are mostly fin- 
ished off with the same food mixed with milk 
into a thick gruel, and during the last weeks 
only, enriched with a little finely chopped mut- 
ton suet. As a rule they are only fed twice a 
day, and when not crammed by machine, this 
food is given in clean troughs. The most suc- 
cessful feeders, Mr. F. Crook once told me, 
prefer sheds, the walls of which are made of 
faggots or thick brushwood, which keep off the 
draft, but give abundance of fresh air. 

It cannot be too often repeated, however, that 
the success of French feeders chiefly depends on 
constant observation and careful adjustment of 
the food to what the bird at its stage then will 
bear. A pellet or a spoonful too much at once 
impairs digestive power; while too little, though 
not so injurious, loses time. All this supposes 
a certain amount of "natural gift," keen obser- 
vation, and long experience, and it has been 
perfected in France by generations of practice. 

Paste to make Paper Adhere to Tin. — 
Soften 4 parts of glue in 15 of cold water, 
and then moderately heat until the solution be- 
comes quite clear. Then add 65 parts of boiling 
water, and agitate. In another vessel stir up 
30 parts of starch paste with water enough to 
form a milky liquid without lumps, and into 
this pour the boiling glue solution with con- 
stant stirring. Continue the boiling for a few 
minutes, and add, after cooling somewhat, a 
drop or two of carbolic acid to each gallon of 
paste. Keep the paste in closed vessels. 




[July 5, 1879. 

Correapondonoe cordially invited from all PatronB for this 

Meeting of the Oregon State Grange. 

From a report in the Willamelte Farmer we 
take loading items of the proceedings of the 
Oregon State Grange, which met at Salem the 
last three days of May: 

The sixth annual session of the Oregon State 
Grange was opened at 10 o'clock a. m., in due 
form m the fourth degree by the Worthy Master, 
A. R. Shipley, assisted by the following officers; 
D. S. K. Buick, 0. ; W. B. Thomas, L. ; W. 
M. Hillery, S. ; E. A. Evans, A. S., pro tem. ; 
W. H. Gray, C. ; N. W. Randall, Sec'y ; A. F. 
Miller, G. K.; S. 1^ Hayes, Ceres, pro tern.; 
C. E. Shipley, Pomona ; Jeiinie Miller, Flora, 
pro tem. ; Irene Hillery, L. A. S. 

The Worthy Master appointed the following 
committee on credentials; Thomas Smith, B. F. 
Fuller and Arthur Warner, who reported a 
quorum present. The Grange proceeded to 

The reports of officers were quite encouraging. 
Under the head of good of the Order many in- 
teresting speeches were made. Judge R. P. 
Boise made a lengthy and earnest address to 
the members, impressing upon them the neces- 
sity of keeping out of debt, and recommended 
that this principle be constantly impressed upon 
the members of subordinate Granges. He said 
those who keep out of debt are sure to succeed, 
while those who go in debt are quite apt to 
bring ruin upon themselves and families. 

Judge Randall said, among other things, that 
if we pay as we go we shall surely succeed, and 
that those who borrow are invariably going 
back, while the money-lender is going ahead. 

Bro. Buick said let us be determined if we 
cannot be money-lenders we will not be bor- 

Bro. Smith, of Baker, stated that his Grange 
was going on the principle of doing without 
everything which they cannot pay for. 

Tuesday evening an experience meeting was 
held, which was very interesting, and showed 
that the Order is in a better condition than 
many of the members had supposed. Although 
the membership is not so great as formerly, yet 
those who remain, appreciating the benefits to 
be derived from the Order, are earnest and de- 
termined to go ahead. 

On Wednesday morning a lengthy discussion 
was had, in which it was proven that the Order 
of Patrons of Husbandry had been the means 
of conferring upon its members great and last- 
ing benefits. Many expressed themselves as 
having been well paid for the time and labor 
spent. It was also shown that the Order had 
been the means of greatly benefiting the' farm- 
ing community at large, and that while all have 
been benefited, none have been injured, neither 
does the Order desire to do injustice to any one. 

The amendment to the Constitution of the 
National Grange, which was recommended at 
the late session of that body, was rejected. 

The Comtnittee on Finances made a partial 
report, and congratulated the Grange on the 
economical manner in which the business of 
the Order had been conducted during the jiast 

A committee of three, consisting of R. Boise, 
S. S. Train and C. E. Moor was appointed to 
visit the Agricultural College at Corvallis. 

On Thursday afternoon Prof. Arnold, of the 
Agricultural College, was introduced to the 
Grange, and spoke in behalf of the institution 
he represents. He desires the farming commu- 
nity to become better acquainted with the aims 
and purposes of the college, and stated that it 
is generally supposed that it is merely a literary 
and scientiKc school, whereas it is also an agri- 
cultural college. Prof. Arnold stated, and 
cited facts to prove that the time was coming 
when fertilizers would be necessary in this val- 
ley, and urged that in order that farmers may 
understand the composition and requirements 
of the soil, and many of the mysteries of nature 
which bear directly upon the success and pros- 
perity of their calling, it was just as necessary 
for them to acquire book learning and the train- 
ing of schools as it was for other classes to do 
80. He stated his determination to make the 
college a success as an agricultural school, and 
asked the hearty co-operation and support of 
the farmers. A few moments' recess was de- 
clared, that the members might have the priv- 
ilege of becoming acquainted with their distin- 
guished guest. 

Resolutions were passed regarding dormant 

The Worthy Master was directed to appoint 
district lecturers, and their duties were defined. 

Thursday evening was devoted to a reunion 
and to conferring the fifth degree upon those of 
the members who had not already received it, 
also upon such other fourth degree members as 
presented themselves with proper credentials. 
The occasion was one of great interest and 
social enjoyment, but as farmers have but little 
time to play, work was resumed and continued 
to a late hour. 

On Friday the committee on good of the 
Order recommended for discussion in the subor- 
dinate Granges the following subjects, to be dis- 
CQSsed in the meetings of the several months as 
indicated : 

June — The best kind of farm machinery and 
the best method of curing hay. July — The best 

mode of harvesting grain. August — The best 
way to dry fruit and what to pay for machinery. 
Whet'oer or not farmers are being imposed on by 
agents. September — School books. October — 
Interest. November — Fees of officers of the 
county and State. December — The laws pro- 
viding for the attendance of witnesses in crim- 
inal courts. January — Appeals from courts. 
February — Laws regulating freights. March — 
Best kinds of grain to raise. April — Fruit and 
ornamental trees. May — Selling our wool and 
taxing dogs. 

The results of these discussions are to be 
reported as fully as practicable each month to 
the Secretary of the State Grange (N. W. Ran- 
dall, Oregon City), and by him to be presented 
to the State Grange for such action as may be 
necessary. So that on subjects requiring legis- 
lation the State Grange officers may have the 
united voice of the brotherhood, and may act 
intelligently and with hope of success. 

A resolution offered by Bro. Dodson in rela- 
tion to rate of interest, was referred by the com- 
mittee on legislation to the subordinate Granges 
for discussion. 

It was thought to be eminently proper that 
some time should be devoted to the discussion 
of household afl'airs, and Sister M. J. Train was 
called upon to speak of woman's work. She 
spoke particularly in regard to household con- 
veniences, and urged that it is a woman's privi- 
lege to have everything just as convenient as 
possible, so that the smallest amount of time 
may be employed, and the least fatigue endured 
in doing her work. She stated that in a house 
furnished with conveniences a woman can do 
her work without help, just as easily as she 
could with help in an inconvenient one, and 
with far greater enjoyment. She described a 
Hour chest with a mixing board which can be 
let down to its proper position by means of 
hinges. On each side are receptacles for every- 
thing necessary for the making of pastry, cake, 
etc. The flour is sifted into a pan by means of a 
crank. One wishing to bake need not move 
from their position until the article needed is 
ready for the oven. She also described a steam 
cooker with several compartments in which a 
housewife may place her meat, vegetables, fruit, 
pudding, etc., and entertain company, sew, 
read, or do anything she likes while it is cook- 
ing, only attending to the tire occasionally. The 
smell of an article in one compartment 
does not pervade those in the others, neither 
does it escape into the room. She said if women 
would .spend more time in devising ways to 
economise labor they might greatly benefit 
themselves, and that almost any ingenious 
husband could, at little expense, do much to- 
ward lightening the labor of housekeeping. 

Sister Minto spoke of the scarcity of imple- 
ments in the house as compared with those out- 
side. She said if a man wished an implement 
to facilitate the raising of wheat, he purchased 
it as a matter of course. But if his wife wished 
some convenience to assist her in the making of 
bread, he could not afford it. She thought the 
making of bread was of as much consequence as 
the raising of wheat, and that most men failed 
to realize the importance of indoor labor. 

Sister C. E. Shipley thought it was woman's 
privilege to think more and work less, and that 
if she would do so, much more might be accom- 
plished. She said too little importance is at- 
tached to the manner in which our houses are 
arranged, and that often the woman has nothing 
to say in regard to this subject, although it is 
one of the utmost importance to her; and that 
women have been compelled to walk hundreds 
of weary miles for water, which a little fore- 
thought of labor might placed right at her hand. 
She thought men, as a class, failed to appreciate 
woman's work, and that it was time for women 
to think and plan for themselves. The many 
inconvenient houses might be remodeled at 
little cost if the inmates would give the matter 
due consideration. 

Sister S. L. Hayes spoke particularly in regard 
to making home pleasant. She said if more 
importance was attached to this subject young 
people would not bo so anxious to leave homo as 
soon as they were old enough. She thought 
mothers were too careless in regard to the rooms 
occupied by their children, especially their boys, 
and that if care was taken to keep things tidy, 
and make boys' rooms bright with carpets, pic- 
tures, etc., it would beget a spirit of content- 

Grange adjourned at 6 o'clock Friday even- 
ing. The session was unusually pleasant and 

"A Good Master Devises Work." 

The winter months make the true harvest 
for the Grange. It is the farmers' time for 
rest, recreation and study. The summer brings 
its toils and ever-to-be renewed labors — and 
when the night comes tired nature demands 
sleep. Happy is he who can close his day's 
work with the setting sun. Now is the time 
when subordinate Granges are beginning to 
suspend alternate meetings. In spite of all 
that may be said or done, many will neverthe- 
less drag heavily along, not doing much good, 
and wonderfully discouraging those who do at- 
tend. But it may be well enough to look 
around and see what are, or may be causes of 
discouragement, and how they maybe remedied. 
The first is small attendance. While of course 
a full house is always desirable, yet allowances 
must be made for absentees in busy seasons. 
Let each one who believes that the Grange is or 
may be of practical value to the farmer, and con- 
sequently to the country, make it a point to be 

present, if possible, and he who is always 
prompt keep the lukewarm roused up to the 
work. Six or eight in earnest may not be very 
demonstrative, but they may make the meeting 
profitable. One of the troubles is want of 
promptness. Let the hour be 'fixed to suit the 
convenience of the majority, and then work up 
to time. Every individual Grange has its 
special tastes and tendencies. A catering to 
these may be essential, but all are interested in 
the growing crop. Cultivate the habit of not- 
ing particulars., changes, accidents, hindrances, 
growth, causes. Let a Grange for a single 
season exchange opinions, theories, facts, fancies, 
results, as to any growing crop, and have a 
record made for future use, amusement or in- 
struction, and there will be created an interest 
in the work not before felt, and an advance 
step toward the thorough and scientific knowl- 
edge of the crop. Don't waste the hour in 
listless do-nothing-ism. The labors in the field 
may have taxed the strength and used up much 
of the reserved vital force, and there is no 
heart to think and argue. The wearied body 
wants recreation. Let your best reader spend 
half an hour, or more, if appreciated, reading 
any thoroughly interesting novel. Try it. 
This will not exclude more practical work, but 
may be made a point around which will gather 
an added interest. 

The Gkanhers' Bank ani> the Grain Crop. 
We have received copy of a circular letter ad- 
dressed to the stockholders and patrons of the 
Grangers' Bank by A. Montpellier, cashier and 
manager, announcing that the Bank will advance 
money on grain in store this year upon the same 
system followed last year. Last year's opera- 
tions in this line are pronounced satisfactory, 
and this year the money will be loaned upon 
the same security at the same rate of interest. 
Mr. Montpellier has done good service for the 
grain trade in compiling a table giving prices of 
wheat in this market during the last 15 years. 
This should lie secured for preservation and 
reference. We believe the table of prices and 
any desired information concerning the terms of 
loaning money on giain can be obtained by ap- 
plication to the Bank. 



DEVELoriNO A Strain of Barley. — Rfporter, 
.June 28: Among tlie many fields of barley 
this season, one of the finest in the Alameda 
valley ia that of H. Frick, of Washington town- 
ship. Mr. Frick regards his barley as of a 
variety new to this country. While in several 
respects it resembles the ordinary Chevalier, 
it has some characteristics which may entitle it 
to a separate rank. It stands very thick, four 
feet or more in hight, and has a stem with very 
few leaves, in the latter respect resembling 
wheat. It is said to stand drouth much better 
than the ordinary barley. In the dry seasons 
when other grain failed for anything but hay, 
this gave a fair crop. Last year it was not 
sown until the 20th of March, but it matured, 
giving a good crop. Mr. Frick's account of its 
origin is as follows; In 1869 while his b.%rley 
field appeared scarcely as well as was desired, 
he noted two stalks which stood higher than 
the rest and indicated a luxuriant growth. 
When the heads had ripened, he cared for them 
separately and the next year sowed the seed in 
his garden. From the first sowing he obtained 
a few handfnls of grain. Each year the 

?[uantity has been increased. Two years ago, 
rom the seventh sowing, the crop amounted to 
ten sacks. Last year, fearing an unfavorable 
season, only one-half of the seed was sown, the 
balance being retained as a provision against 
the possibility of losing the crop. The five 
sacks produced 200. This year a portion of 
this was sown, the remainder still lying in the 
warehouse. After making hay of several acres 
which, from too heavy growth became lodged 
by the storms, Mr. Frick has 55 acres of this 
barley. Until this year he has refused to sell 
any of it for seed. He gave a small quantity 
last year to Caleb Healey, of the vicinity of 
.larvis' Landing, and to Charles Rathke, of 
Pleasanton. From both parties he has received 
very favorable reports. 

Damage TO FnuiT. — Times, June 28 : Bscs 
are destroying the peaches. They fairly cover 
the fruit as it hangs on the trees and devour it, 
leaving the pit without any covering. The 
prospect for an apple crop is not encouraging. 
That fruit is attacked by a fly which deposits 
its eggs near the bottom of the stem. When 
the eggs are hatched the worms eat off the stem 
and the apple drops. The fruit prospect is not 
good this season. 

HARVEiSTiNO. — Register, June 27: From the 
number of engines and separators being put in 
order at our blacksmith shops, we anticipate 
an early beginning of the threshing season. R. 
M. Turner has opened the fall on the (iiidley 
land four miles south, with five headers and a 
threshing outfit. Many headers among the 
small farmers, started up on the first of the 


In Favor of the Drii.i,. — Antioch Ledger, 
June 21: Amos (Jraves has left at this office 
some samples of very fine wheat, of which he 

has about 40 acres on summer-fallowed land. 
The wheat was put in with a grain drill which, 
Mr. Graves thinks, is a great improvement over 
broadcast sowing. 

Fresno Coukty Brandy.— /fep«6iica», .Tune 
28 : The first carload of brandy produced here 
was shipped to San Francisco last week from 
the well-known Eisen vineyard near this place. 
The shipment consisted of 2,500 gallons of choice 
proof grape brandy, and although one year old it 
had already developed a flavor equal to any 
French brandy. 

Almond Culture. — Mr. McNeil, of the 
Gould ranch, informs us that the prospects for 
a large crop of all kinds of fruit on his place are 
better than he has ever seen them. It has been 
estimated by persons competent to judge that 
he will have, at least, 100 tons of peaches. He 
will also have large quantities of pears, plums, 
apricots, prunes, etc. His almond trees are 
also loaded with nuts. It has been asserted 
that the almond tree would not bear here, and 
Mr. McNeil had been atlvised to cut down his 
trees and substitute something else in their 
stead. A visit to his place would convince the 
most skeptical that almonds can be grown here, 
and can also be made to pay a handsome profit. 

"Mefford" Fruits.— Col. Angell, Secretary 
of the California Raisin and Fruit Co., is in 
town to perfect the arrangements for the con- 
struction of a large fruit drier on the Nevada 
colony three miles from town. 

Good Yield. — Mr. John Taylor, of the 
Nevada colony, raised six tons of the finest 
potatoes ever seen in this market off one acre 
of ground, and cut .33 tons of excellent wheat 
hay from 11 acres. 

C. C. Colony. — Mr. Chas. Inns, of Amador 
county, who some time since purchased two lots 
on Fruit avenue at the C. C. colony has made 
a good commencement towards improving them. 
Ten acres have been settled and nicely leveled 
and checked up. Three thousand of the choicest 
rooted raisin vines and 500 cuttings are set out. 
Two acres of alfalfa planted a few days since is 
coming on nicely, and as soon as the proper sea- 
son arrives he will set out several acres of Hun- 
garian prunes, plums and other choice fruits 
suitable for drying and canning. This fall he 
will erect a fine residence on one of the lota. 
Mr. Webster, who has charge of the improve- 
ments, is a thorough gardener and a practical 
man, as the result of his labors will show. 

Hauvest. — Democrat, June 28; Haying sea- 
son is about over in this vicinity. The crop was 
a fair one and is selling from seven to ten dollars 
per ton. The grain crop is about ready for the 
reapers — perhaps next week they will be in full 
blast. The crop will in every way be satisfac- 
tory to the farmers. A market and a fair price 
is all they require now to put them in a jolly 
good humor. 

Wheat. — Herald, June 28: The wheat crop 
of Ivos Angeles county this year is notably good. 
This remark holds not only with regard to the 
San Fernando valley but all sections of the 
county. The wheat at Spadra is very fine. 
Without doubt large areas heretofore devoted 
to barley will be found to bo admirably adapted 
to wheat. A pleasant feature of the harvest 
this year is that all kinds of grain are of excel- 
lent quality. 

HoNEV. — Evening Journal, Juno 26 : Many of 
our beekeepers who thought to make much 
money this season, and have humming times all 
through the year, will be sadly disappointed, as 
the crop of honey will be a failure. 

Point Arena.— Ukiah Dispatch, June 28: 
The continued high winds have had a bad effect 
on the grain crops, parching them as though 
they had been subjected to extreme heat. Rust 
has appeared in many places and is doing much 
damage, and the potato blight is hard at work 
with all the energy of a plague in Egypt. If 
we could only get a nice shower ©f grasshoppers, 
our misery would be complete. 

Potato Blioht. — TetAlama Argus, June 26 : 
According to reliable accounts, along the coast, 
in the region of Point Arena, a blight has fallen 
upon the potato crop of that region. The vines 
turn black and wither away. 

Light Hops. — Argus, June 28: We had a 
short interview with H.F.Buckley, of Hopeton, 
on Thursday last, during which he informed us 
that most of the crops along the Merced river 
bottom are good, though the hop crop — an im- 
portant crop on his farm — would be light. Of 
fruit, a good crop will be raised, and he stated 
that he had one field of com that would yield 
over one hundred bushels to the acre. 

The New Grain. — Record Union : The farm- 
ers of the upper Sacramento Valley com- 
menced cutting their grain last week, and it is 
expected that next week it will be making its 
way to market. 

The Lathrop Hay Pre.s.'i. — Hollister Enter- 
l^rise, June 28: Some time since, as it will be 
remembered, there was a test trial of the La- 
throp hay press in the field of J. B. Wall, who 
lives in the southeastern portion of town, at 
which time, in commenting on the same, we did 
not think the press would be one to be worked 
for profit, owing to the time required to press 
each bale. Since that time, the press, after a 
fair trial, has proven to be one of the fastest 
and best presses made — it making a heavier and 
more compact bale than other presses. Through 

July 5, 1879.1 



Mr. Ransom Lathrop we learn that in two days' 
work — between sun and sun —there were 210 
bales taken from this press. The first day, 107 
bales, making 15 tons and 125 pounds — the 
press being moved twice during the day. The 
second day, 103 bales, making 14 tons and 825 
pounds. On this day there was a delay of two 
hours and one-quarter. The heaviest bale 
pressed weighed 425 pounds and the lightest — 
the hay was taken from the top of the stack 
where it was bleached to a considerable extent — 
weighed 255 pounds. Mr. Lathrop says that on 
an average 14 tons can be baled very comfortably 
per day, and on a test trial can bale 16i, tons. 


Barren Trees. — Neivs, June 27: The other 
day, we published a little article in regard to 
the accidental insertion of a copper line in the 
limb of a tree, by which that limb was made to 
bear. And now we have a statement from some 
one that has tried the experiment, who says 
that if cords are tied around the limbs of barren 
fruit trees it will make them bear fruit. The 
philosophy is to tie the cords tightly on the 
limbs after the sap has ascended.and its descent 
is prevented thereby. 

Foul Brood.— A thorough examination is 
being made by our apiarians of the bees, with 
the view of discovering any foul brood that may 
be lingering among them. We understand the 
examination, so far, has developed nothing of 
the kind, and that the bees are in fine health, 
and could make lots of honey if nature had 
afforded the necessary conditions for its extrac- 
tion. A good bee man tells us that the presence 
of foul brood is easily ascertained, as much so 
as the taint in meat, simply by smell. He says 
he is satisfied the taint proceeds from chill in 
the brood. 

Wheat. — Union: Mr. Perrin, of Val de las 
Viejas, reports that the wheat crop in that por- 
tion of the county is remarkably fine, better 
than in any previous year. He brought a small 
branch of heads to show the quality ; and we 
congratulate the farmers of that valley upon 
this showing. 


A TuLE Dessicator. — Lodi Revmu, June 28: 
Monday we drove down to the tule land of New 
Hope to witness the trial of a new machine, for 
breaking up tule sod, ready for the seed. The 
machine is Hugill's double-geared, reversible, 
revolving harrow, with cultivator and seed 
sower combined. The iron work was done by 
Farrington, Hyatt & Co., and the woodwork by 
Lessington & Co., of Stockton, who also made 
and fitted the steel teeth. The machine is built 
with two revolving drums which are 5 feet 9 
inches long, 40 inches in diameter, and furnished 
with 460 teeth. The other drum, which is, 
more properly speaking, a cylinder, of same 
length, one foot in diameter and furnished with 
116 teeth five inches long. This cylinder makes 
22J revolutions to the forward drum's one. 
This can be set to any desirable depth from 
one-fourth inch to five inches. The value of 
this implement will be better understood when 
we say that the tule land in a state of nature is 
a peat sod, a perfect network of roots, which 
require to be turned over and to lay one sum- 
mer to the weather to rot before seeding it 
down, though sometimes by plowing, cross- 
plowing and dragging it can be seeded the first 
season. But by this machine the ground is 
torn up and pulverized ready for the seed at a 
less expense, and in a better state of cultivation. 
It is claimed that this is better than plowing 
for upland and can be used any time of the 
year. Quite a number of people were present 
to witness the trial, and seemed to be well 
pleased with its successful operations. At no 
distant day Mr. Hugill will give a public trial 
that all who wish may witness it. 

Crops. — South Coast, June 25 : Harvesting 
is still progressing rapidly and from all accounts 
the wheat crop will produce more than an 
average yield. The flax, we are sorry to say, 
will hardly reach half a crop, owing to the ex- 
cessive hot northers that visited this section 
some three weeks ago. Perhaps it is just as 
well that it is so, for we hear considerable com- 
plaint among the farmers in regard to the un- 
reasonable and arbitrary notices sent them from 
parties who have made contracts with them for 
their flax seed. The sooner that our farmers 
will assert their rights, and teach middlemen 
and grasping corporations that they will toler- 
ate no foolishness or impositions, and that bull- 
dozing and resorting to all kinds of subterfuge 
to enable them to weedle out of fair and legiti- 
mate contracts, is played out, the sooner will 
our people attain that which they are all work- 
ing for — a reasonable compensation for their 
labor and a just respect in business matters. 


Guadalupe Crqvs.— Telegraph, June 28: 
Our farmers are busy harvesting their grain 
crops. The yield in the valley will be very fair 
— much better than was anticipated a few 
weeks ago. 

Snowflake Wheat.— Gilroy Advocate, June 
28: A sample of Snowflake wheat has been in- 
troduced to us by Mr. J. H. Turner. He tells 
us that a sack of this bearded variety of wheat, 
120 pounds, was brought by him from John 
Matthews' ranch. Bitter Water valley, last sea- 
son, and sown on three acres. The yield of the 
three acres was 100 centals. Mr. Wayland 
bought a ton of this grain for seed, and now has 
a prospect of a heavy crop. On Turner's poor 
land it will yield fully 20 sacks to the acre. 
The thrifty looking sample shows two rows of 

meshes on each side of the stem and five kernels 
to a mesh. There are 23 meshes in some of the 
heads. Besides being full headed it has an ad- 
vantage over ordinary wheat of fully two weeks' 
earlier growth. 

Pajako Valley. —Watsonville Transcript, 
June 27: The crops promise splendidly in this 
valley this year. Plenty of moisture, no rust 
worth mentioning and but little damage by 
storms. The harvesting of the grain crop has 
commenced, though about a week later than 
around San Juan. 

Soquel Items.— Editors Prebs: Early sown 
wheat well headed, plump grain and nearly 
ready to cut — barley and hay good, and mostly 
cut. Fruit — apples, pears, prunes and plums a 
heavy crop, and growing finely ; peaches, light 
crop, except such as are not troubled with "curl 
leaf. " My Briggs May are full of nice fruit, 
and just beginning to ripen, while the early 
Crawford is green and hard aud scattering on 
the tree. Moorpark apricots are a light crop, 
but doing well ; early golden apricots are a good 
crop and just beginning to ripen ; early cherries 
nearly gone ; Napoleon Bigarreau is just fully 
ripe ; grapes are doing well and just forming 
fruit. The weather is cool, with fog in the 
morning, and clear sunshine through the day. 
Lots of folks are camped on the beach, and fun 
in the breakers is the order of the afternoon 
with old and young. — M. P. Owen, Soquel, 
Cal,, June 30th. 

Crops in Montezuma. — Republican, June 28: 
We have received three samples of grain from the 
old Cerkel place in the Montezuma hills, which 
promises finely. The place is owned by Mr. 
Jamison, and he has a fine prospect for a full 
crop on about 300 acres. From David Hale, 
who has been on an inspecting tour through the 
hills, we learn that the crops out there are 
generally good. In fact, as it has frequently 
been the case in the past, the Montezuma hills 
country will redeem the whole county. By the 
way, we are glad to announce that the doleful 
accounts of last week are in a measure dispelled, 
and that crops will not be near as bad as at first 

Flax. — Tribune: Isaac Brinkerhoff has 100 
acres of flax growing, and now nearly ripe, on 
his ranch south of Batavia. Flax has been ex- 
perimented with by several farmers in this 
vicinity, and the general opinion is that under 
favorable circumstances it pays well. 

Cereals. — Santa Rosa Democrat, June 28: 
The barley harvest commenced in Bennett val- 
ley on the 18th and a considerable portion was 
cut, the wheat will be ready for the reaper 
about the 1st of .July. One or two farmers in 
the neighborhood of Windsor commenced reap- 
ing their barley on the 23d, but most of them 
will not reap until after the 4th of July. Wheat 
will not be ready for the reaper for a month 
longer, the late rains having kept it back. The 
quality of the grain is excellent, and the yield a 
full average one. Considerable cheat is found 
in most of the fields, but it is thought that by 
heading the grain the most of this can be got rid 

Wool Clip. — Sheep men have just about fin- 
ished shearing for this spring, and say that the 
clip is unusually large and fine, the late rains 
having kept the feed good. In Mendocino 
county this is especially the case, as the quality 
and texture never has been better nor the yield 

Harvesting. — Banner, June 26 : Our ranch' 
ers are nearly all engaged in harvesting their 
grain, and from all parts of the county we hear 
good reports of the prospects. Here and there 
we learn of some injury by rust, but not enough 
to materially affect the general result. 


Improved Cultivation. — The present season 
has again given to many of our farmers a prac- 
tical illustration of the benefits of thorough 
cultivation. Believers in summer-fallowing of 
lands for the purpose of securing profitable 
yields of the smaller cereals are in our county 
every year increasing in numbers. Not only is 
summer-fallowing becoming more generally 
approved and practiced, but also the second 
and even the third plowing of the same lands is 
being put into practice. Practical farmers who 
have had the opportunity to test the matter, do 
not now hesitate to declare that the summer- 
fallowed lands, especially such a season as the 
present, is increased from 20% to 50% in yield, 
by having received a second plowing. 

The Harvest. — Modesto Herald, Juno 26; 
Although many of our farmers commenced cut- 
ting grain last week, the harvest did not become 
general until this week, when the scores of 
headers to be seen in motion on the plains gave 
evidence that the work had begun in earnest. 
The yield in the greater portion of the county 
will average 10 or 12 bushels, while some other 
portions as low as three to five is the estimate. 
Summer-fallowed land, of which there is a great 
deal in this county this year, will yield from 18 
to 23 bushels. 


Notes. — Delta, June 27: Mr. B. F. Moore 
commenced heading his grain this week, some 
of which will go 40 bushels to the acre. This 
grain was raised altogether by irrigation. Suc- 
cess to Mr. Moore for the efforts he has put for- 
ward to show what can be done on this soil with 
irrigation. Mr. T. W. Maples starts for Mus- 
sel Slough with his threshing machine this week, 
where he has already enjoyed about 40 days' run. 

Mr. Maples is one of the best and most experi- 
enced threshing-machine men in the State, and 
bears the reputation of doing excellent work. 
All the wheat sown on land in this vicinity and 
attended to by irrigation, is looking splendidly, 
and will undoubtedly prove remunerative to the 
fortunate owners. 

Shrunken G,v.\iYi.— Standard, June 28: The 
north winds of the past two weeks has caused 
the grain not fully ripe to shrink considerably — 
some of it so much so that it will not pay to cut. 
That most affected is the late sown, which a 
few weeks ago gave promise of being better 
than the summer-fallow. Although there is 
considerable poor grain this year, there is also 
a large quantity of fine plump wheat, and the 
crop in Yolo county will likely be a good average. 

Ready-Made Houses.— We cannot have dull 
times very long; trade will brighten up in a few 
months, and an increasing demand will enhance 
the price of every thiug. Now while lumber is 
low, and help plenty, cannot some one engage 
in the manufacture of ready-made houses ? It 
seems as if a good trade might be built up, aud 
benefits reaped therefrom. Different sizes might 
be prepared and yarded, so that the advertise- 
ment of "Ready-made Houses" would draw 
large custom. Any Californian can put up a 
house if he has the material prepared for him, 
and we must have things ready for us, without 
waste of material or time figuring on a probable 
dwelling. The pioneer in this matter might be 
able almost to maintain a monopoly. Different 
plans could be prepared by any architect or 
builder, suita,ble for modest houses at moderate 
prices, and then our farmer or other person 
desirous of improving his home could select his 
plan and find it practically perfected in the 
lumber yard awaiting transportation. From 
two to six rooms would be a fair number as to 
size. They need not be over one story. Wings 
and additions could also be provided, and finish- 
ing come in afterwards. With every piece 
marked to correspond with the plan, it would 
be as easy to carry away a ready-made house as 
a ready-made suit of clothes. 

Artesian Wells. — WiUiam Stack, of Oak- 
land, has lately completed an artesian well ad- 
joining his store, on the northeast corner of 
Fifth and Harrison streets. The well is an 
eight-inch bore in the clear, and 113 feet deep. 
The water, of which there is an abundant sup- 
ply, rises to within six feet eight inches of the 
surface. Mr. Stack has several tenement build- 
ings in the vicinity of the well, and his enter- 
prise is calculated to give an abundant supply 
of good water; most decidedly in favorable con- 
trast with the mere surface supply provided by 
the San Francisco and Oakland water companies. 
The formation is as follows: Surface soil, 6 
feet; hardpan, 40 feet; blue clay, 62 feet; fine 
water gravel, 5 feet; total, 113 feet. About 
four feet above the gravel, the borer passed a 
stratum of what were supposed to be oyster 
shells. We cannot commend too highly an 
enterprise of this kind. In a region where the 
water supply from subterranean sources is so 
abundant and so pure, the public demand, and 
will have, water that is drawn from sources not 
exposed to contamination. Public and private 
health requires it, and the increase of the 
knowledge of health requirements will override 
the desire for profit at the expense of health and 

Fine Stock Ranch for Sale. — Mr. D. B. 
Hays, real estate agent at Oroville, offers for 
sale in our advertising columns, a fine stock 
ranch in Butte county, which is certainly worth 
the attention of those looking for a valuable 
agricultural property. We know the owner of 
the ranch as one of the leading Short Horn 
breeders of the State, and are convinced that 
he wishes to relinquish the enterprise he has 
carried on for reasons centering in himself and 
not in the property. The desirability of the 
property is unquestioned. 

Beet Planting in New England. — The 
interest in the beet-sugar industry which is 
springing up in New England is seen in the fact 
that six tons of beet seed were ordered from 
France by cable and received in 24 days from 
the date of the order. This is occasioned by 
the fact that part of the seed which the New 
Englanders expected to use was shipped to tliis 
coast by M. Gennert while they were making 
up their minds about it, and is now on its way 
toward the sugar barrel on the Alvarado 

Even in Algiers. — Even in this swarthy 
clime they are enjoying the freaks of this un- 
usual year. A meteorological phenomenon, 
unknown since the conquest by the French in 
1830, occurred on May 4th, when a sharp 
frost visited a considerable district, and lightly 
touched the ripening corn. Meanwhile the 
vines on the plains and the higher hills are de- 
scribed as fairly grilled, those alone in the 
intermediate grounds being spared. 

Commission Merchant. — Our advertising 
columns contain the card of H. M. Covert, as 
dealer in produce, etc., at 306 Davis street. 
Mr. Covert is widely known in various parts of 
the State, both by residence and by his "sack- 
holder" for grain separators, which has been 
extensively introduced. Mr. Covert is highly 
recommended by thost) who have done business 
with him. 

News in Brief. 

Nihilism in Russia is nothing. 

Anarchy prevails in southern Epirus. 

Frosts are doing damage in Lassen county. 

Watermelons are now a staple in San Diego. 

MoLLiE McCartv won the 2i-mile race at 
Chicago in 4:02. 

The Prince Imperial was deserted by English 
troops in Zululand. 

Anti-landlord agitation in the west of Ire- 
land is becoming serious. 

The Khedive of Egypt no longer reigns. He 
has abdicated — gone to Naples. 

In Dakota and northwestern Iowa, the grass- 
hoppers are again ravaging. 

In the Bank of France the past week specie 
increased 19,270,000 francs. 

The potato blight is troubling the river bot- 
toms of Washington Territory. 

Redeeming subsidiary silver coin with stand- 
rad dollars does not work well. 

The northern Indians, having been whipped, 
are now willing to go upon their reservations. 

San Buenaventura has now two oil refin- 
eries in operation, and another one building. 

A bad harvest is expected in England. Prices 
are increasing and American wheat in demand. 

An Eastern paper writes an editorial begging 
the President not to veto the adjournment of 

At Liverpool, 30th ult. , wheat was quoted at 
83 4d@93 2d for average California white, and 
9s ld@93 5d for club. 

Bismarck has been openly snubbed by the 
Empress of Prussia for declining to recognize 
the divine right of kings. 

Congress has adjourned without making any 
provision for United States Marshals. How 
does Congress expect them to live ? 

Nitro-glycerine works at North Adams, 
Mass., exploded recently — distributing two 
men and the adjacent buildings. 

The Mayor of San Francisco refuses to sign 
the new tax levy because it is 17 cents more 
than he thinks it ought to be. 

The receipts of the Sunday School picnic last 
Thursday, amounted to $374.65. Net proceeds 
$321.85 distributed among Relief Societies. 

The time for receiving applications for space 
at the International exhibition at Melbourne 
has been extended to October 31st, 1879. 

The French journals claim that the Darien 
canal will be absolutely neutral territory. Ab- 
solutism does not accord with American ideas. 

Spain wants satisfaction from Santo Domingo, 
or will foreclose on the whole island. The 
Monroe doctrine is very much excited about it. 

In San Francisco half dollars are quoted at 99 
buying, 99^ selling ; trade dollars, 98 buying, 
98 selling ; Mexican dollars, 93 buying, 93 sell- 

It is said that since the prevalence of cyclones 
in Missouri, and their regular appearance, the 
farmers are driving posts into the ground to 
hang to when they come. 

The corporations of San Francisco during the 
month of June last, disbursed in dividends the 
sum of $955,666, a falling off over the same 
month in 1878 of $1,245,042. 

About 2,000 people attended the meetings of 
the Monterey Sunday School Convention June 
29th. Every portion of the State except 
southern California is well represented. 

Advices from Guaymas indicate that the early 
building of a railroad from that point to El 
Paso or elsewhere is unlikely, the Mexican 
government preferring fighting to improving. 

At Oakland last Saturday, the quiet but for- 
cibly expressed indignation of citizens, procured 
the withdrawal of 300 Chinamen from works on 
Long wharf. There was no open demonstration. 

The Sutro tunnel is now an accomplished 
fact. Pumping commenced June 30th, and in 
eight hours the water in the drowned out mines 
was lowered 100 feet. The temperature of the 
water at the mouth of the tunnel was 118°. 

The Catholic Church has 64 cardinals— 32 
Italians, 10 Frenchmen, 4 Spaniards, 4 Aus- 
trians, 3 Hungarians, 3 Englishmen, 2 Portu. 
guese, 1 American, 1 Belgian, 1 Pole, 1 Bava- 
rian, 1 Corsican and 1 German. 

After two months' debate the Italian 
Chamber of Deputies has approved the Minis- 
terial Railway bill, which provides for the con- 
struction of 6,020 kilometers of railways with- 
in 21 years, at the annual expenditure of 

Cremation having been pronounced a measure 
of "salutary progress" by the committee of the 
Paris Municipal Council appointed to consider 
the question, is about to be introduced into 
Pere La Chaise Cemetery. It has been decided 
to set up an apparatus on Siemens' principle, 
and a Columbarium. 

A GIRL 17 years of age, at Boudon, Ontario, is 
said to bo a perfect electric battery. Very few 
can shako hands with her. By joining hands 
she can send a sharp shock through 15 or 20 
people. Her magnetic attraction is so great 
that she cannot let go of any article of steel she 
has picked up. A paper of needles will hang 
suspended from her finger. 

The Congregational Association, which has 
been in session at Seattle for a week, adjourned 
Saturday evening, to hold the next annual ses- 
sion at Fidalgo. The Association endorsed the 
Massachusetts Civil Damage law, and will seek 
like legislation in this Territory. The ministers 
in the Association were requested to preach at 
least one sermon in the year on the observance 
of the Sabbath, 



[July 5, 1879. 

Two of Them. 

In the farm-house porch the farmer sat, 
With his daughter having a cosy chat; 
She was his only child, and he 
Thought her as fair as a girl could be. 
A wee bit jealous, the old man grew, 
If he fancied any might come t.j woo; 
His one pet Iamb and loving care 
lie wished with nobody else to share. 

"There should be two of you, child," said he— 
"There should be tw o to welcome roe 
When I come home from the field at night; 
Two would make the old homestead bright. 
There's neighbor Gray, with his children four. 
To be glad together. Had I one more, 
A proud old father I'd be, my dear. 
With two good children two greet me here." 

Down by the gates 'neath the old elm tree 
Donald waited alone; and she 
For whom he waited his love-call heard, 
And on either cheek the blushes stirred. 
"Father," she said, and knelt her down. 
And kissed the hand that was old and brown — 
"Father, there may be two if you will. 
Ana I —your only daughter still. 

•"Two to welcome you home at night; 

Two to make the old homestead bright; 

I — and somebody else." "I see," 

Said the farmer, "and who may 'somebody' beV 

Oh, the dimples in Bessie's cheek, 

"rhat played with the blushes at hide-and-seek I 

Away from his gaze she turned her head, 

"One of neighbor Gray's children," she said. 

"H'm!" said the farmer; "make it plain; 
Is it Susan, Alice or Mary ,Iane ?" 
Another kiss on the aged hand, 
To help the farmer to understand (?) 
"Il'ml*' said the fanner; "yes, I see. 
It is two for yourself and one for me." 
But Bessie said, "There can be but one 
For me and my heart till life is done." 

—Harper's Weekly. 

Making a Home. 

The home is both the bud and the blossom of 
civilization. By their homes we judge of the 
real character of any people. Here are the 
things which most surely indicate individual 
disposition and taste as well as national charac- 
ter and tendency. The home is also the most 
precious place, at least among all English- 
speaking people. In nine cases out of ten the 
business man plods on through all his weary 
complications that he may support a home. It 
is the vision of the home that cheers the day- 
laborer at his tasks; it is the center and jewel 
of the farmstead, without which the latter seems 
like a body without a soul. 

Admitted that the home is the highest work 
of art in a civilized community, who is the 
artist? We hear about men making homes for 
themselves, but what kind of homes do they 
make? Go to California, nay, the women are 
there now; go to Arizona, to Colorado, to the 
Black Hills; stay! \'ou have only to peep into 
the room of almost any man who takes care of 
himself if you wish to know what sort of homes 
men make. True, some of these homes are 
quite pleasantable; but are they, the best of 
them, in their appointments and keeping, the 
highest models of the civilized home? Contrast 
that with the dainty appointments and keeping 
of the majority of the homes of most women 
who care and provide for themselves. Of 
course, in a complete home, occupied by a com- 
plete family, there should be both the masculine 
and the feminine elements; but whose taste is 
it that prevails in the furnishing and the keep- 
ing of the house? Will it, as a rule, be nicely 
furnished if the woman have not the taste to 
select and adjust? It is true the man usually 
provides the means for its furnishing and its 
sustenance, and if this is what is intended by 
the expression, we will so understand it; but 
after all it is the woman who is really the artist: 
she plans and molds and puts her impress upon 
it. True, she is often guided by his wishes in 
many particulars, but the home when it is made 
is the expression of her taste and thought far 
more than his. She puts herself into it, and 
BTerythmg therein is largely molded by her 

Nor is it always true that the husband fur- 
nishes the home. It is a good old Yankee 
fashion, not quite out of date, which set the 
maiden at work in the midst of her teens to 
make up bedding and carpets and curtains and 
table linen for the home of the future, perhaps 
even before a husband was seriously thought of 
as an actual existence. 

The rule of influence holds the same. Per- 
haps a little earlier, but not more surel}', did 
the Yankee maiden of the past, who furnished 
her new home throughout, impress upon it her 
own personality than does the maiden of to-day 
who marries without a bed, a blanket, or a 
bureau. She may have East-lake furniture and 
the services of professional upholsterers; she 
may even take possession of a house ready fur- 
nished, of which she never has heard before; but 
if she becomes its mistress, she will set her 
mark on it; the house will bear her imprint 
rather than that of her husband; the housekeep- 
ing will resemble that of her mother more than 
it does that of his mother. It gives one a cu- 
rious feeling to go through the house of a sister 
or a niece, whom yon may not have met before 

since she was married, and see the impress upon 
all the home arrangements, reminding you of 
what you have seen in the homes of her mother 
or her grandmother in the days of your child 
hood. It is like tracing the family likeness of 
form and feature through which the souls of 
kindred shine out and mold the physique. 
Influence of Home. 
But let us ask, what is the highest aim of 
earthly endeavor? It is the perfecting of indi 
vidual character. And the home is the place 
where this sort of work is done, if it be done 
anywhere. Character-making requires a work 
shop, a studio, peculiarly devised and furnished 
That studio is the home, and the artist 

Suppose the mother, the home-maker, should 
have in view the projjer molding of the char 
acters of her daughters rather than tricking 
them out with music, embroidery, white hands 
delicate figures, and (miscalled) elegant leisure. 
She herself would endeavor to be the model 
woman she wished them to copy. They would 
share all her labors, they would be disciplined 
by industry, educated by care and responsi 
bility, strengthened by labor, made healthy by 
exercise, while she would share their more truly 
elegant and more highly appreciated leisure, 
Eventually they would relieve her of care, and 
in their time would become thoughtful, enter 
prising, independent women and model home 
makers, and they would be a source of strength 
and blessing. 

So, too, in the case of boys. It is a positive 
injury to boys to sit by and see their mother 
overwhelmed with work which tliey might help 
her do, and especially if that burden makes her 
peevish and irritable. Boys should be taught 
self-help far more than they are, taking care of 
their own rooms, cleaning and mending their 
own clothes, and sewing on buttons. It would 
be a positive advantage to all our boys if they 
were taught, at least, the rudiments of all sorts 
of housework. They would not only be pre- 
pared in many an emergency of their future 
lives to make themselves more comfortable, to 
do a turn for wife or mother at times when her 
very life might depend upon a little help; but 
their own characters would be far better de 
veloped, especially in all the tender considera- 
tions becoming to husbands and sons. Is it not 
desirable that men should be educated to make 
good husbands as well as women to make good 
wives ? 

' But all this requires work, and we are 
worked to death as it is." Nay, dear weman, 
but your work would change its character. It 
would lose the killing aspect of drudgery. You 
would see how every stitch of home-work went 
into the character of loved ones. The ever- 
recurring, much-complained-of "drudgery," 
even of washing dishes, would cease. Where 
would be the brightness, the cheeriness, the 
culture of the family repast without the clear 
glass, the clean china, the burnished cutlery 
Even the suds of the wash-tub ceases to drown 
the delight in the spotless napery. What would 
our homes be without educators of self 
respect? What mother for the sake of saving 
dish-washing would see everj'one dip his spoon 
or plunge his fork into one dish, or dab his 
knife into the once piece of butter? What 
careful home-maker neglects the influence of 
clean bedding and well-swept rooms on the 
habits of her children ? or neglecting, does not 
have cause to regret whether she knows it or 
not ? Even the effect of clean clothing is not 
all for the outside world. And what mother 
and home maker but would find all her toil 
lightened and sweetened, if she but considered 
the direct influence of every one of these little 
things in forming the characters of her children ? 
If we let the feeling of drudgerj' in such work 
cut into our lives and waste our spirits, whose 
fault is it ? And then the cookery ! How many 
a poor woman hates the cook-stove almost as 
she would an infernal machine I She feels as if 
it were scorching out of her life almost every- 
thing fresh and beautiful ; and perhaps she is 
not far from right, if we take into account the 
blighting etlects of all the indigestible dishes 
she prepares by its aid ; but if so, the fault is 
her own. There is not really an article in her 
house which she can make more i«erviceable for 
the health and happiness of her family. 

This, however, is not done by ministering to 
selfishness and appetite, but by making whole- 
some food attractive and agreeable. Proper 
food is the largest ingredient in the health and 
happiness of children, in the safe habits of 
youth, and in the strength and endurance of 
manhood. It is the very material of which 
they are built up. There is no better safeguard 
she can throw around every member of her 
household. Does she realize her power ? Such 
thoughts as these ought to strengthen her hands, 
brighten her thoughts, lighten her toil, season 
her dislies, and make all her labors very precious. 
Many things now tiresome would be so no longer, 
and nothing should be indifferent. Many things 
might be put aside as unnecessary; much of the 
routine labor may be paid for ; but the eye 
and thought and heart of the home-maker 
should be in it or inspire it all. 

It may be that few will listen to all this now. 
It may be that woman will wander out of the 
home and seek elsewhere her hold upon the 
secret springs of power, since it is for these she 
is ever seeking, but she will come back to it 
ultimately. She will recognize character-mak- 
ing as the great object in this life and the next; 
and home as the place where most of it must be 
done, and herself as the one who can best do it; 
and she will settle down to her task intelligently 
and with great contentment. — Julia Colman, in 
Phrenological Journal. 

Grandmother's Lecture on Babies. 

Grandmother gives a lecture on babies in the 
Rural New Yorker in these words: The other 
day, Nellie Gray came to our house to visit, and 
she had the cunningest little bundle inher arms; 
there was edging, ruftles, tucks and embroidered 
blankets, and such a pile of muslin and ribbons; 
well, if I had not heard she had a little baby, I 
could never have guessed what it was, except 
there was a continued S(|ueakiug away down in 
the depths, that sounded no more like a baby 
crying, than it did like a mouse in the wall. 
"Sakes alive ! Nellie, give me the baby !" 
"Oh, grandmother I I shall be so glad to; and 
do tell me what I shall do with it; cry, cry, 
from one day's end to the other. Ain't there 
work in taking care of babies, though ? but it is 
a darling? Just see !" and she took off a cloak, 
two blankets, and a veil; and smoothed out the 
beautiful dress that swept clear on to the floor, 
as the little thing lay in my lap. The baby had 
on a thick crocheted sacque and all you could 
see of the little mite, was its bare head, puck- 
ered up face, and the tips of its little red fin- 

"Oh, how warm it is I" said the young mother, 
as she wiped the drops off her face; "I hope 
baby has not got cold; it is the first time I have 
carried him to ride." 

"Nellie Gray, sit down, and let me tell you 
something, you don't know no more than a calf 
about taking care of a baby; no wonder the lit- 
tle thing cries i I wonder it is alive ! Just look 
here ! the thermometer stands at 90' in the 
shade, and you are about melted in your muslin 
dress, and here is this wee baby, bundled up 
with as many wraps as it would need in winter, 
and a thick sacque, and a pinning blanket, two 
Hannel petticoats, a cotton one and a dress; and 
as sure as you are alive, socks on the little feet ! 
What on earth are you thinking of, to pile all 
this stuff on a two-months-old baby ?" 

"Why, grandmother I I supposed I must !" 
"And Nellie; you have got your waists and 
bands so tight, that baby can hardly draw a 
breath. No wonder at all, that baby cries ! 
more wonder that the baby don't die ! Now, 
just take off all these extra fixings; one skirt and 
the dress, are enough, and loosen your waists, 
and let the little atom have one good breath 
and a chance to stretch itself." 

Its mother did as I told her, and in a few 
minutes the little thing cuddled down to sleep. 

Let me lay it down, Nellie, I'll show you how;" 
and so I laid it down on its side, a little curled 
up like a kitten, and there it Jay and slept, two 
long hours, its mother going every few min- 
utes to see if anything ailed it. "You let it 
alone, Nellie ! Let her have her nap out, and 
she will be happy when she wakes up, and you 
will be rested too." 

Baby never cried again all day; she slept two 
hours at a time, and her mother was as happy as 
could be. She kissed me when she went away, 
because I had taught her to take care of her lit- 
tle one. 

It is a regular science to bring up babies, and 
girls should never get married tUl they have 
learned how to take care of children. Half of 
the babies that die, are just killed by ignorance, 
and half of those that live, are made sick and 
miserable, just because their mothers did not 
know how to take care of them properly. These 
babies are little precious creatures, and if they 
are rightly taken care of, are but little trouble, 
till they are old enough to creep about, and then 
the joy of seeing them active and well, pays for 
all the trouble they make. Some mothers are 
so foolish, that thej will not let the little ones 
creep, because they soil and wear their clothes. 
Poor women ! No wonder their children are 
bow-legged, and have weak backs ! They have 
no chance to develop and strengthen their limbs 
and muscles. Nature knows best how to man- 
age children, and they must have a chance to de- 
velop their powers. They do not want to be 
encumbered with long clothes, they want room 
to kick and stretch; a smart, healthy child, is 
far better than a puny, feeble baby, trigged out 
with all the finery that fashion dictates; and for 
mercy's sake, don't roast your babies alive in 
hot weather, by bundling them up so they can 

The Charm of True Marriage. 

Our advanced theories of divorce and free 
love, making the matrimonial relation merely a 
partnership to be dissolved at pleasure, what- 
ever else may be said in their favor, strike a 
deadly blow at an element in it which was 
meant perhaps to be supreme above all others. 
What is the sweetest charm of all true marriage, 
what the greatest advantage, what the most 
priceless happiness, take life through, which it 
brings to the human heart ? Not the flush and 
splendor of its early love; not the richer devel- 
opment which it brings to the character ; not 
even the children who are gathered around its 
shrine. No, but the intimacy and reliability of 
its companionship ; the fact that it gives those 
who enter it, each in the other and through all 
scenes and changes, a near and blessed stand-by. 
Marriage in some of its aspects is doubtless the 
source of an immense amount of unhappiness, 
crime, injustice, blight and down-dragging, one 
of the must perplexing institutions society has 
to deal with — only the blindest sentimentalist 
will deny that. On the other hand, however — 
and this is not mere sentiment but sober fact — 
of all the evidences of God's goodness to be 
found in this lower world, all the proofs that he 
cares for us not only with the wisdom of a 
Creator, but with the interest and love of a 
Father, there is none quite equal to his sending 
human beings into the arena of life, not to 
fight its battles, win its victories and endure its 
sorrows alone, but giving them, as they go forth 
out of their childhood's home, a relation in 
which each two of them are bound together 
with the closest of all ties, live together under 
the same roof, have their labors, their property, 
their interests, their parental affections all in 
common, and are moved to stand by each other, 
hand to hand and heart to heart, in every sor- 
row, misfortune, trial and stormy day that earth 
can bring. It is an ideal, if not always realized 
in full, which is tasted even now, amid all that 
is said about marriage miseries, more widely 
perhaps than any other happiness. — Sunday 

not have a chance to breathe. Their blood cir- 
culates fast, and they require but little clothing, 
if a cool day comes, it is easy to add an extra 

Elephasts AS LoG-EoLLERS. — A correspond- 
ent of the Philadelphia Evening Telegraph in 
British Burmah writes: " The other morning at 
P>angoon, Gen. Grant and party were invited 
to inspect a teak saw-mill, to see the wonderful 
intelligence of the elephants that are used to 
carry and pile the logs. Teak, you know, is a 
very heavy wood — it is one great source of rev- 
enue to Burmah — but to work for his mahout 
the animal will lift the end of a heavy log by his 
tusks, placing his trunk on it to keep it steady; 
then gradually working his way towards the 
center, finally balances the log and carries it 
carefully to a pile even higher than himself ; or 
if it is wanted to saw the log, he will push it 
along beneath the circular saw, his trunk inter- 
posed between his foot and the log. They will 
do almost anything, and from their tremendous 
strength you can understand what they can 
accomplish. At a brancti mill at Montmain they 
breed them for this purpose, but it takes 20 years 
before an elephant can do hard labor. 

When the American Flag First Flew. 

In the course of his oration at Denver, N. H., 
on I)ecoration Day, the Rev. A. H. Quint said: 
Between eight and nine o'clock on the morning 
of November Ist, 1777, the Continental ship-of- 
war, the Ranger, 18 guns, Capt. John Paul 
.Jones commander, weighed anchor and sailed 
out of Portsmouth harbor. It went out on that 
gallant cruise on the English coast, in which it 
met and captured the British war vessel, the 
Drake, of superior force, both of men and guns. 
The Ranger was built in a New Hampshire 
harbor by a New Hampshire mechanic, and 
sailed from a New Ham|)8hire port. It was 
manned by a crew of the Pincataqna, and 
largely by hardy mariners from this town. 
Ezra Green, the surgeon who ministered to the 
wounded in that sharp and bloody sea fight, 
was a citizen of Dover whom you and I remem- 
ber as he walked the streets an old man in onr 
boyhood, who sleeps in this historic ground; 
and its young commander of marines, killed in 
action, was Samuel Wallingford, of the Pollins- 
ford part of ancient Dover. Why do I call 
your attention to the fact that Dover men were 
part of the crew of the brave Paul Jones? Be- 
cause on the verj' day on which Jones was 
assigned to that vessel Congress adopted the 
flag of the Stars and Stripes, and history tella 
us that when that Ranger went out of Ports- 
mouth harbor, for the first time our national 
flag floated upon the breeze. On the 14th of 
February, 1778, it received a salute from a 
French admiral, undoubtedly, as one of the 
Ranger's officers wrote that day, "The first 
salute ever pay'd the American flag." Men of 
our own town and of our own blood manned the 
vessel which bore for the first time in history 
the Stars and Stripes, which thenceforth went 
on in the career of national achievements until 
it became honored and feared throughout the 
world. And never have you or those departed 
been dastards when the honor of that flag de- 
manded your service. 

A Tkibute to Science. — The Detroit Free 
Press has a "Lime Kiln Club," and at a late 
meeting the members tackled the subject of 
science. One of the speakers voiced the follow- 
ing tribute : "Science am above us, below ug, 
an' all aroun' us, an' yit the great majority of 
men doan' seem to realize the fack. What 
builds de fiah in de stove, 'cept science ? What 
biles de taters in de kettle 'cept science ? What 
furnishes our clothes, our homes, an' eben our 
graves, 'cept science ? Gaze on de sun. But 
for science who'd know whether that shiny orb 
war obcr in Kennedy or 90,000,000 miles in de 
§kv on a bee line? Gaze on de moon. But for 
science, who among us would know its infloo- 
ence on de watermelon crop ? Look at de stars. 
Befo' the advent of science who could tell Venus 
from Aunt Betsy, de Norf star from the big 
dipper, or de dog stars from de cat stars? 
Science made de steam engine, de kivered cars, 
de wheelbarrow, de whitewash brush, an' de 
several odder articles which have made dis 
nashun what it »m to-day. .Science frows 
bridges across great rivers; it brings up water 
from de deep well; it puts out fires; it gives us 
de fine-comb; it mixes de plug hat an' de paper 
collar; it brings us de glorus Fo'th of July; it 
makes peas and beans wid our coffee so dat we 
can't tell which it tastes de moas' of, an' but for 
science de ni«n wid de toofache would be no- 

July 5, 1879.1 




Pernicious Newspapers. 

Sunday A fternoon, an American magazine of 
great value, sharply arraigns the newspapers 
which are prone to minister to groveling tastes 
by publishing very reprehensible literature. It 
says : Not only do our newspapers offend by 
the publication of the vile details of great crimes, 
but also by picking up and spreading abroad 
little scandals, little unpleasantness in society, 
little bits of gossip that no sensible or honorable 
person wishes to know or would suffer himself 
to repeat. Much of the space of many weekly 
papers and of not a few dailies is devoted to 
matters of this description. The tittle-tattle of 
the neighborhood that is not only silly but 
poisonous in the extreme is gathered and served 
up in as appetizing a manner as possible for the 
entertainment of the whole community. If a 
woman behaves irfdiscreetly, the fact, more or 
less embellished and sufficiently disguised to 
whet the appetites of the gossips, is likely to 
appear in print the next day. If a man com- 
mits an error of which he is pretty sure to be 
ashamed, and concerning which he would be 
glad of the indulgent silence of his neighbors, 
there is no mercy for him; he will have a chance 
to read the record, a good deal magnihed, in the 
local column. Domestic infelicities with which 
the public has no business at all afford material 
for spicy items; business complications are 
worse complicated by unauthorized reports con- 
cerning them; little troubles in the churches 
which those who have the care of their interests 
are doing their best to compose are fanned into 
grave dissensions by references to them in the 
newspapers. Sometimes, when the details of 
these small scanilals are not given, there are 
little hints and innuen does that serve to put all 
the prurient and meddlesome noses in the com- 
munity on the scent for indecency or mischief. 
What excuse or justification can there be for 
the publication of such items as these? Who 
is profited by reading them ? What interest of 
intelligence, of morality, of decency is promoted 
by spreading abroad these miserable details of 
gossip ? The only reason for printing tliem is 
that many people like to read them; they make 
a sale for the papers. But the taste that craves 
them is a vicious and degraded taste, and the 
business of gratifying and stimulating such a 
taste is a bad business. 

What is thought of the woman who goes from 
house to house in her neighborhood rehearsing 
bits of intelligence like these ? What is said of 
the man who devotes his leisure to the circula- 
tion of the current rumors ? If it is disreputable 
for a man to go about ringing his neighbors' 
door-bells and reciting to them such scandals by 
word of mouth it is more disreputable for him to 
print them in a widely-circulated newspaper. 
The story that a gentleman would not stoop to 
tell in good society, no gentleman ought to print 
in his paper. Meddling and mischief-making is 
just as reprehensible in a reporter as in any other 
man. The fact that such stuff makes his paper 
sell is a poor justification. And until the man- 
agers of newspapers learn to discriminate with a 
little more care between the news which the 
public has a right to hear and the news which is 
simply noisome or injurious scandal, the business 
of journalism will suffer a serious loss of respect 
and of influence. 


Perfectly yellegant — a baby show. 

A OIBL who puts on airs is a wind-lass. 

Expensive wives make pensive husbands. 

Cloves won't sweeten the breath of scandal. 

Folks are very foolish to take a fi-esh cold. 
If you must; get'em cured. 

The trouble in Canada, is the women use up 
the warm weather drying clothes. 

Character. — The only personal property 
which everybody looks after for you. 

They are digging in Tennessee for gold a for- 
tune-teller says lies there. Probably the for- 
tune-teller lies there. 

A OROCER had a pound of sugar returned with 
a note saying: "Too much sand for table use, 
and not enough for building purposes." 

An absent-minded gentlemen, on retiring at 
night, but his dog to bed, and kicked himself 
down stairs ! He did not discover his mistake 
until he went to yelp, and the dog tried to snore. 

"HloH-HEELED boots, moustache, and a 
strut," says the major, "are the plainest sign- 
boards in the world, hung out in capitals, 
'chambers in the attic to let — inquire at the 

"Sarah," said a young man the other day, to 
a lady of that name, "why don't you wear ear- 
rings?" "Because I haven't had my ears 
pierced." "I will bore them for you, then." 
"I thank you, sir; you have done it enough." 

Thinking to stock his depleted larder, a 
Western editor advertised: "Poultry taken in 
exchange for advertising." The villainous com- 
positor, seeing his opportunity to pay up a long- 
standing grudge, set it up: "Poetry taken," 
etc., and since that time the office-boy has been 
clearing 50 cents a day from the waste-paper 

A OENTLEIMAN who tried to make the neigh- 
hood of Astoria and the mouth of the Columbia 
river his home, has written the following report: 

Dirty days hath September, 

April, June and November; 

From January up to May 

The rain it raincth every day; 

From Hay again up to July, 

There's not a dry cloud in the eky; 

All the rest have thirty-one, 

Without a bleosed ray of sun; 

And if any of them had two and thirty. 

They'd be Juat as wet and twice a> dirty. 

Monarch of the realms supernal, 

Ranging: over land and eea; 
Symbol of the ureal Republic, 

Who so noble and so free! 
Thine the boundless fields of ether. 

Heaven's abyss unfathom'd thine. 
Far beyond our feeble vision, 

On thy bars its sunbeams shine! 
Borne on iron-banded pinion, 

On from pole to pole you sweep; 
O'er sea islunds, cra;;fy mountains, 

O'er the hoarse resoundina deep. 
Now, thy fannnifj plumes overshadow 

Northern cliff and iceberg grim; 
Now, o'er southern, soft savannahs. 

With unflagging; circuiis skim. 

lie that feeds the tender raven 

And the sea bird of the rock, 
Teu'pei's the inclement breezes 

To the shorn and bleating flock. 
Leads thee o'er the wastes of ocean, 

Guides o'er savage flood and wood, 
And from bounteous nature's store-house 

Feeds thy clamoring, hungry brood. 

Yo^r^Q F©Lks' CoLll[AM. 


Baby is going to Byc-lo-Iand, 
Going to see the sights so grand; 
Out of the sky the wee stars peep, 
Watcliing to see her fast asleep. 

Swing so, 


Over the hills to Bye-lo-Iand! 

O, the bright dreams in Bye-lo-Iand, 
All by the loving angelS planned! 
Soft little lashes downward close, 
Just like the petals of a rose. 

Swing so, 


Prettiest eyes in Bye-lo-Iand! 

Sweet is the way to Bye-Io-land, 
Guided by mother's gentle hand. 
Little lambs now are in the fold. 
Little birds nestle from the cold. 

Swing so, 

Baby is safe in Bye-Io-land. 

The Boy and the Duke. 

An English farmer was one day at work in 
the fields, when he saw a party of huntsmen 
riding about his farm. He had one field that 
he was specially anxious they should not ride 
over, as the crop was in a condition to be badly 
injured by the tramp of horses; so he dispatched 
a boy in his employ to this field, telling him to 
shut the gate, and keep watch over it, and on 
no account to suffer it to be opened. The boy 
went as he was bid, but was scarcely at his post 
before the huntsmen came up, peremptorily or- 
dering the gate to be opened. This the boy 
declined to do, stating the orders he had 
received, and his determination not to disobey 
them. Threat and bribes were offered, alike in 
vain. One after another came forward as 
spokesman, but all with the same result; the 
boy remaining immovable in his determination 
not to open the gate. After awhile, one of 
noble presence advanced, and said, in command- 
ing tones: 

"My boy; do you know me? I am the Duke 
of Wellington — one not accustomed to be dis- 
obeyed; and I command you to open that gate, 
that I and my friends may pass through." 

The boy lifted his cap and stood uncovered 
before the man whom all England delighted to 
honor, then answered firmly: "I am sure the 
Duke of Wellington would not wish me to dis- 
obey orders. I must keep this gate shut; no 
one is to pass through but with my master's 
express permission." 

Greatly pleased the sturdy old warrior lifted 
his own hat, and said: "I honor the man or 
boy who can be neither bribed nor frightened 
into doing wrong. With an army of sucli 
soldiers, 1 could conquer not only the French, 
but the world." And, handing the boy a 
glittering sovereign, the old Duke put spurs to 
his horse, and galloped away, while the boy ran 
off to his work, shouting at the top of his voice, 
"Hurrah! hurrah! I have done what Napoleon 
could not do — I've kept out the Duke of Wol- 
Tington. " 

They call the U. S. Ten Dollar Certificates— 
"baby bondi." 

O'er the mountains of Caucasus; 

Over Appenine and Alp; 
Over Rotky Mounts, Cordilleras; 

Over the Andes' herbless scalp; 
High above these snowy summits, 

Where no living thing abides, 
He. that notes the falling sparrow. 

Feeds thee, fosters thee and guides. 

Thou wingest where a tropic sky 

Bends o'er thee its celestial dome; 
Where sparkling waters greet the eye, 

And gentlest breezes fan the foam; 
Where spicy breath from groves of palm, 

Laden with aromatic balm. 
Blows ever, mingled with perfume 

Of luscious fruit and honeyed bloom; 
Green shores, adorned with drooping woods; 

Gay grottoes, island solitudes; 
Savannahs, where pilmettoes screen 

The Indian's hut with living green. 
Behold thy pinions as they sweep. 

Careering in the upper deep. 

— Isaac McLellan. 

Food and Digestion. 

In a lecture before the Workingmen's Ly- 
ceum, Dr. Seguin spoke as follows of food: "An 
ordinary meal is generally composed of five in- 
gredients — animal or nitrogenous food, starchy 
or sweet food, watery vegetables, beverages and 
condiments. This food when digested is taken 
into the system by blood vessels. For persons, 
and especially for workingmen, in this climate, 
meats are the most easily digested, and at the 
same time are the most nourishing food. Tripe 
is the easiest and pork the hardest to digest. 
Among vegetables, rice and boiled cabbage are 
the extremes. Anything that is boiled in fat is 
extremely indigestible. Milk contains the five 
ingredients referred to above, and so is really 
'all-sufficient.' Mothers make a great mistake 
in trying to induce infants under two years of 
age to eat starchy food, for there is no alkaline 
Huid in the stomach of an infant by which the 
starch can be changed to sugar, and so infused 
into the system. It has been estimated that a 
man working in the open air daily needs 15 
ounces of meat, 18 ounces of bread, 3 J of butter 
or fat, and 51 of water. I agree with many 
eminent chemists who have proved that alcoholic 
drinks are an aid to the system in retarding the 
waste of tissues. So, too, for the same reason, 
I regard tea and coffee as nourishing. An ex- 
cess of starchy food is to be carefully avoided. 
Men who handle lead ought to abstain from 
alcohol, for if too much is taken the kidneys, 
which throw off the poison of the lead, are likely 
to become diseased." 

Nature has supplied an infinite variety of food 
to suit every taste and the gratifications of every 
stomach. "What is one man's meat is another 
man's poison," is an old and true saying. The 
whole of good health may be concentrated in the 
simple observation to "eat only what agrees 
with you." Volumes of information can give 
no better or other advice. No physician can 
prescribe a more efficacious remedy. 

Disease Germs. — C. Von Nagell, a Bavarian 
investigator, while he retains the idea that the 
smallest organisms, fungi, are the cause of all 
infectious diseases, holds that only these germs 
are dangerous and calculased to infect which en- 
ter our organs of respiration with the air we 
breathe. If Von Nagell's theory should prove 
true, and find general acceptance, it would bo 
no longer necessary to trouble ourselves about 
the generation of products of decay in masses 
of liquid, as in sewers, can.als, damp soil, river 
and spring waters. On the other side every 
moans must bo employed to prevent these fungi 
dili'using through the air as a result of the dry- 
ing up of such decaying masses. ' 

Properties of Glycerine. — Glycerine should 
not be rubbed on the skin in an undiluted state. 
One of its remarkable properties is its power to 
absorb moisture, and hence its irritating effect 
on the skin. About three Huid ounces of water 
to one of glycerine will form a mixture which 
will neither attract moisture nor evaporate, the 
weight scarcely varying *rom week to week, 
cither in one direction or the other. The mix- 
ture should be kept in a cool, moist place. 

A Practical Lecture on Cookery. 

Cooking classes are now becoming quite popu- 
lar in the Eastern cities. The lecturer stands 
amid her materials and as she talks she actually 
prepares the dishes which she describes, and the 
class take notes upon the same. In Phila- 
delphia, Miss Dodds has a class of this kind, 
and at a recent lesson she reviews certain well- 
known dishes and gave her ways of preparing 
them, some of which we quote: 

Irish Stew. — Material required: 2 pounds of 
potatoes, 1 pound of neck mutton, J pound of 
onions, salt, pepper and \ pint of water. Cut 
the potatoes in pieces, boil them and throw 
away the water. Soak the onions in water, 
slice them up and put them with the potatoes in 
a saucepan, and cook slowly for an hour and a 
half, seasoning with pepper and salt. 

Apple Dumpling. — Ingredients used: 5 apples, 
\ pound of Hour, 2 ounces of lard, 1 ounce of 
sugar, \ pint of cold water, ^ teaspoonful of 
baking powder, and a pinch of salt. Pare and 
core the apples. Mix the latd, yeast powder, 
and salt. Add water, knead lightly together 
and cut into five pieces. Fill the core hole in 
the apple with sugar, wrap the apples with 
dough, put into a lightly-floured tin, and bake 
for an hour and a half. 

Milk Soup. — Stock required: 2 raw potatoes, 
1 ounce of lard, 1 pint of milk, 1^ ounces of fine 
sage, 1 quart of cold water, pepper and salt. 
Cover potatoes with water, keep over until the 
water boils; then replace the water with a quart 
of fresh, adding the lard at the same time. Boil 
the potatoes until they are tender; pour the 
materials through a colander and return to a 
saucepan; add milk, sago and seasoning. 

Maccaroni and Cheese. —Ingredients neces- 
sary: \ pound of maccaroni, 3 ounces of dry 
cheese, ^ pint of milk, and a small quantity of 
pepper and salt. Boil the maccaroni 15 minutes 
in water; then replace the water with milk, 
and boil for half an hour louger. Spread a 
layer of maccaroni on a flat dish; add a layer of 
dry cheese; sprinkle slightly with pepper and 
salt. Continue alternate layers of maccaroni 
and cheese until the required amount is ob- 
tained. Then place in the oven and brown for 
from 8J to 10 minutes. 

To Boil Potatoes. — The only method to boil 
potatoes properly, says Miss Dodds, is to boil 
them until half-done, then pour off all the 
water, cover the pot closely and permit them to 
.steam until quite done. Just before removing 
them from the stove take off the lid of the pot 
that the steam may escape, and the potatoes 
will be found to be very dry and very - mealy. 
Young potatoes should be placed in boiling 
water; old potatoes in cold and boiled. 

To Make Puff Paste. — To make this pastry 
she used one-quarter of a pound of flour, same 
quantity of butter, the yolk of one egg, a pinch 
of salt, several drops of lemon juice and a gill 
of cold water. The yolk of the egg, salt, lemon 
juice and water are mixed and then worked 
into the flour, thus forming a stiff' dough. 
When this has been kneaded quite firmly, roll 
the dough on a well-floured board until it is 
quite thin. It is necessary to be particular to 
use the exact weight of flour and butter. The 
butter should then be squeezed through a towel 
to extract the water and milk. Having been 
strained, it is placed in the center of the dough, 
which is folded carefully upon it and again 
rolled out as thin as possible. It is then folded 
in three layers and rolled, and folded for seven 
times; the first three times very carefully, that 
the butter may not run out. Having rolled 
and folded it the first time, it should be laid 
aside for a time to cool. After awhile, it is 
rolled again and folded again. Between the 
second and third and fifth and sixth rollings it 
should be allowed to stand in a cool place. 
When it is rolled for the seventh and last time, 
the paste should be about a half an inch in 
thickness. It is then cut in circular pieces 
about the size of a cup, in the center of these 
cakes a' small, round indention is made half 
through. These pieces are removed after the 
paste is cooked, which requires ten minutes. 

AsPARAGU.s PUDDINO. — Miuce a little lean 
ham very fine, and mix it with four well-bcaten 
eggs, a seasoning of pepper and salt, a little 
flour and a piece of butter the size of a walnut; 
cut the green parts of the asparagus into very 
small pieces, not larger than a pea, and mix all 
well together. Then add a sufficient quantity 
of fresh milk to make the mixture the con- 
sistency of fresh butter, and put it into a well- 
buttered mold that will just hold it. Dredge 
a cloth with flour, tic it over the pudding, and 
put it into a saucepan of boiling water. When 
done, turn it carefully out on a dish, and pour 
some melted butter around it. 

Beefsteak a la Pauissienne.— Take a piece 
of rump steak about three-quarters of an inch 
thick. Trim it neatly, and beat it, sprinkle it 
with pepper, dip it in oil, and broil it over a 
clear lire. Turn it after it has been on the fire 
a minute or two, and keep turning it until done; 
eight or ten minutes will do it. Sprinkle with 
salt, and serve with a small quantity of finely 
minced parsley and a piece of butter mixed 
together, and placed over or under the steak. 
Garnish with fried potatoes. 



[July 5, 1879. 

DEWBY & CO., Publishers. 


Ofice, S02 Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 

Anntial ScBSCRtmoxs, $4; six months, $2; three 
months, 8i:25. When paid fully one year in advance, 
PIVTY CENTS will be deducted. No NEW names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. 0, orders at our risk. 
AvERTisiNo Ratbs. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mos. 12 mos, 

Per line 25 . 80 $2.00 $5.00 

Half inch (1 square) . . $1. 00 $3. 00 7. 60 24. 00 
One inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 4 00 

Quack Advertising positively declined. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent SoUcitors. 



Saturday, July 5, 1879. 


EDITORIALS.— The Fourth of July; Restraining 
Early liuds; Mariposa or Uutterfly Tulips; Absorption of 
Moisture by Grain, 1. The Week; In Memoriam; Tubs 
on their own Bottoms, 8. Earthquakes; The Chance 
for Wheat, 9. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— Mariposa Tulip, 1-0. Theory 

rif E:irth')uake Waves Illustrated, 9. 
QUERIES AND REPLIES. -Devices for Orchard 

Plowing; Caution Against " Fleetwood's Life of 

Christ," 8. 

CORRESPONDENCE — Rus in Urbe— A California 
Home; Present State of Agriculture in England; Agri- 
culture at the Stockton Asylum; Nevada Agriculture - 
No. 2, 2-3. 

THE DAIRY.— Dairy Cows and their Management, 3. 

THE APIARY.— Purity of the Italian liee in Califor- 
nia; The situation in the Southern Counties, 3. 

POULTRY YARD —French .Methods of Fattening 
Fowls, a 


Oregon State Grange; A Good Master Devises Work; 
The Grangers' Bank and the Grain Crop, 4. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 4-5. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on page 5 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE.— Two of Them (poetry); Making a 
ilomc; Grandmother's Lecture on Babies; Elephants as 
Log-RoUers; The Charm of True Marriage; When the 
American Flag First Flew; A Tribute to Science, 6. 
Pernicious Newspapers; Chaff; The American Eagle 
(poetry), 7. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. - Bye-lo-land; The 

B-iy and the Duke, 7. 
GOOD HEALTH. —Food and Digestion; Disease 

Germs; Properties of Glycerine, 7. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— A Practical Lecture on 

Cookery; Asparagus Pudding; Beefsteak a la Paris- 

ienne, 7. 

THE STOCK YARD.-Thc Stock Premiums at the 
State Fair in IST'.l, 12. 

Business Announcements. 

Thoroughbred Berkshlres, John Rider, Sacramento, Cal. 
Short Horn Bulls For Sale, Robert Ashbumer. 
Flour Mill For Sale or Rent, Jos. Wagner & Co. , S. F. 
Stock and Grain Farm For Sale, D. B. Hays, Oroville. 
H. M. Covert, Commission Merchant, S. F. 
Dividend Notice —German Savings and Loan Society. 
Fencing— Chapparal Seed, W. R. Strong, Sacramento. 

The Week. 

Evidence accumulates that the International 
Meteorological Congiess left some screws loose 
at their recent meeting, for the weather is cer- 
tainly not yet above complaint. It is probable 
that in the dissemination of invitations to the 
conference -Eolus was overlooked, and is conse- 
quently prone to throw the work of the Con- 
gress into disrepute. The Frost King seems 
also to be in ill humor from some cause and to 
have joined his forces with the god of the caves. 
However this may be, the fact remains that the 
face of the globe is scarred and bruised by 
storms of unusual and unseasonable quality ; 
frost has applied the pincers to an extent beyond 
the memory of a generation. England has grain 
so thin tliat a passer on a railway train could see 
a hare in the middle of a ten-acre field. France 
has been beaten by rain and wind, so that the 
very sugar beets have been driven into the 
ground and vines torn and mangled in the gales. 
Even Algiers, almost in the face of her torrid 
sun, has been pinched by frost at the verge of 
summer. In our own State, around the bay, 
there has been a coal burning and blanketing 
almost like that of winter, and in the interior 
the reapers, in some parts, are turning back 
from the fields not worth the cutting, and the 
threshers are sacking shrunken and shriveled 
grain and inversely blessing the winds which 
have robbed them of their full reward. And 
yet city people rise in their wisdom and say 
" farmers are chronic grumblers." Who has a 
better right to grumble ? Who else has to 
leave all his treasures out of doors and subject 
to all the whims of an uncertain sky. Those 
who make the charge forget that causes which 
only give them temporary chills or parch their 
faces as they go abroad, are all at work upon 
the farmer's actual livelihood and may reduce 
him to beggary in an hour or a day. No! con- 
sidering the conditions farmers as a class can- 
not be called grumblers. On the other hand, 
it is often wonderful how hope and confidence 
survive the ahocka to which they are subjected. 

In Memoriam. 

Bereavement presses heavily upon us. At 
her home in this city, on Sunday morning, died 
Hosapher N., wife of Warren B. Ewer, senior 
editor of our publications. She has suffered 
long and patiently, hoping against hope, that 
the malady which had fastened upon her would 
loosen its grasp and restore her again to her be- 
loved ones, to her wide circle of friends — again 
to the life of kind thoughts and gentle deeds in 
which she delighted. But the God in whom she 
trusted willed otherwise. On Sunday morning, 
fatigued with pain of unusual severity with 
which she had battled, she fell asleep, and 
while her devoted husband and attendants re- 
joiced to think the quiet slumber would refresh 
her, she peacefully crossed the river. Her loss 
is bereavement beyond words to those of her 
immediate household, and in the larger circle, 
in which her presence was a ray of sunshine and 
an influence toward purity of thought and no- 
bility of conduct, the tributes to her memory 
are tender and heartfelt. 

Mrs. Ewer was born in 1817 in Havana, Cuba. 
In youth she removed to the old commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, and there she and her future 
husband began an acquaintance as playmates 
whiDh ripened into mutual affection. During 
seven years of plighted troth they awaited their 
marriage, and since then 40 years of union have 
cemented their lives together. During their 
early married life she was an invalid for many 
years, and the sympathj' quickened by this ex- 
perience knit them the closer. Mr. Ewer came 
to California in 1849, and his wife followed him 
four years after. They resided in Grass Valley 
about 8 years, making many friends. For 17 
years they have lived in San Francisco. Three 
children were born to them, one dying in the 
full vigor and promise of early manhood ; an- 
other, a devoted daughter, still survives her 
mother. This daughter and an elder sister, 
both in delicate health, Mrs. -Ewer leaves in 
charge of her bereaved companion. 

The life of Mrs. Ewer was one of nobility, 
and her heart was full of generous In 
deeds of charity she was constant. Her work 
lay in those quiet actions in behalf of the suffer- 
ing and the unfortunate, of wliich the world 
never knows, as well as in organized efforts for 
wider charities. She was one of the lady mem- 
bers of the Board of Managers of the " Sailor's 
Home" in this city. This project was very dear 
to her, and while her strength lasted she gave 
it generous and self-denying promotion. As a 
member of the Union Square Baptist Church of 
this city, she lived a consistent Christian life 
and was earnest in every good work. Frank- 
ness in words, firmness and decision in char- 
acter, with unswerving devotion for the right 
and kindness toward all in the least deserving — 
these were strong characteristics of her life. 

Mrs. Ewer possessed what may be truly 
called a sunny disposition. In her friendships 
she was most honest and outspoken, and one of 
the results of her illness, which she most de- 
plored, w.%8 her separation from her friends. 
Her conversation was full of the charm of anima- 
tion, and while it disclosed thoughts born of 
wisdom and research on the themes she pre- 
ferred, it was always warmed by true womanly 
sympathy and genuine philanthropy. She was 
the life of the social gathering, the light of her 
home, an influence toward the elevation of all 
who came within the circle of her acquaintance. 
Thus she will be widely mourned, and the sense 
of loss, itself the highest tribute to the worth 
of one departed, will press itself upon a 
mind and heart. Though a great sufferer for 
many months she retained her kindness of dis- 
position amid all her sufferings, and one of her 
greatest trials was the burden which she placed 
upon those who loved her — a burden which was 
lightly borne because of her hold upon the hearts 
of those who ministered to her. 

She has gone hence. During her lifetime her 
trust was full and her faith serene, and to such 
souls to die is gain. Not to her, but to those 
whom she has left behind are honest words of 
sympathy fitting. To our associate, to whom 
for 40 years she was a loving wife and true 
companion, we extend the most heartfelt assur- 
ances that we grieve with him in his bereave- 
ment, because we know how much a part of his 
life her presence and companionship had become. 
He and his daughter are bereft and alone — and 
yet not alone, for love and memory do not die. 
Theirs it is to cherish a memory which will 
always come to them, sweeter far than fra- ' 

grance of flowers; more precious than anything 
of earth can be, for their treasure is now be- 
yond the pain and suffering of earth, in glad 
possession of the peace beyond. 

The funeral of Mrs. Ewer took place on 
Tuesday afternoon, July 1st. Both at the home 
and at the church there were throngs of sym- 
pathetic mourning friends. Floral offerings 
were many. At the church there was a large 
cross, flower-set, encircled by a wreath of 
flowers. There was also an anchor of woven 
blooms. These were regarded by all as fitting 
emblems of her devotion and faith. An eloquent 
sermon was preached by Rev. Mr. Ross, pastor 
of the church and a touching tribute to the 
christian virtues and noble life of the deceased 
by Rev. Mr. Hughes, pastor of the Baptist 
church at the Mission. Both in the public ex- 
ercises and in the tender words spoken at the 
home were to be found eloquent testimony to 
the worth of her they mourned, and assure us 
that she still lives in the hearts of the com- 

Tubs on their own Bottoms. 

If the new Constitution succeeds in placing 
some of our large gold-banded tubs squarely on 
their own bottoms the State will be the better 
for it. There has always been a disposition 
among men to force the weak to carry the bur- 
dens of the strong, instead of the reverse, 
which would be the fairer proportionment. 
The physical power to force the weak to labor 
for the strong which prevailed in early times, 
has given place in these later days to the mon- 
etary power or the power of deceit and crafty 
wiles practiced in the guise of the law. The 
result is just as grievous as ever, and the impo- 
sition and bondage are just as depressing as 
were produced by the fear of the lash, the prick 
of the spear or the threat of bereavement and 

Speaking of tubs reminds us that our great 
tubs of social position and wealth have contin- 
ually shown a disposition to cast their weight 
upon other bottoms than their own. It is on 
record in the daily papers that one of the 
wealthy women of our city, the walls of whose 
residence rise heavenward in turrets and para- 
pets, and whose property would outvalue 1,(X)0 
good sized farms or modest city homesteads, 
was assessed one million dollars by the city 
Assessor and she, by her counsel, appeared be- 
fore the Supervisors and begged that the whole 
assessment be expunged. Thus she, holding so 
much money that it must be a burden, would 
forsooth erase her name, and escaping her 
proper contribution to ensure the safety and 
security of her wealth, would double the taxes 
upon a thousand of the humble homes which 
nestle at the base of her castle. Clinging tena- 
ciously to a weight of wealth which she would 
be happier without, she would, as it were, 
snatch the crust from the poor around her; be- 
cause increasing the taxes of the poor is often 
literally depriving them of money which they 
really need for food and personal comfort. Is 
there so much of evil in celestial minds ? As 
fortunes rise higher must their owners lower 
fall in the scale of commonest humanity ? His- 
tory and daily experience cite so many in- 
stances of hearts crushed out by the weight of 
property accumulated, that we must believe 
that this is one of the common results of pro- 
tracted grasping for pelf. As then there are no 
sentiments of justice and philanthropby which 
will lead the over-rich to shoulder their proper 
burdens, there must be laws able to cope with 
their desperate desire to elude the just require- 
ments which the welfare of the community 
makes upon them. If there shall be found any- 
thing in the new Constitution which is power- 
ful to do this service for the people, it will be a 
deed full of joy and justice. 

But this large leaning tub to which we have 
alluded, is not the only one which interferes 
with the equitable bearing of society's burdens. 
The city Assessor states that there are hosts of 
people who have hoards of cash hidden away in 
the banks which he cannot reach. There are 
men worth tens and hundreds of thousands who 
do not even contribute as much to the public 
treasury as the poor laborers and artisans who 
own humble homes on the outskirts of the city. 
Men who loll about the streets and public re- 
sorts, arrayed in fine raiment and faring sump- 
tuously every day are unknown to the assess- 
ment roll, while the poor laborer, with patched 
garments and self-denying wife and hungry 
children, is punished for his frugality, because 
the assessor can easily see his leaky roof, his 
cow and his dozen hens scratching a scanty 
livelihood on the waste places. As these 
things come to mind how they shake one's 
faith in the quality of justice as embodied in 
modern civilization. Not yet has oppression 
been lifted from the lowly; not yet have the 
faces of the poor been raised from the grinding. 
Will there come a time when laws shall embody 
the declarations of constitutions, when each 
shall bear his own burdens ? Will there ever 

come a time when the divine principle shall 
rule in the common affairs of men, when the 
strong shall aid the weak ? Progress hitherto 
does not promise it, in the near future at least, 
for physical force has only given place to cun- 
ning and subterfuge, and the weak are still 

This question of tubs on their own bottoms is 
one which most seriously affects our agricul- 
tural industry, and one which, as much as any 
other, stirred the farmers of the State to order a 
change in the organic law of the State by their 
votes at the May election. It has been general 
experience that a man only made himself a target 
for the assessor by the sacrifices he made to im- 
prove his home and its surroundings. His in- 
dustry was taxed before it yielded him any- 
thing — a prospect was a good enough provoca- 
tion for the assessment. Idle lands though 
fertile and idle men though rolling in wealth, 
contributed little or nothing toward the public 
expense, while diligent labor and its rewards 
was weighted down with the burdens. Is it 
any wonder such injustice led to discontent and 
resolutions for a new order of things, whether 
the changes proposed were wise or otherwise. 
It is to be sincerely hoped that anticipated 
benefits may be realized. If wealth be made to 
bear its own burdens, the lifting of the weight 
from those in moderate or depressed condition 
will give our productive and developing force a 
new and beneficent impulse. Let our Taws but 
compel all men to the recognition of the sim- 
plest principles of justice in this matter of 
shouldering public burdens and we shall have 
indeed a new era of prosperity, with brightened 
hopes and doubled strength. Let our public 
cooperage be perfected until all leaning staves 
are plumb, and fairly on its own bottom stands 
every tub, whether it be of high or low degree. 

Devices for Orchard Plowing. 

Editors — As an old reader of the 
RfRAL Pres.s, I have learned of many methods 
of how to rig up aplow in order to plow up close 
to a row of trees or vines. 

In the first place, let me say I don't see any use 
or necessity to cramp the belly of a horse between 
the tugs attached to an 18-inch long whiflletree; 
why, I am using a whiflletree 34 inches long, 
and find it not a bit too long, but instead of hav- 
ing one hole in the center, I make two holes 
each about six inches away from center. When 
I plow between trees on level ground, and with 
the intention to throw the ground toward the 
trees, I bolt a block of wood of about two and 
one-half to three inches in thickness (as repre- 
sented in the Pres.s of May lOth, page 307), on 
the left side of the plowbeam, and use the whif- 
Hetree hole on the right side from the center, 
and luca versa. When I want to plow the 
ground away from the trees I put the clevis pin 
through the left side hole in the whiflletree, and 
move the guide block over to the right side of 
the plowbeam. In this way I accomplish the 
object, to plow up closer to a row of trees than a 
horse can walk without injuring the trees in the 

Up to this time I have connected the whiflle- 
tree, made of a stick of hard wood, with a com- 
mon clevis to the plow, and tied the tugs with 
a hay rope to the ends of the whiflletree; all 
cheap and no patent on it. 

The same whiflletree I use in plowing my 
vineyard, planted on steep hillsides, but with a 
sidehill plow, called "Knapp's Half Moon Bay," 
always throwing the ground downhill, have a 
"guide block" on each side of the plowbeam, 
and change the clevis pins each time at the end 
of the furrow or row. Of course this changing is 
troublesome I admit, but the great object in 
view is, the horse can always walk in the fur- 
row (after the first one is made), while the plow 
takes plenty of ground. I do a good plowing 
instead of a scratching, and leave a strip of 
ground unplowed as narrow as possible to be 
worked over with the hoe. Until lately, I did 
not know what is a horse hoe? I know it now, 
have now two, and challenge another year so 
favorable for weed growth as the present one 
has been. — Wm. Pfkkfek, Saratoga, Santa Clara 
county, Cal. 
Caution Aeralnst "Fleetwood's Life of 

EnnoRS Prbss;— I found "Fleetwood's Life of Chrlaf'ad- 
vertised in the P.vcikic Ri'ral Press as " free to all who 
send us their address and six cents In postage stamps." 
On sending address and stamps I received a package of 
circulars, showing how I could earn the book as a pre- 
mium, by getting orders for certain other books. Not 
wanting the agency. I foi-nd myself six cents out of 
l>ocket.— J. Hall, Riverside, Cal. 

We thank our correspondent for giving us 
his experience, and we hope other readers will 
be cautioned that the advertisement does not 
mean what it says. We do not intend to ad- 
vertise any of these clever, smart tricks of the 
trade, and will not knowingly do it. We de- 
sire our advertising space to be occupied with 
frank, honest trade notices, and when they are 
otherwise, we are glad to be told of it, that we 
and our readers may not be imposed upon 
farther. The advertisement to which our cor- 
respondent alludes is innocent compared with 
many which are accepted by the press generally, 
but it is too underhanded to suit our standaraH 
of truth in advertising. 

On File. — "Almonds" Inquirer and W. W. 
B.; "What Some Men Say When They Talk," 
H. E.; "Adobe and Stones in Wheat," G. W, 
T. C. 

July 5, 1879O 


Earthquakes. — No. 1. 

The late eruption of Mount ^tna, the present 
disturbed condition of Vesuvius, and the quite 
recent earth tremors perceived on our coast, 
afiford an occasion for calling attention to the 
subject of earthquakes and their explanation, 
efifects, etc. 

It has been through the labors of Robert Mal- 
let, of England, that this subject has assumed a 
scientific shape, and its importance, with a 
view to avoid the direful effects of Nature's 
throes, cannot be over-estimated in this utilita- 
rian age. 

The great complexity of earthquake pheno- 
mena, and their secret origin deep within the 
bowels of the earth, have produced during all 
ages so much surprise and alarm, that the 
human mind has been unfitted for scientific ob- 
servations. Until twenty years ago the state 
of knowledge on this subject was much the same 
as it was 2,000 years ago. Yet, in the short 
period of twenty years, our knowledge of earth- 
quakes is even greater than that of volcanoes. 

Mallet has collected the records of 6,830 
earthquakes as occurring in 3,456 years previous 
to 18.50, but of that number 3,240 occurred in 
the last fifty years ; not because they are be- 
coming more numerous, but because the records 
are more perfect. Taking the last four years of 
Mallet's record, the number of earthquakes was 
about two a week. Alexis Perry, m a more 
complete record from 1843 to 1872, inclusive, 
mentions 17,249 or 575 per annum. It would 
seem probable, that as the larger number of 
earthquakes are not even now recorded, because 
they occur in mid ocean or uncivilized regions, 
the earth is constantly quaking in some portion 
of its surface. 

It cannot be doubted that a close connection 
exists between earthquakes and volcanoes. Ex- 
plosive volcanic eruptions are always preceded 
and accompanied by earthquakes, and earth- 
quake shocks which have continued to trouble 
a particular region for a long time, suddenly 
cease when an outburst occurs in a neighboring 
volcano, showing that the latter are safety- 
vents for the interior forces which produce 

According to the present well - sustained 
theory of the molten or plastic condition of our 
inner earth, and the consequent supernatant 
condition of the earth's crust, earthquakes are 
intimately connected with the bodily move- 
ments of great areas of the earth's crust, by 
elevation or depression, and hence it happens 
that earthquakes occur with great violence in 
regions very remote from volcanoes. It should 
always be born in mind that volcanoes are not 
the causes of earthquakes, but that a volcano 
may be created by an earthquake. In order to 
simplify the idea sought to be impressed upon 
the mind, we have only to imagine that the 
earth's crust is not a continuous mass in which 
there is no break, but it is a broken up and ir- 
regular crust of inorganic matter, supported by 
and subject to the movements of the igneous, 
molten matter upon which it floats. We could 
give many instances of regions being depressed 
or elevated, but we refer only to the mountain 
in Georgia, which is now gradually sinking. In 
fact, the crust of the earth is in continual 
movement by elevation or depression almost 
everywhere. Partaking on a large scale of the 
same motion perceived in a ship on the ocean 
swayed by the constant swell of the waves, this 
motion is the remote cause of earthquakes, while 
the proximate cause of the observed effects of 
the earthquake is the arrival of a shock or 
earth-jar, a sudden interference, as it were, 
with the oscillation of the earth's crust. 

To more clearly illustrate our meaning, we are 
compelled to allude to some of the principles 
concerning waves. As to their propagation, 
waves are either of gravity or of elasticity ; as 
to direction, they are either transverse or longi- 
tudinal ; and as to form, may be regarded as 
circular or spherical. 

Gravity and circular waves are always of 
transverse vibration; spherical waves are of lon- 
gitudinal vibration, while waves of elasticity 
are either longitudinal or transverse. It is, 
however, principally of elastic longitudinal 
waves that we shall speak, and state as a prin- 
ciple that all waves propagated from a point 
within a medium such as sound waves, are 
elastic spherical waves of longitudinal oscilla- 
tion. The sense in which they are used is illus- 
trated in Fig. 1. The bar. A, B, represents a 
prism cut from a vibrating sphere in the direc- 
tion of the radius, and the light and dark por- 
tions represent condensation and rarefaction. 
Now, on the line a, b, representing the natural 
state of the bar, draw ordinates above to repre- 
sent the degrees of compression, and below to 
represent degrees of rarefaction; then the undu- 
lating line will correctly represent the state of 
the bar during the transmission of elastic lon- 
gitudinal waves. The compressed portions are 
called crests, and the most rarefied troughs as 
in transverse waves, such as ocean waves. 
From crest to crest is the length, and the 
amount of oscillation of the particles back and 
forth in compression and rarefaction is the 
hight of the wave. The velocity of water-waves 
depends wholly upon the wave-length, while the 
velocity of elastic or earthquake waves depends 
wholly upon the elasticity of the medium. Thus 
the harmony of a full band of music is perfect 
even at a great distance, because all the sounds 
whether loud or soft run with the same velo- 
city, and the only difiference in earth-waves ia 

that when the medium is not uniformly elastic, | 
and the waves or vibrations are high, the 
medium is broken by the passage of the waves, ! 
elasticity is diminished, and the waves retarded. | 
Let us suppose a concussion or explosion of 
any kind to occur at a considerable depth 
{x, Fig. 2), say 20 miles beneath the earth- 
surface, <S, S, a series of elastic spherical waves 
will be generated, expanding with great rapid- 
ity in all directions until they reach the surface 
at a. From this point of first emergence the 
still enlarging waves would outcrop in rapidly 
expanding waves, which we call the surface- 
waves, as shown in Fig. 2 at a, b, c, d, etc. 
This surface- wave would not be a normal wave. 

breaks up the earth crust, and bodies on the 
surface are thrown high in the air. The shock 
is violent but does not extend to any great dis- 
tance. It was an earthquake of this kind which 
destroyed Riobamba in 1797. The shock came 
suddenly, like the explosion of a mine, the earth 
was broken up and rent asunder, and objects 
lying on the surface were thrown violently up- 
ward; bodies of men were hurled several hun- 
dred feet in the Air, and afterward found across 
a river and on top of a hill. In such an earth- 
quake the focus is not deep, and the velocity of 
the wave ov shock is not impeded before it 

The vorticose earthquake causes a whirling 


It would be only the outcropping or emergence 
of the ever-widening spherical-wave on the 
earth-surface. Both its velocity of transit along 
the surface, and the direction of its vibration in 
relation to the surface, will vary constantly. 

It will be readily understood that the earth- 
waves do not cease at the surface, but continue 
through the lighter medium, the air which sur- 
rounds and is a part of the earth. They may, 
and it is probable that they do continue to the 
outer limit of the atmosphere until they again 
meet and become infinity. We know their ac- 

motion of the earth, entirely different from or- 
dinary wave-motion, the three kinds, although 
seemingly essentially distinct and possibly pro- 
duced by different causes, only differ from each 
other on account of the different conditions 
under which the waves emerge on the surface. 
The causes are the same but the variations of 
the medium produce variable results as to visi- 
ble characteristics. 

The horizontally progressive may be regarded 
as the true type of an earthquake, and is the 
spreading surface wave delineated in Fig. 2, at 


Fig. 1. Longitudinal Wavea. 

Fig. 2. Surface Waves. 

"■^vNx^x ■■>'-T III 

I c 

Pig. 3. Reflected Waves. Fig. 4. Wave Outcrop. 


tion up to and at the point of emergence at the 
earth's surface, beyond that, is debatable, exper- 
imental ground. Mallet determined experi- 
mentally the velocity of elastic earth-waves by 
exploding a barrel of gunpowder buried in the 
earth at a known distance, and noting the dif- 
ference between the instant of explosion and 
the arrival of the earth tremor, and it was also 
observed in the Hell Gate explosion in New 
York harbor. In sand the velocity was found 
to be 825 feet; in slate, 1,225 feet, and in gran- 
ite 1,665 feet per second or 19 miles per minute. 

As to their effects, earthquakes are generally 
divided into three kinds, viz: the explosive, 
the horizontally progressive and the vorticose. 
In the first a violent motion directly upward 

a, b, r, d, etc. These quakes usually run along 
mountain chains, which generally consist of a 
granite axis, flanked on each side with strati- 
fied rocks of many different kinds. When 
elastic waves pass from one medium to another 
of elasticity, a part of the waves passes through, 
but a part is always reflected. For every layer 
a reflection occurs; and hence, if there are 
many such layers, the waves are quickly 
quenched. In Fig. 3, which represents a trans- 
verse section across such a mountain, and X the 
focus of an earthquake, it is evident that only 
that portion of the spherical wave which 
emerged along the axis, a, would reach the 
surface successfully; while those portions which 
struck against the strata of the flanks would be 

partially or wholly quenched. The . u ofj 
outcrop on the surface is shown in the map- 
view. Fig. 4, in which a is the point of emer- 
gence or spectrum, b, c, the granite axis, and c, c, 
the stratified flanks. 

The velocity of surface waves is about 20 
miles a minute, although some have been re- 
corded as high as 30 to 35 miles per minute, and 
in some slight shocks occuring in New England, 
several years ago, the velocity as determined 
by telegraph, was estimated as high as 140 
miles per minute. The amazing difference be- 
ing caused by the fact that heavy shocks (large 
and high waves) break the medium, and are re- 
tarded as has been said, while slight tremors 
(small and low waves) are successfully trans- 
mitted without rupture, and therefore run with 
the natural velocity belonging to the medium, i. 
e., the velocity of sound, which in granite is 
about 140 miles per minute. 

This interesting subject, the illustrations for 
which are selected from Le Conte's " Elements 
of Geology, published by D. Appleton & Co., 
N. Y., will be continued in another article. 

The Chance for Wheat. 

The harvest is hurrying forward. With some 
important exceptions reports thus far received 
announce a good quality in the grain, and the re- 
sult will doubtless be a moderate amount for ex- 
port; by far too little to enable interested 
parties to depress the market with large figures. 
In most of the leading grain regions, excepting 
the upper San Joaquin valley, there will be re- 
spectable amounts to market, and if the price 
is favorable there will be prosperity in many 
growers' homes. The chief interest now nat- 
urally centers in the price and it cannot be de- 
nied that the outlook is quite fair. Large prices 
are not to be expected, because the day of large 
prices seems to have ended in the twilight 
which now clothes the industries of the world. 
There are indications, however, that there will 
be no such immense amount of grain threaten- 
ing the English market from several sources, as 
there was last year, and as last year's surplus 
will be drawn upon for six weeks longer than 
usual, according to the latest reports of the late- 
ness of the English harvest, there is reason to 
expect that the new crop will come upon a mod- 
erately clear market. There is no notable ac- 
cumulation now either in England or else- 

The first condition likely to affect the price of 
the incoming crop is the doubtful state of the 
English crop. The telegraphed reports state 
that the outlook still calls for much anxiety, 
.and mail advices up to the first week in June 
are full of forebodings. The London Farmer 
says: "Following such a winter and such a 
spring as we have experienced, an unfavorable 
summer would cause a deficiency in the Eng- 
lish crop which would leave supplies short, even 
though America and Russia should both have a 
good harvest. The average yield in this coun- 
try may be put at about 12,000,000 quarters of 
wheat, and recent years have shown us that low 
prices may continue to prevail, even where the 
quantity actually reaped is 10,000,000 or 11,- 
000,000 only. We have not yet learnt, how- 
ever, that high prices would be avoided were 
the crop but 7,000,000 or 8,000,000." California 
growers should therefore look diligently for 
early tidings of local events in England, which 
may greatly influence the whole year's prices. 

Another important point is the demand on 
the Continent of Europe. Last year France, it 
will be remembered, entered as a competitor 
with England for our grain, and many more 
cargoes than usual were consigned directly from 
this port to France. Whether this French de- 
mand can be relied upon another year is a ques- 
tion which may be debated, but there is a strong 
affirmative. In the first place the growing crops 
in France do not promise to supply the country. 
A dispatch received this week brings tidings of 
heavy storms, which have been inj urious to crops. 
There are also indirect reasons why we may ex- 
pect to hold France as a customer. These are 
reviewed by our London contemporary as fol- 
lows: "When a country once takes to importing 
grain it is seldom able to break through the 
habit. Instances of reform in this respect are 
very rare, even if they are not absolutely un- 
known. Either foreign competition diminishes 
the home production, or the abundance of the 
commodity leads to a larger general consump- 
tion, or new branches of trade are opened up, 
and the imports render possible a sale of home 
produce more than counterbalancing in its profit 
the loss of money to the country entailed by 
the importation. France we fully expect to see 
a steady and a large consumer of American and 
Russian grain." 

The wheat of the prairie States now seems to 
be nearly all centered in the hands of Jim Keene 
and his associates. The telegraph says the 
West has been swept clean of No. 2 Spring 
wheat of last year's harvest. Of this they are 
reported to have 4,000,000 bushels. If there is 
a fair prospect for high rates this amount of 
wheat may be counted upon to remain where it 
is. The situation generally is one which affords 
a fair outlook for wheat prices. 

Injury to French Crops. — A cable dispatch 
from Paris, June 29th, says: Crops in all parts 
of France have been injured by rains. Beet 
roots and vines suffered heavily. 



[July 5, T879. 

The Absorption of Hygroscopic Moisture 
by Cereal Grains. 

rOradualing Thesis of Eiimoxd O'Xeill, College of 
cuUure, Vnivcrsity of California.] 

It is well known that all substances absorl 
moisture from the air. The effect of this is 
Been in the swelling and curling of animal and 
vegetable substances. Tliis is the principle on 
which cat-gut and horse hair hygrometers are 
constructed. The moisture thus attracted, ii 
deposited in an exceedingly thin film, not ap 
parent to the eye or to the touch. Even sub- 
stances like polished metals and glass arc thus 
covered with an invisible coating of moisture, 
as is made apparent by weighing the glass, wip 
ing it with a dry cloth, and again weighing 
The second weight is invarially the smaller, 
owing to the of the film. On standing, 
more moisture is attracted, and it resumes its 
former weight. The presence of this film may 
also be shown by writing on the glass with any 
object. This will remove the film, and, on 
breathing on the glass, the writing will become 
apparent, on account of the amount of con 
densed moisture being less on the places where 
the film was removed. This phenomenon is 
often a cause of considerable error in weighing 
large pieces of apparatus. 

The cause of this absorption is the physical 
attraction between the aqueous particles and 
the particles of the substance. If the substance 
be either porous or capable of entering into 
chemical combination willi the water, much 
more will be absorbed than in the case of glass 
A porous substance, like brick or charcoal, will 
increase in weight many times more than apiece 
of glass of the same size, merely on account of 
the larger surface. Some substances, like 
nitrate of sodium, or chloride of calcium, will 
continue to attract moisture until they form a 
liquid. Substances like sulphuric acid and 
phosphoric anhydride, whioli form a chemical 
combination with the water, will attract every 
particle of moisture from a limited volume of 
air, as a new surface, capable of attraction and 
combination, is always presented. 

Grains, seed, flour, cloth and even oils, absorb 
considerable amounts of water. In Europe, 
valuable substances like silk and wool are 
always sold with an allowance for contained 
moisture. The temperature and humidity of 
the atmosphere are observed, and, by means of 
tables previously determined l)y experiment, 
the amount of water in the silk obtained. It is 
often considerable at ,50° Fahr. , being about 1.5 ; 
(Kuop. ). This absorption property is of great 
importance in the case of soils. Davy main- 
tained that the fertility of a soil was propor- 
tional to its hygroscopic power. This, however, 
is not always true. The absorbent power is 
generally proportional to the porosity or fineness 
of division. According to Schubler, coarse, 
silicious sand, exposed to a saturated atmos- 
phere, absorbed nothing in 72 hours; tine calca- 
reous sand, three-tenth per cent; clay, S%; and 
humus, 12%. This shows the effect of fineness 
of division; but soils containing humus and clay 
are generally fertile, which explains Davy's 

In California, this absorptive power is prac- 
tically noticeable in the case of the cereal grains. 
The bulk of these crops are raised in the in- 
terior of the State, and generaly stored there for 
some time. The climate in summer is extraor- 
dinarily dry, and the grains will give up nearly 
every particle of moisture. When removed to 
San Francisco and stored in damp warehouses, 
or shipped to a foreign port in the hold of a ves- 
sel, where the atmosphere is nearly saturated, 
the weight is materially increased. It has been 
said that this additional weight will pay the en- 
tire cost of freight from San Francisco to Liver- 

This absorbent power has been noticed very 
often, especially in California. A writer in the 
Pacific IIural Phess mentions the fact 
that the lower sacks stored in a warehouse gain 
a considerable amount. The reason that the 
lower ones gain more, is that the moisture, 
which generally comes from below, is almost 
completely absorbed by these lower layers, none 
being left for the upper ones. Another person 
mentions that the outside sacks of a pile of 
freshly threshed grain standing in the field for 
10 days weighed .SO pounds less than the inner 
sacks. Freshly threshed grain always contains 
moisture, and it was the loss of this which 
caused the difference. The time, being only 10 
days, was not sutiicient to allow the inner layers 
to dry out. .Several other instances have been 
noticed and they all agree that the grains may 
gain or lose a very large amount in a compara- 
tively short time. 

As many inquiries have been made as to the 
actual amount ihat could be gained or lost, and 
to whom the profit went, experiments were 
made to determine these points. It would be 
very impiirtant to the farmer to know whether 
it would be profitable to store his grain, or to 
sell it off the field; whether the commission 
merchant should take the farmer's weight, or 
to weigh it himself in San Francisco. All these 
points are of the greatest practical importance 
to the grain raisers of the State. 

The amount of absorption may be measured in 
several ways. Among the oldest and not very 
accurate ones are those of Leslie. The substance 
was dried at as high a temperature as possible 

without changing it, placed in a flask with a 
small opening, and the whole exposed to a sat- 
urated atmosphere. The amount of moisture 
in the small flask was measured by means of a 
delicate hygrometer, and this was assumed to 
be proportional to the amount absorbed by the 
substance. In this way he obtained the rela 
tive absorptive powers of a great many sub 

Schubler's method was to place the substance, 
previously dried at a temperature of 100" — 
200° C, on a small table standing in water, and 
to cover the whole with a bell-jar. The increase 
of weight indicated the amount of water ab 

The defects of this method were, that the 
layer of substance was too thick, the time of 
exposure not long enough, and with liis appli 
ances the atmosphere not fully saturated. This 
latter was proved by Knop, who showed that 
moistened filter paper loses weight when ex 
posed to an atmosphere like that employed by 

The method adopted by me was Schubler's, 
as modified by Prof. Hilgard. The bell-jar was 
made as low as possible, and filter paper, 
dl|ii)iiig into the water below surrounded the 
substance, which was spread out in as thin a 
layer as possible. Even with these precautions, 
the grain will continue to absorb for a period of 
from 12 to 18 dajs. 

Since temperature changed the amount of 
water in a saturated atmosphere very much, 
the apparatus was placed in a room where the 
temperature was constant, about 18°. 

Experiments according to this method were 
made with wheat, barley and oats. About 25 
grammes of each were employed, spread out on 
large watcli glasses. The weighings were made 
in a corked tiask, as the grain lost weight rap 
idly when removed from the apparatus. The 
absorption was accompanied by considerable 
swelling, which, however, was not measured 
The following table shows the percentage of 
moisture absorbed by air-dry substances from a 
saturated atmosphere, the temoerature being 
18° C: 

Oats. Wheat. ^'^^^ 

eiiccs. ley. ciices. ences 

8 hours.... 3.80 7.79 S.62 7.00 S.26 6.5( 

15 hours 6.00 . 58 5.54 M 4.11 .40 

24 h.iurs.... 7.79 1.85 7.00 2.54 0.56 1.5 

48 hours.... 8 35 1.20 7.64. 1.70 7.02 1 2 

04 hours.... 9.53 1.00 8 03 1 30 8 00 1.3 

5 (lavs 12 43 1.00 11.44 1.30 10 05 1.7 

.'">}davs 12 08 .97 .... 1.27 .... 1.3 

7 days 14.S7 .60 14 00 . 60 1.3.05 .2.6 

days 15.21 .34 15.10 ..^0 14 18 .2 

12 days 17.35 .82 18.32 1.21 17.40 1.2 

14 days 17.88 . 71 19.70 1.34 18.79 1.0 

l.^davs 18.57 .60 .... 1.01 .... 1.2 

18 days 19 76 .32 20.38 .43 

The differences are for periods of 24 hours 

We see that although the total amounts ab 
sorbed by these grains differ slightly, yet they 
seem to follow the same general law, e. , a 
gradual increase, at first very rapid and then 
slowly becoming less until about the 1.3th or 
14th day, when a sudden increase occurs. This 
is due to the development of mold'owing'to the 
great amount of moisture present. Nearly half 
the total increase occurs in the first 24 hours, 
and most of it in the first part of this time, as 
shown below. Difference between grains dur- 
ug the first 24 hours: 

8 hours. 15 hours. 24 hours. 14 days. 

Oils 3 80 1 20 2.79 10.1 

Barltv 3.62 2.02 1.46 12.7 

Wheat 3 26 .84 2.45 14.23 

In the second 24 hours scarcely anything was 
absorbed. This was probably due to a sudden 
change of temperature. 

Experiments were also made to determine 
the amount of water in the air-dry grains. 
They were exposed to a perfectly dry atmos- 
phere at 1 8'. The apparatus employed was a 
common sulphuric acid dessicator. The grains, 
especially the wheat, shrank very much and be- 
came hard and bony. The results were as fol- 
lows. The of differences as before refer 
to periods of 24 hours; I'ercentage of w.iter 
lost by air dry grain exposed to abscdutely dry 
atmosphere at 18' C. : 

d'ye. 5.67 

11 d'y8.8.53 

12 d'ys.8.69 
18 d'y8.9.32 

1 45} 
1 221 
.86 [ 







2 00 I 
1.39 (" 
.8 ) 
.35 I 
.24 ) 
.20 i 

.21 r 




.12 f 


.10 i 











5 51 

2.00 ) 
1.07 ) 

.46 r 

.35 ) 
.20 I 
.11 ) 
.07 \ 
.05 I 
.03 )" 
.28 ) 

There is a gradual decrease, more rapid at 
first, as seen by the column of differences. 
About half is lost in the first two days. 

According to the above determination, per- 
fectly dry graki, exposed to a saturated atmos- 
phere, will absorb the following amounts, at a 
temperature of 18' C. : 

O.its 20.08;/ 

Barley 28.17-, 

Wheat 25.02;; 

Wheat is thus seen to be less hygroscopic than 
oats or barley. Perhaps this is owing to the 
chaff of the latter. 

As the temperature of the interior of the 
State in summer is about 80 F. , the experiment 
of drying the wheat at this temperature was 
tried. The grain was placed in a flask, which 
was kept at a temperature of 30° C. , by means 

of a water bath, and dry air passed over. The 
results were as follows: 

Temper- Time of Percent, 

ature. exposure. lost. 

1S"C 18 day8=4.32 hrs. 6.23 

30' C SOhrs. 7.65 

This shows that an increase of temperature 
increases the amount of moisture lost and de- 
creases the time. According to Knop, wheat, 
dried at 120°, loses 14.6% of water. 

The air even in the interior is never fully 
saturated. According to Logan the average 
dew point of the Sacramento valley in summer 
is 50, the temperature being about 70° F. This 
shows that the air contains .'19.39% of moisture. 
The annual average dew point is 48, the tem- 
perature being 61° F. This corresponds to 52% 
of moisture. Experiments were made with air 
of this degree of situation. This was done by 
means of a solution of chloride of calcium. 
According to Gay Lussac the tension of aqueous 
vapor formed by a solution of chloride of calcium 
of the specific gravity 1.343 at 10° C, has a ten- 
sion of 50. 5, the tension of aqueous vapor in a 
saturated atmosphere being taken at 100. In 
other words the air above such a solution is half 
saturated. Since a solution at 180° (the tem- 
perature used) is less dense than at 10°, a cor- 
rection must be made. It was assumed to 
decrease in the same ratio as water, and, there- 
fore, a solution of specific gravity 1.3418 was 
employed. Wheat was placed over this and 
surrounded by filter paper as before. The 
amount absorbed by wheat dried at 30° C, from 
a saturated atmosphere and from a half satu- 
rated one, is shown below. 

Amount absorbed in 12 days, temperature -1- 
18° C: 

Above solution of Chloride of Calcium 3.40?;; 

" Water 22.9 % 

This result shows that half saturated air acts 
almost like dried air, and, therefore, that wheat 
from the .Sacramento valley may be considered 
as being almost absolutely dry, and hence 
capable of taking up 20% or more of moisture. 

We can now see what an important factor 
this absorption of moisture is in the case of 
grains. The great bulk of our wheat may be 
considered as dry during the summer, and on 
transportation to a damper climatemay possibly 
increase 25%, and again of 5% to 15% maybe 
looked for with almost absolute certainty. This 
is clear profit, and might just as well be appro- 
priated by our farmers as by the commission 
merchants or foreign dealers. 

Further experiments are necessary to deter- 
mine the amount of moisture in newly threshed 
grain, and the rapidity with which it is lost 
when stored in the field and warehouses during 
summer ; the effect of one-quarter, three- 
quarters or other intermediate degrees of satura- 
tion; the influence of large and small piles; and 
whether the difference of absorption of different 
grains is not due to the chaff. The determina- 
tion of these iioints and also the degree of 
saturation of the air of the warehouses of .S.m 
Francisco and large grain regions, will enable 
us to estimate the amount of moisture absorbed 
by the cereal grains very accurately. 

New American Industries. 

The recent rapid increase in American chem- 
ical manufactures — in many cases from native 
crude materials — is a very encouraging feature 
of American trade. The Grocer notes that six 
years ago we imported from France cream of 
tartar to the extent of 9,000,000 pounds yearly; 
but so successful has the manufacture of it in 

this country been carried on, that last year not a 
single pound was imported. Notwithstanding 
the crude materials have at present to be 
imported, the price of the manufactured article 
has been reduced from 32 cents per pound, the 
rate for the French article, to 23 and 24 cents 
per pound for the American production. France 
and England formerly sent us annually 500,000 
pounds of tart.aric acid, while the importation 
for the last fiscal year was 183 pounds. Eng- 
land formerly n>onopolized our market for 
nitric acid to the extent of 2.50,000 pounds 
anuuall}', at the rate of $1.30 per pound, while 
last year 27,018 pounds were imported and 
sold at the same price as the American article — 
)7 cents per pound. At present the lime juice 
from which citric acid is made has to be im- 
])orted, but it could easily be produced from 
fruits grown in Florida, if only sufficient energy 
were put into the work. If the lemon and 
lime growers of the South can bo induced to 
prepare the lime juice, the entire production 
•and manufacture of citric acid will be kept in 
this country, saving hundreds of thousands of 
dollars annu.illy, and developing another great 
industry. Borax was formerly brought from 
England at the rate of from 600,000 to 1,000,. 
000 pounds per year. Owing to the develop- 
ment of borax mines in Nevada, this importa- 
tion has largely fallen off, and the report for 
the last fiscal year showed only 3,492 pounds, 
and the price of the refiued article, which is 
now prepared in New York city, is only from 
8 to 9 cents per pound, when formerly it was 
35 cents, England being now among the buyers 
instead of the principal seller, as she once was, 
both of the crude and refined product. — Manu- 
facturer and Builder, 

SiXTV-THREE years of age is said to be the 
grand climacteric or turn of life, a critical period 
for masculine humanity, more men dying at 
-that age, or near it, than at any other, leaving 
accidents and violent deaths aside. A like criti- 
cal period for feminine humanity is 47 years. 

American & Foreign Patent Agents, 

OFFICE, 202 S.VNSOME St., N.E.Cor. Pins, S. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent Reissues taken out 
Assignments made and recorded in legal form; 
Copies of Patents and Assignments procured; 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; Examinations made of Assign- 
ments recorded in Washington; Examinations 
ordered and reported by Telegraph; Rejected 
cases taken up and Patents obtained; Inter); 
ferences Prosecuted; Opinions rendered re" 
garding the validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Patent 
Agency Business promptly and thoroughly 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inven- 
tions of this coast, and long practice in patent 
business, enable us to abundantly satisfy our 
patrons; and our success and business are 
constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secure, 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Baden, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, .Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Denmark, 
Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemburg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Granada, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
where Patents are obtainable. 
No models are required in European countries, 
but the drawings and specifications should be 
prepared with thoroughness, by able persons 
who are familiar with the requirements and 
changes of foreign patent laws — agents who 
are reliable and permanently established. 
Our schedule price for obtaining foreign patents, 
in all cases, wiU always be as low, and in 
some instances lower, than those of any other 
responsible agency. 
We can and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six mouths 
(according to the location of the country) 
SOONER than any other agents. 
The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, and have full records, of all fonner 
cases, and can more correctly judge of the 
value and patentability of inventions discov- 
ered here than any other agents. 
Situated so remote from the seat of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may be 
lost by extra time consumed in transmitting 
specifications from Eastern agencies back to 
this coast for the signature of the inventor. 


We take great pains to preserve secrecy in 
all confidential matters, and applicants for 
patents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free. 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are fretjuently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing to them the same 
thing already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applicants 
which will interfere with their obtaiuing a 

We invite the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected ^vith inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short call 
at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by indi\-idual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not only lost their money, but 
their inventions also, fron/ this cause and con- 
sequent delay. We hold ourselves responsible 
for all fees entrusted to our agency. 


W% have superior artists in our own oflice, and 
all facilities for producing fine and satisfactory 
illustrations of inventions and machinery, for 
newspaper, book, circular and other printed il- 
lustrations, and are always ready to assist 
patrons in bringing their valuable discoveriea 
into practical and profitable use. 


United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and .Scientific Press and the 
Pacific Rural Press, 202 S*naome iSt, M K, 
oomer Pine, S. F. 

July 5. 1879O 


PuRcnASEas of Stock will find in this Directory the 
Names of some of the Most Keliable Breeders. 

Oi'R Rates. — Six lines or iess inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 


W. L. OVERHISBR, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
breeder of thoroujjhbred Durham Cattle, Spanish Mer- 
ino Sheep and Berkshire swine. The above for sale. 

PAGE BROTHERS, .323 Front street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 


E. W. WOOLSEY, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Importer and breeder of choice thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Sheep. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton,' Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 


WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importer 
and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Berkshire 
and Magie Poland -China Swine. 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
fowls. White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 

A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultiy. Send for Circular. 

ALBERT BURBANK, 43 California Market, S. 
F. Importers and Breeders of Thoroughbred PouRiy, 
Doff"S, etc. Kggs for hatching. Send for price list. 


ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal- 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure BerkGhireSwine- 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 

T. C. STARR, San Bernardino, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Berkshire and Poland-China Swine. Light Brahma and 
Black Cochin Chickens for sale. 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento. Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berksiiire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 


JOS. E. ENAS, Suiinyside, Napa, Cal. Breeds pure 
Italian Queen Bees. Imported Queens furnished. 

Grangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 


Authorized Capital - $2,500,000, 

In -25,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $405,000. 


President G. W. COLBY. 

Manager and Cashier, 

Secretary FRANK McMULLEN. 

The Bank wag opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pre- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
the best market ratea. 

Grangers' Co-operative Business Associa- 
tion, of Sacramento Valley. 

Location: K <Si 10th Sts., Sacramento, Cal 

CERIES, and sale of FRUITS. Desire the co-operation 
and trade of farmers in general Pay the highest market 
rates for all produce, and sell for the smullcst [irofit. Our 
orders are CASH on delivery. Goods shipped; marked C. 
O. D. W. H. HEVENER, Manager. 


— AND — 

Commission iLgent. 

310 Pine Street, Room 31, San Francisco. 

Special attention to Fire, Marine and Life Insurance 

Insurance placed in none but flrst-class Companies. 


Elegantly Fi^-nished, and with Gae and 
Hot and Cold Water in Every Room. 


At 1031 Market St., San Francisco. 



Incorporated 1876. Capital Stock, .350,000. C. P. Bailey, 
President and Manager. Manufacture all styles of Gloves, 
Robea, Mats and Whiplashes. Cash paid tor Goat Skins. 

Send for Circular. 

Lands for Sale and to Let. 

Temperance Colony. 

45.654 49-100 ACRES. 

Cheap and Desirable Homes. 

TERMS OF SALE— 25% cash, and the remainder in eight 
equal annual inetallments with interest at 10% per annum, or 
full paymeut and Deed immediately. 

Ricti Soil and Healtfiful Climate. 

Located in the Western part of Santa Barbara County, 
California, embracing 10,000 acres of the Finest Bean Land 
in the State; as high as 3,700 of Beai.s to the acre have 
been raised the present year, while 3,000 lbs. to the acre is not 
an imconimun yield. 


And Telegraphic Communication with all parts of the State. 
The Telegraph Stage Co.'s Coaches now run dailj', each 
way, directly through the towti of 


E. H. HEACOCK, President. 

IRVING P. HENNING, Secretary. 

November 6th, 1878. 

Farm For Sale. 

Yields an Income of $4,000 a Year. 

Price, $10,500. 

My Fann and Poultry Business yield 
over $4,000 a year. The place -110 acres 
— with orchard, vineyard and improve- 
ments, has cost me S) 5,000. The good 
will of the business is wortli fully 
S0,000. I will sell the business and 
farm for §10,500, half cash, or exchange 
^ for San Francisco property. It is a 
bargain such as is seldom offered. 

M. BYRE, Napa, Cal. 
Law Office in San Francisco, No. C3fi Clay St., Room 25. 

gWl am in Napa each Saturday and Sunday; other days 
in San Francisco. 

A Good Farm For Sale. 

The undersis^ictl offers for sale a Farm of 480 acres of 
fine loamy grain land in a hif^h state of cultivation, ^00 
acres beinar well fenced, with house, barn, outbuildings, 
water tank, house and windmill, orchard, vineyard and 
garden autticient for family use. The water is excellent. 
It is situated 1^ miles north of Arhuckle Station, on the 
Northern Kailway, in Colusa County. 


A Schoolhousc is adjoining this farm, and everything 
desirable for a 

Nice and Comfortable Home. 

Can be bought for part Cash and part Credit, (ir pay- 
ments in Installments to -suit purchasers. Address 

Arhuckle P. O. , Colusa Co. , Cal. 



Office, 276 First St., San Jose, Cal. 

Will buy and sell Land Warrants; Locate and Survey Pub- 
lic Ooveriunent Land, Pre-emption Homesteads, Soldier's 
and Sailor's Homesteads, Timber and Wood Lands, Desert 
Lands, Etc. 

For Sale in large or small tracts, on easy terms, in 
the best parts of the State. 


202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

LB & 8 R Good land that will raise a crop every 
n ft I I I year. Over 14,000 acres for sale in lots to 
U 1 « I I CI. mate healthy. No drouths, bad 

Bi I V U floods, nor malaria. Wood and water 
oi>iivcini-nl. U. S. Title, perfect. Send stamp for illus- 
trated circular, to EDWARD FRISBIE, Proprietor of 
Reading Ranch, Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 






Manufactured by the 

Rust Well Auger 


OF AI:lCO\, MO. 

AUvjEIIS and UitlLLS from best wrought 
iron and steel. Shafting is 2-inch gas pipe. 
Couplings are roiuid plugs fitted inside the 
pi))e. iJriiLs fitted for rope or pole. All 
tools ifmrranle(f, and sold for less money 
than can be got elsewhere. 

Send for Circular. O. RUST, Macon, Mo 


Homoeopathic Medicine Case. 

Containing 12 principal remedies, with directions for 
use. Also Veterinary cases and boolfs. Send for cat •.- 
logue. Address BOERICKE & TAPEL, 

Homoeopathic Phannacy, San Francisco. 





aro'wers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealers in 

Comprising the Most Complete Stock 

Prices Unusually Low. 
*,*"Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden ; 
will be sent frbb to all Customers. It contains in. 
structions on the culture of Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental 
Tree Seeds, Alfalfa, ete. 

419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 



Continually arriving, NEV/ and FRESH KENTUCKY 
VERNAL, MEZQUITE and other Grasses. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
SEED; together with al kinds of FRUIT, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 


Importer and Dealer in Seeds, 
425 WashlnR'ton Street, - San Franciscc 


Importers, Growers and dealers in Garden, Field and 
Flower Seeds, Dutch Bulbous Roots, Summer Flowering 
Bulbs and Garden Requisites of every description. Cata- 
logues mailed to all api)licanl'^. Address 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 34 Barclay Street, N. Y. 


F. A. MILLER & CO., Mission St 
opposite Woodward's Gardens. Send 
for Catalogue and Price List. 


Blackberry and Cranberry Plants, 

100.000 Plaiita of new varieties of BLACKBERRY Plants 
— the Early Cluster and Vina Seef.Uiiig, Missouri Mammoth 
and Detring Seedling, the earliest and the most productive 
of all, I will give satisfactory proof that these berries have 
realized §750 per acre. It paid nuire thau double the 
amount as the old late varieties. Price by mail, §2 per 
dozen. $8 per hundrt^d, and i^HO per thousand. Send for 
Catalogue. Cherry Cranberry jilants for $150 per acre, 
planted, not less than 10 acres in one order. We will sell to 
responsible parties, large orders on time, part cash. 

H. NYLAND, Bouldin Island, San Joa<iuiu Co., Cal 


We wish to open correspondence immediately with one 
or more enterprising parties in each township upon the 
Coast to 

Establish an Agency 

Of our valuable publications, among which are the '*Pic- 
torial History of the World," Stanley's 
Through the Dark Continent," "Chase's 
Improved Recipes." the Parmer's Account 
Book, and many others. Ministers, teachers, farmers 
and others will find this profitable. Ladies especially are 
successful. Address for full particulars, 


No. 721 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


J. Thompson. 


Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

ZZay, Craisa. and Feed. 

Also, Store and Sell on Commission at 
Reasonable Rates. 

receive prompt attention, and returns forwarded as soon 
as sales are mode. For further particulars address as 

1535 Mission St., San Francisco. 




Tlic New Non. Poison' ,18 Shecj) Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price, $2 per fta'lon For directions and testimouials, 
apply to FAULKNER, BELL <5j CO., 

Sole Agents, 430 California Street, S. F 



Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland. 

Constantly on hand and for sale, choice specimens 
of the following- varieties of I'owls; 

Dark and Light Brahmas. Buff 
White and Partridge Co- 
chins, White & Brown 

Leghorns, Dork- 
ings, Polish, Ham- 
burgs, Plymouth Rocks, 
Game and Sebright Ban- 
tams, Bronze Turkeys, Pekin, 
Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks. 

No Inferior Fowls Sold at any Price. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
aarFor further information send stamp for Illustrated 
P. O. Box 1918, San Francisco, Cal. 

Circular, to 


That Mrs. C. H. Sprag:ue, at the California Poultry 
Yards, at Woodland, Yolo County, keeps the choicest lot 
and the greatest and best variety of Thoroughbred Fowls 
of any one west of the llississippi river, and that one can 
get just what is wanted by sending orders to her. 

BARLOW J. SMITH, M. D., announces to his friends 
and former patrons that lie hag resumed hygienic medical 
practice at the Smithsonian Medical and Phrenological 
Institute, C35 California street. The institute provides all 
forms of Electro-Medical baths and Hygienic boarding. 
Terms reasonable. Phreno-Physiological examinations in 
regard to health free. During the past 30 years Dr. 
Smith has developed a System of Phreno- Physiology that 
shows the relations that exist between the brain and body 
and claims that the organs of the brain show the strength 
of the spine, heart, lungs, stomach, bowels, liver and kid- 
neys, also the reproductive organs, and the tendency of 
each and all to disease. The most powerful Eleetroized 
Magnet ever used in the treatment of nervous and chronic 
diseases is employed in this Health Institute. Mrs. Dr. 
Smith has charge of the Female Bathing Department. 
Phrenological examinations daily. 



Try one and you will Wear no other. 

Spring and Summer Styles, 

— AT — 

336 Kearny St., bet. Bush and Pine, 

— AND 

910 Market St., above Stockton. 

Send for Illustrated Spring St>le Catalogue. 

ST, DiiVID'S. 



715 Howard St., near Third, San Francisco. 

Tliifl Ilouee ia eflpecially dusignud aa a conifortnble homo for 
genik-men and !a<iics vis'tinif the cily from tliu interior. No 
daik rooms, (ias and running water in each room. The floora 
are covered M ithlmdy lirusscla caritet, and all of the furniture 
is made of Bolid blark walnut, Kach bed has a spring mat- 
tress, witli an additional hair toj) mattress, makiTig them the 
most luxuricms and healthy beds in the world. Ladies wish- 
ing to cook for tin niselvcs or families, are allowed the tree 
use of a largo piUdic kitchen aii<l dining room, with dishes. 
Servants wash the dishes and keep up a constant lire from 6 
I.. M. to 7 1*. M. Ho* and cold baths, a large ]>arlor and rcad- 
ng room, containing a<irand I'iano— all free to guests, rrice 
single rooms iier night, 50 cts.; per week, from $2.50 upwards 

R. HUGHES, Proprietor. 
At Market Street Ferry, take Omnibus line of street cajB 
to corner Tliird and Howard. 

ITew Dusters. 

D E A R B O r"n~ D U S T E R S , 

TakiUK the plnce of all Feather and other Dusters. Made 
in six sizes, retailed from 35 Cents to $1. The best, most 
durable Duster now known. Trade supplied. Address 

No. 12 California St , San Franeisco. 


Chromo, perfumed, Snowflake & Lace cards, name on all 
lOc. Game Authors, 15c. Ljniau &Co., CUutouvUle, Ct 



[July 5, 1879. 

Tt|E Stock 

Live Stock Premiums at the State Fair 
;.^ of 1879. 

The folipwing is the list of premiums offered 
£or live stjck by the State Agricultural Society 
the fair to be held in Sacramento, September 
^h to I3th. Competition open to all the world: 
Flrat Department-Live Stock. 
1^ tlie most meritorious exhibition in this department, 
thelSociety'fl gold medal. 


I dfnrtment the same animal cannot be entered 
, except in sweepstakes, or as a colt with 
as a member of a family. And any sire or 
ag in a race will be allowed to enter for a 
I llicir families. 
JJ" anlijj will be allowed to compete for a 'premium 
unless freeTrum disease or blemish which can be trans- 
mitted to posterity. 

In this clasx none will be permitted to compete but 
such as furnish a complete pedisree—tracing the entire 
jine of the descent to the English parent on the side of 
both sire and dam. The standard of authority for the 
pedigree of thoroughbred horses will be the English and 
American Stud Books. 


Best four years old and over S60 

Best three years old 40 

Host two years old 30 

Best one year old 25 

Beet colt under one year lA 


Best four years old and over, with colt JSC 

Best four years old and over 40 

Best three years old SO 

Best two two years old 20 

Best one year old IS 

Best mare colt under one year 10 


Best thoroughbred sire, with not less than five of his 

colts, all thoroughbred $100 

Best thoroughbred dam, with not less than two of her 

colts, all thoroughbred 50 

Best litallion, other than thoroughbred, with not less 

tlian five of his colts, open to all 70 

Best dam, other than thoroughbred, with not less 

than two of her colts 50 



Best four years old and over $40 

Best three years old 30 

Best two years old . 1 20 

Best one year old 15 

Best sucking colt . . . .gr: 10 


Best four years old and' over, with colt 840 

Best four years old and over. 
Best three ye:vrs old . . 

Best two years old 

Best one year old 

Best sucking colt 


Best four years old anifoV^FTV^ #40 

Best three years old. »> . ;". 30 

Best two year.s old .' 20 

Best one year old 15 


Best four years old and over, with colt $40 

Best four years old and over 35 

Best three years old 25 

Best two years old 20 

Best one year old 15 

All animals competing for a premium in this class must 
be exhibited in bamesg. 


Best four years old and over ^ $60 

Best three years old 40 

Best two years old 30 

Best gelding four years old and over 60 


Bast four years old and over $50 

Best-ttiree years old 40 

Best two years old SO 

Beat matched span carriage horses, owned and used 

aisueh by one person, silver goblet, worth $50 

Best double team roadsters, owned and used as such 

by one person, silver goblet, worth $50 


Best saddle horse, mare, or gelding $25 

Second best saddle horse, mare, or gelding 15 

Open to all. In the awards in this department blood 
will have the preference only when in the examination all 
o. her qualifications shall be found equal. Ten percent, 
entrance on sum of first and second premiums. 

Best stallion, Ist premium, silver pitcher, worth $150 

Second beststallion, 2d premium, silver pitcher, worth 50 

Best mare, Isl premium, silver pitcher, worth 150 

Second best mare, 2d premium, silver pitcher, worth 60 


Best four >ear8 old and over $40 

Best three years old 30 

Best two years old 20 


Best four years old and over $30 

Best three years old 20 

Best two years old 15 


Best span of mules of any age $25 




Best four years old and over J40 

Second best four years old and over 20 

Best three years old 40 

Second best three years old 20 

Best two years old ,', 40 

Second best two years old 20 

Best one year old 30 

Second best one year old 15 

Best bull calf 20 

Second best bull calf '. '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 


Best four years old and over J50 

BMt cow and her calf (calf under one year). . , . . . 60 

Second best four years old and over 26 

Best three years old 50 Best buck, first premium $40 

Second best three years old 25 Second best buck, second premium 20 

Best two years old 30 

Second best two years old 15 

Best one 3'ear old 20 

Second best one year old 10 

Best heifer calf 20 

Second best heifer calf 10 




Best four years old and over $40 

Second best four years old and over 20 

Best three years old 40 

hccond best three years old 20 

Best two years old 40 

Second best two years old 20 

T^est one year old ^ 30 

Second best one year old 15 

Best bull calf 20 

Second best bull calf 10 

Best cow and her calf (calf under one year) $50 

Best four years old and over 50 

Second best four years old and over. 25 

Best three years old 60 

Second best three years old 2.1 

Best two years old 30 

Second best two years old 1 

Best one year old 2 

Second best one j'car old 10 

Best heifer calf 20 

Second best heifer calf 10 



Best three years old and over $40 

Second best three years old 20 

Best two years old 40 

Second best two years old 20 

Best one year old ,fO 

Second best one year old 1 15 

Btst bull calf 20 


Best cow and her calf (calf under one year). $50 

Best three years old and over 60 

Best two years old 80 

Best one year old 20 

Best heifer calf 20 

H<'st herd of thoroughbred cattle, over two years old, 
to consist of one male and four females, owned 

by one person, silver pitcher, worth 100 

Second best herd, silver pitcher, worth 50 

Best herd of thoroughbred cattle, under two years, 
to consist of one male and four females, owned 

by one person 00 

Best bull and tliree of his calves, under one year old, 

silver pitcher, worth 00 

All thoroughbred cattle, in herds, to be included in this 

When there is no competition, but one premium will be 


Best four years old and over $40 

Best three years old 2r 

Best two years old 20 

Best one year old 15 

Best heifer calf 1 

Best milch cow, to be milked on the ground, four 

milkings, and the milk weighed 30 


(No entrance tee in this class). 
Best bull of any age or breed, silver pitcher, worth . . $75 

Second best, silver pitcher, worth 

Best cow of any age or breed, silver pitcher, worth. . 75 

Second best, silver pitcher, worth 25 

Best bull and three of his calves, under one year old, 

silver pitcher, worth 100 

Best yoke of oxen 20 

All cattle competing for premiums must be entered by 
their names. 


No sheep will be admitted to the grounds unless free 
from disease. 


Best ram two years old and over $30.00 

Second best ram two years old and over 15.00 

Best ram one year old and under two 22 50 

Second best ram one year old and under two 7 50 

Best three ram lambs 22.50 

Second best three ram lambs 7.50 

Best pen, not less than five ewes, two years old and 

over 22..'iO 

Second best pen, not less than five ewes, two years 

old and over 15 00 

Best pen, not less than five ewes, one year old and 

under two 22.50 

Second best pen, not less than five ewes, one year 

old and under two 15.00 

Best pen, not less than five ewe lambs 22.50 

Second best pen, not less than five ewe lambs 15.00 

Best ram and five of his lambs 30.00 

.Second best ram and five of his lambs 15.00 

(Same premium as in Class I.) 


(Same premiums as in CUss I.) 

Cross between thoroughbreds and any other breed of 

Best pen of not less than five ewes, two years old 

and over $15.00 

Best pen of not Ices than five ewes, one year old 

and under two 10 00 

Best five ewe lambs 10 00 

Entrance fee of ten per cent, on sum of first and second 

Best ram of any age or any breed, and five of his 

lambs, first premium $76.00 

Second best ram of any age or breed, and five of 

his lambs, second premium 37.60 

All the sheep competing for the above premiums must 
have been shorn the preceding spring. 



Best buck two years old and over $35 

Second best buck two years old and over 20 

Best buck under two years 80 

Second best buck under two years 20 

Best pen of not less than three does, two yean old 

and over 36 

Second best pen of not less than three docs, two years 

old and over 20 

Best pen of not less than three does under two years . 30 
Second best pen of not less than three does under 

two years 15 


Best pen of not less than three does two years old 

and over $20 

Best pen of not lesethan three does undertwo years. . 18 


Entrance fee of ten per cent, on sum of first and second 

Best doe, firnt premium 20 

Second best doe, second premium 15 

Best pen, not less than ten kids, first premium 30 

Second best pen, not less than ten kids, 2d premium. 1, 
Premiums will be paid in plate, if preferrc<l. 

Tlie Judget will give heed to pedigree an<laoki.owledg«d 
points and characteristics of brce<l. 


In this class the Judges will give attention to the points 
of thoroughbred Berkshire stock as laid down in the 
Berkshire Herd Book. 

Best boar two years old and over $30 

Best boar under two years old 20 

Best boar six months and under one year J6 

Best breeding sow. 30 

Best sow six months and under one year 15 

Best pair of pigsundcr ten inontlis 30 

(Same premiums as Berkshire.) 
(Same premiums as Berkshire.) 
Ten per cent, entrance fee on sum of first and second 

Best boar of any age or breed $50 

Best sow of any age or breetl .50 

Best pen of six pigs of any age or breed 30 

Best family, all of the same breed, consisting of one 
boar, two sows, and six pigs, of any age 50 


Best trio Brahmas (light or dark) $5 

Best trio Cochins (buff, jiartridge, white or black) 6 

Best trio Games (any variety) 5 

Best trio Haniburgs (golden or silver spangles, golden 

or silver penciled, white or black) 5 

Best trio Leghorns (white, brown, dominique or black) 5 

Best trio Black Spanish 5 

Best trio Dorkings (white, silver gray or colored 5 

Best tiio Dominiques 5 

Best trio Ph mouth Rocks . 5 

Best trio Polish (black, golden, silver or white) & 

Best trio French Fowls (Houdan, Crevecoeur, or La 

FIcche) 5 

Best trio Game B'.iiitains (any variety) 5 

Best trio Seabright Bantams (golden or silver) 5 

Best trio White Bantams 5 

Best trio Black Bantams 5 

Best pair turkeys (any distinct variety) 10 

Beet pair ducks (Rouen, Aylesbury, Pekin'or Cayuga). 5 

Best pair geese (Toulouse, Bremen or China) 5 

Best display of fowls1)y one exhibitor 15 

All fowls will be judged according to the American 
standard of excellence. 

Every new subscriber who does not receive 
the paper, and every old subscriber not credited 
on the label, within two weeks after paying for 
this paper, should write personally to the pub- 
lishers without delay, to secure proper credit. 
This is necessary to protect ourselves and sub- 
scribers against the acts and mistakes of others. 

Note. — Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 

Bool£S on Agrriculture, Etc. 

The following among other hooks will be sent post-paid on 
receipt of publishcrii' prices, annexed: — Tobacco, its culture, 
manufacture and use, 500 pjigca. .Sii.SO;— The Patrons of Hus- 
bandry. 500 paces, $3 75; -The Women of the Bible. 77 en- 
gravings. $4;— Wells' F.very Man His Own Lawyer. 612 pages, 
$'.'.75;— American Husbanth-y, 2 vol.. ¥1. 50;— Cray's Agricul- 
tural Essays. 81;-I.augBtrotli's Honey Bee. S1.50;— Ramlall's 
Sheep Husbandry, si;— Vouatt's Sheep. 25:— Agricultural 
Engineering', $1.50;— New B<*e-Keeper8' 'fext B(M»k, $1;— Pa- 
cific Rural HanrtbiKik. .<!;— Ropp's Easy Calculator. $1;-U. 
.S Land Law. 50 Cts. ;- Woodward's (Jraperies. Etc., .«1;- 
iSugar from Melons, 25 Ct.s,;—Strawh rry Culture, 50 ('ts.: — 
Layrcs' Belles Lettres, f'l;— Holt's Ma|i of California and Ne- 
vada, to snbscrlliers, .*fl;~Back Vohnnes Pacific" Rural 
Press (bound! >!5; unl*ound, $3;- Picturesque Arizona. $2. 
Address DEWKY i CO., Publishers, 202 Sansoiue St., S. F. 

The Pacific Coast has such a v aried climate it would be 
hopeless to expect any one to write a horticultural and 
floral handbook that would bo exactly suitable for each 
particular lorality. Mr. Shinn has come as nearly accom- 
plishing this, however, as is possible within the limits of 
such a small volume. He has a remarkably graceful and 
pleaflant way of presenting what, in the hands of another, 
would be only a dry statement of facts. There is a deli- 
cious vein of humor permeating the pages of his little vol- 
ume. It crops out In the most unexpected places and In 
the most unexpected manner. There are few books of a 
practical nature wliich we have read with as much pleas- 
ure as this little handbook. To the amateur in horticul- 
ture, floriculture and kindred diversions it will be of 
especial interest and service. Sir. Shinn, who is a practi- 
cal gardener, has written of what he knows, and conse- 
quently writes with authority. He tells you how to lay 
out an orchard or a flower garden, how and when to sow 
your seeds and plant your shrubs and trees and insure 
success. His book contains 15 essays on life and 
occupations, anil n table of desirable plants for the garden, 
the field, the forest and the orchard. It is a book that we 
can heartily recommend to all persons engaged or inter- 
ested in rural pursuits. — Lulktiti. 

The "Pacific Rural Handbook," written by Chas. H. 
Shinn for the publishers of the Pacific Rural Press, 
will be sent, post-paid, in substantial cloth binding for $1; 
in full leather, $1.50; in cloth, interleaved with fine ruled 
paper for memoranda, $1.50. Address 

No. 202 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, July 1st, 1879. 
The Wheat market shows some signs of Improvement, 
owing to the disastrous reports C'lnccrning the English 
crop, and the advancing tendency in the cable rate. 
Range of Cable Pilces of Wheat. 
Tlie course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been as 
recorded in the following table : 

Fresh attractions are constantly added to 'Wood- 
weird'3 Oardens, amonif which is Prof. Oruber'B great 
educator, the Zoographicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Pavilion performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder- 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 

SErxLERS and others wishing good fanning lands for 
sure cropst arc referred to Mr. Edward Frisbie, of Ander 
son, Shasta County, Cal., who has some 16,000 acres for 
sale in the Upper Sacramento valley. His advertisement 
appears from time to time in this paper. 

How to Stop this Paper. —It is not a herculean task to 
stop this paper. Notify the publishers by letlgr. If it 
comes beyond the time desired, you can depend upon it 
we do not know that the subscriber wants it stopped. So 
be sure and send us notice by Utter. 

Send to the Great Music House of Kohler & Chase for 
anything in the music line. 137 and 139 Post street, S. F 

For information in music matters send a postal to 
Kohler & Chase. 

Cal. Avbraok. 




Rd@ 9s 3d 


2dia 98 



fld(S 93 3d 


2d@ 9s 




OdW fls 3d 


2d(d 98 


Monday. . . . 


0d<*-9e .3d 


2d^ 9a 




fid@ 98 3d 


2d# 98 


Wednesday . 

To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare wiih same date in former years as follows : 
Average. Club. 

1577 lis lld(gl28 2d 12s 3d@12s 8d 

1878 10» — @10d 6« 108 4d@l0e 8d 

1^9 88 9b 3d 9s 2d@ 98 Od 

The Forelgm Review. 
London. July 1.— The Mark Lane JSzorenn in a re- 
view of the British Corn trade, for the oast week, says: 
Wheat is running to Straw and coming into ear very slow. 
All low-lying lands have suffered grievously lately. Large 
tracts were submerged. Sprinif Com is sickly aiid weak. 
In short, the situation is becoming serious, as, should 
storms occur later, there is every probability of the cereal 
cro|>s being irretrievably ruined. Bright sunshine and a 
rising barometer, to-day, seem, however, to foretell a 
more seasonable s|X'll, although the improvement in con- 
sequence of the inclemency of the weather is, so far, more 
apparent in the provinces than in London. The api>ear- 
ance is now that farmers' reserves of home-grown Wheat 
are becoming sensibly reduced, decidedly in favor of a 
material a^lvance. As yet, only a shilling per quarter 
advance is only occasionally obtainable. Arrivals of 
foreign Wheat at Liverpool and London have lately 
been very large. Last week's arrivals at Liver- 
pool amounted to 92,000 quarters. Millers bought 
sparingly, but there was no quotable decline. Con- 
sidering the consumptive requirements of the country, 
the demand for foreign Wheat during the last few months 
has fallen short of anticipations, probably in consequence 
of large shipments of American flour. Maize has been 
arriving very freely, and has fallen considerably. On the 
spot, mixed .\merican has been obtainable ex-ship at 208 
Od to 208 yd per 4S0 pounds. June and July shipments 
have been offered at Ifts Od. Barley and Oats were not 
much changed, but business was moderate. Arrivals at 
ports of call have been inadequate. There was a quiet 
ilemand for cargoes of Wheat off coast for the Vnited 
Kingdom and the Continent, at steady prices. A good 
many cargoes of White Wheat were withdrawn. 'The 
demand for Maize was restricted, and prices declined 
0(rt9d per (juarter Wheat for forward delivery, in spite 
of the greater disposition of sellers to meet buyers' views, 
has been active. Maize declined Od. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 
New York, June 28.— The general markets have been 
less active, yet the quantity of leading manufactures and 
general merchandise pa-ssing into consumption is in excess 
of the average at this sea.son. Flour is quiet, steady. 
Wheat is firmer, steady. Pork is quiet, iinclianged. Ijuil 
is steady, quiet. 

C'HicAoo, June 2S. — The Wheat market during the past 
week has been fairly active, and a stronger feeling was de- 
veloped at the close to-day, due almost wholly tu local 
S|ieculative influences. 'The New York market was 
stronger, and Liverpotil was quoted firm, but the advanc- 
ing tendency here was attributed mainly to a good demand 
from "short*," who were anxious to cover outstanding 
contracts. Receipts show a steady increase, country thtp- 
pers eviilently wishing to take adx'antage of the current 
high figures and premium now existing over July prices. 
No. 2 Shipping Wheat was in good demand at$l. 07 to-day, 
and closed steady. July sold up to 9Sc, but declined aiid 
closed at »7ic. bid August closed at 91 jc, and September 
at 89^o. In the Com market there has been a fair de- 
mand, with a firm feeling and prices averaging a trifle 
liiL'her. Receipts have been large and shipments mode- 
rate. Prices to-day were »'KS;JOic for gilt edge and regu- 
lar, and 30i@36Jc for June. July sold at SO^c, and clo»ed 
at 30Jc. September closed at 37jc. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, June 28. —Wool is In steady demand. At 
Boston the market is Irss active, although transactions are 
still quite large. The demand for California has been bet- 
ter than last week; sales comprising 50,000 lbs Fall at lOc; 
441,500 Itis Spring at 17(ii35c, principally 2.')CS32Jc, hut In- 
cluding a lot of very choice at 35c. the highest price ever 
paid for California. 

Boston, June 28 — Wool has been in steady demand du- 
ring the past week, and sales were very large; but the 
market was free from excitement, and prices appear set- 
tled on current rates fi>r some weeks past. It is noticeable 
that notwithstanding considerable flne fleeces have been 
received, there has not been enourh doing to make quota- 
tions. Some lots sold for future delivery, but the market 
is nominally 33@39c for X Ohio; 39(^40c lor XX; and 40@ 
41c for medium and No. I, Both buyers and sellers ap- 
pear indifferent about operating at present in fine Wools. 
There is quite an active demanil for combing and delaine 
fleeces. Sales of Ohio, Pennsylvania and Vii-ginia X, XX, 
and No. 1, 37jc(a41c; X and niediuni Michigan, 37iig39c; 
Wisconsin, New Hampshire and Illinois, 3U'24Ic; delaine 
and combing, 38(rt44c; unwashed combing, 29c; Kentucky 
combing, 34Jc; unwashed fieeces. 2*2^32c; Missouri, 21(£f 
27c; Texas, •27JcSWc; Georgia, 35(g35Jc; Lake, 25<830c. 

New York Dried Fruit Markets. 

Foreign Emits of all descriptions arc ruling very Ann, 
but not moving very freely. Raisins, layers, $1.35(^1.40; 
loose Muscatel, $1.45<aH.50; extra do, $1 mai 70; London 
layers, $1.75(81 85. Turkish Prunes are excited under 
cable advices that prices had advanc*ed at Pesth, and that 
there was no stock fit for shipment at Trieste. Sales at 
43(a5c, flrai. Currants, 3S(rf4c. Spices steady on most 

Receipts of Domestic Produce. 

The following table shows the San Francisco receipts 
of Domestic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day 
as compared with the receipts of previous weeks ; 


Ladies! Order E. Bvtterice & Co.'s celebrated pat- 
terns. See adv. 

Flour, quarter sacks. 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals. 

Beans, sacks. 

Corn, centals 

Oats, centals. 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

Hay, bales. 





June 11. 

June 18. 

J^e 25. 

July 1. 











































BA03— The Jobbing rate tor Grain Sacks Is uncbangcd 

July 5. 1879 ] 



at 9@9ic; wholesale lots at 83@9c. Dealers report the 
traKie for actual consumption now opening briskly. 

BARLEY — Sales are few but prices are unchanged, and 
the market is steady. 

BEANS— Our list shows slif;ht declines in several sorts. 
There are now a few Limas in, which are offered at 6c per 

CORN— The trade is in small amounts, and prices are 

DAIRY PRODUCE— The situation is still unfavorable, 
and prices are held at the low ebb which has now too 
lonsr prevailed. 

EGGS— The Egg market is held down by the mass of 
Eastern Eggs which are brought over the rails. Fresh 
choice California Eggs are in limited supply, but are pre- 
vented from good values by the use of the inferior where- 
ever inferiority can be disguised. 

FEED— There is no change in the best of Ground Feeds. 
The Hay market is lifeless with a reduction of 50e forced 
on the choicest Wheat. 

FRUIT — Our Fruit table shows the abu idance which is 
now being spread before purchasers. The true Tahiti 
Oranges are now in and sell well up to prices for Califor- 
nia grown. 

FRESH MEAT— Fresh Meats are unchanged except an 
advance of Jo on live Hogs. The supply of all kinds of 
Meat is ample. 

HOPS— A dispatch from New York, June 30th, says: 
Hops are held for higher prices ; 16c is paid for a choice 
article. California is held at 9@13c. Emmet Wells' cir- 
cular for the.week ending .June 20th, says: The market this 
week has been fairly active, the demand coming chiefly 
from brewers. Prices are without any alteration, though 
choice Hops show a good deal of firmness. The reports 
from the Hop aistricts indicate a very backward condition 
of the vine ; the weather keeps unseasonably cool, thereby 
checking its growth ; this, added to the indifference 
shown by growers in the care and cultivation of their 
grounds, render early prospects unfavorable to a large 
yield. The Hop news gathered thus far from our ex- 
changes, point to a considerably smaller crop than last 

OATS— Oats have experienced a severe setback during 
the week, and the ruling rate is reduced about 15c per 
ctl. We note sales : 427 sks choice Humboldt Milling at 
$1.45, and 200 sks choice Oregon do, .$1.42^ per ctl. 

ONIONS— Som<» choice Silverskins now arriving en joy 
a distinction over the Reds. Prices are somewhat mixed; 
thus Reds are quoted at 50c a sack to 60c per ctl. Silver- 
ekins 75c per ctl. We notice tliat considerable quantities 
are being boxed for shipping. 

POTATOES— Potatoes are still below digging and trans' 
portation expenses, and yet still they come. Severe 
strokes of blight are reported from some of the largest 
growing regions. 

PROVISIONS— The demand for Meat is stronger, but 
prices are unchanged except on Eastern Hams, which are 
higher and likely to still further advance, as prices at 
packing points are relatively higher than in this market. 

POULTRY AND GAME There is a slightly improved 
disposition, and some lots are sold a little above quota- 
tiens, but the situation is not pronounced enough to war- 
rant a change in rates this week. 

VEGETABLES -Our list shows only a few slight 
changes from last week's rates. 

WHE.\T— The advance so far is conflned to No. 2 
Shipping Wheat, and trade is slow and uncertain. We 
note sales: 2,700 sks choice Milling at $1.67 J, and 60 tons 
choice Shipping at $1.65 ^ ctl. 

WOOL — We hear of no sales of any amount tiiis week. 
Prices are retained about as before. 


f WH0LB8ALB. 1 

Tuesday m., July 1, 1879. 


Apples, hsk — 15 (g- 

ApricotB. box — — 50 @ — 
Bananas, bnoh.. 2 00 @ 4 
Blackb'ries,ch'st 8 00 @10 
Cherries, ch'efc. . . 8 00 ^12 
Cherry Plums. . . - 75 (S 2 

Citrons, Cal.. 100 (rt— 

Cocoanuts. 100.. 10 00 (812 
Currants, chest.. >i 50 (a) 7 

Figs, box — 35 @ 1 

Goosebemes. . . .— 4 (it— 

Limes. Mei 8 00 (§12 

do, Cal, box. . . 4 00 (ffi 5 
Lemons. Cal M.IO 00 (fclb 
Sicily, box .... 7 00 @ 8 
Oranges, Cal, M.15 00 (a20 
do. small. . 4 00 (t 8 
do. Tahiti. 18 00 (420 

Peaches, box — 25 @ 1 

do, bsk....— 75 w 1 

Pears, bi - 75 (g 1 

Pineapples, doz. 4 00 (S 6 

Plums, box. — 50 (3 1 

Quinces — — @— 

Raapb'rien, ch'at. 5 00 (* 7 
at'wberries. ch'at 6 00 ffllO 

Apples, sliced, lb 4 @ 
do, quartered. 2 

ApHcota 15 @— 

Blackberries.... 12m 

Citron 23 @ 

Dates 9 @ 

Wiga, Blaok 3 @ 

6 O 8 

7 @ 8 
18 @— 20 

8 O 10 
3 (a 

12i(S- 14 



do pared . 





f^aisms, Oal, bx 1 50 @ 1 75 
do. Halves... 2 00 @ 2 25 
do. Quarters. . 2 25 (<* 2 50 
Malaga 2 75 @ 3 00 

Zante Currants. . 8 (a 10 

Asparagus, b^^x.. 50 1 50 

Beeta. ctl - 

Beans, String. . .- 

Cabbage, 100 Iba 

Carrots, ctl 30 @— 40 

Cauliflower, doz 

Chiltt Peppers. Ib.- 

Cucumbera. doz . - 

Egg Plants, 

Garlio. New. lb. .■ 

Green Com - 

Green Peas, lb . .- 

Lettuce, doz 

Parsnips, lb 


Rhub}ir)>, U} 

S(iuash, Marrow 

fat. tn @30 00 

Snjumer, box.. — 25 ((^— 75 

Tomato, box....— 25 («— 40 

Xumips, ctl — 40 @— 50 

White @— 60 



Eng Standard Wheat. 9 9} 
California Manufacture. 
Hand Bewed. 22x36.. 9 @ 9! 

24x36 -(Silt 

22x40 lOjaiOJ 

23x40 llJ5»lli 

24x40 12J@12i 

Machine Swd, 22x36. gjrd 9} 
Flour Sacks, halves... . 8 <§10i 
Quarters 5 @ 6^, 


Tuesday m., July 1, 1879 

Eighths 3}@ 4 

Hessian, 60 Inch 12 ^il4 

45 inch 8 @ 9J 

40 inch 7m 8i 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed, 3J lb.. 44 @45 

4 lb do 47J®52 

Machine Sewed 45 

Standard Gunnies.... 13 @14 
Bean Bags 7^7?. 

Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

(Corrected Weekly by Sotro & Co.] 

. . „ „ San Fkanoisoo, July 1, 3 p. m. 

Silver. 374@12S. 

Gold Bars, 890@910. Silvtsb Bars, 8@19 ^ cent dia 

.„?^9.'^*'""' YoTk, 20, on London banters, 49}® 

49* Comnoeroial, 60; Paris, five franoa » dollar; Mexican 
dollars, 92@95J. 

London Oouaola, 97 7-16; Bonds (4%) 104i. 

QuioKsiLTiR la 8. v.. by the flMk.'* lb, 33io. 


f WHOLR8A1.1!. 1 

Tuesday m., July 1, 1379. 



uayo, otl 1 10 @1 25 

Butter 1 75 m 09 

Castor 3 00 @3 50 

Pea - @2 00 

Red 1 20 @1 30 

Pink 1 00 @l 05 

Sm'l White 2 20 -92 40 

Lima 6 00 C*6 75 

Field Peas 1 25 @1 50 


Southern 2 @ 21 

Northern 3@ 4 


Callforma 4 @ il 

German 6^® 7 



Cal. Fresh Boll, lb 15 ® 18 

Fancy Brands — @ 20 

Pickle Roll 19 @ 22 

Firkin, new 17 @ 20 

Western 12J@ 15 

New York — @ — 


Chees6,Cal.,old, lb 7 @ 

do, new 7 


N. Y. State 12 @ 15i 


Cal. freah, doz. ... 21 @ 22^ 

Ducks' — @ 20 

Oregon — @ — 

Eastern 17 @ 18 

Pickled here — @ — 


Bran, ton W14 00 

Cora Meal 20 00 iff2l 00 

Hay @12 50 

Middlings ^18 00 

Oil Cake Meal. ..32 00 @ 

Straw, bale 40 @ 60 


Extra, bbl 5 00 (cbi 50 

Superfine 4 00 ,«4 62J 

Graham, lb 21@ 3 

Beef, 1st qual'y, lb 5 @ 5J 

Second 35@ 4 

Third 3 @ 34 

Mutton 25@ 3i 

Spring Lamb 4 @ 6 

Pork, undressed... 3gC^ 4j 

Dressed 5i@ 5; 

Veal 6 @ 6; 

Milk Calves 5 5i 

do choice. . . 6 @ 6j 
Bariey, feed, ctl... 65 @ 80 

Brewing 85 ® 95 

ChevaUer 1 75 ®1 90 

Buckwheat 1 25 @1 35 

Com. White 775(3 82) 

Yellow 80 85 

Small Round.... 85J@ 87* 

Oats 1 00 -ai 50 

MUling 1 30 <a>l 50 

Rve 80 0: 90 

Wheat, No. 1 1 67i.a'l 70 

do, No 2 1 60 ml 65 

do, No. 3 1 35 @i 40 

= 1 - 

@i m 


Choice Milling 


Hides, dry 16 @ 

Wet salted 7 J® 


Beeswax, lb 20 @ 

Honey in comb. ... 5 (<* 

do. No 2 7 @ 

Dark 5 b 

Strained 4i@ 6 


Oregon @ 

California 4 @ 8 

Wash. Ter 4 @ 8 

Old Hops 3 @ 5 


WaUiuts, Cal 8 (a 9 

do Chile BJ® 8 

Almonds, hd shl lb 7 (a 

Softsh'l 16 (a 

BrazU 12 J@ 

Pecans 125 

Peanuts i & 6 

Filberts 15 @ 16 


Alviso — @ — 

Union City, ctl.... — @ — 

iSan Leandjo — @ — 

Stockton — @ — 

Sacramento River. — O — 
Salt Lake 
Oregon.. . 

New Onions 60 @ 

Red, sk — p 50 

White, ctl - (a 75 


Petaluma, ctl — @ — 

Humboldt — 3 — 

Cufley Cove — (g — 

Early Rose, sk . . . . 25 .5 35 
Half M'n Bay, new 25 & 35 

Kidney — ^ — 

Sweet — ^ — 


Hens, doz 5 O'J® 7 00 

Roosters 5 00((* 8 00 

Broilers 2 50@ 4 60 

Ducks, tame, doz.. 4 50@ 6 00 

Geese, pair 1 25® 1 75 

Wild Gray, doz.. -(S — 

White do —A — 

Turkeys 16 @— 20 

do. Dressed 16 @— 20 

Snipe Eng - (g 1 50 

do, Common.... 50 @ 75 

Quail, doz — @ — 

Rabbits — ®— 50 

Hare 1 25 @ 1 50 

Cal. Bacon, H' 85@ 

Medium 9 (a 

Light 10 @ 

Lard 8S@ 

Cal. Smoked Beef 8 (g 
Shoulders, Cover'd 65@ 

Hams, Cal 9i@ 

Dupee's 13 ® 

None Such 13 @ 

Boyd's i3i@ 

Whittaker 12 J@ 

Royal IsRa 


Clough's 13 


Alfalfa, 5 @ 

Canary 4i(a 

Clover, Red 15 @ 

White 50 @ 

Cotton 6 @ 

Flaxseed 2i(ffl 

Hemp 8 @ 

Italian Rye Grass 35 ® 

Perennial 35 @ 

Millet 10 @ 

■Mustard, White... 5 @ 

Brovra li® 

Rape 3 ® 

Kj Blue Grass 17 # 

2d quality 16 @ 

Sweet V Grass.... 1 00 & 

Orchard 20 @ 

Red Top 13 @ 

Hungarian 8 @ 

Lawn 30 @ 

Mesquit — @ 

Timothy 7 @ 



; (a 14 

Oi Crude, lb 6 

Refined 7i @ 8 



San Joaquin and S. Coast. 

Burry 12 @ 13i 

Free (dusty) 14 @ 16 

Free (choice) 15 @ 20 


9 I Free 22 (a 271 

8 ' Burry 18 O 22 

8 Oregon. Eastern ... 19 (a 21 

18 do. Valley 23 @ 26 




Tuesday m., July 1, 1879. 


Crystal Wax 17 @— 

Eagle..: 12 @— 

Patent Sperm 30@— 

Assorted Pie Fruits, 

2J lb cans 2 00 @ — 

Table do 3 00 @ — 

Jams and Jellies. .3 50 (a — 

Pickles, hf gal 3 15 (g — 

SarcUnes, qr box..l 67J@1 90 

Hf Boxes 2 50 (82 75 

Preserved Beef, 

2 lb, doz 4 00 (a - 

doBeef, 4tb,doz.6 50 @ — 
Preserved Mutton, 

2 lb. doz 4 00 @ — 

Beef Tongue 6 50 @ — 

Preserved Ham, 

2 lb. doz 6 50 @ — 

Deviled Hata, 1 lb, 

doz 6 50 @ — 

do Ham,Jtb doz.3 00 @ — 
COAL— Jobbing. 

Australian, ton.. 8 00 a 

Coos Bay 6 50 (a 7 00 

Bellingham Bay. 6 50 @ 

Seattle 6 00 (a 6 50 

Cumberland 14 00 (§ 

Mt Diablo 4 75 ® 6 00 

Lehigh 13 50 ® 

Liverpool 7 50 @ 8 00 

West Hartley. . .10 50 @ 

Scotch 10 50 (a 

Scrauton 11 50 (S 

Vancouver Id... 7 00 (« 

Charcoal, sack.. . 75 fa 

Coke, bbl HO (a 

Sandwic'n Id, tb. 

Costa Rica 




Ground, In ca. . . 

Sac'to Dry Cod., 
do in cases. . 

Eastern Cod — 

Salmon, bbls.... 8 00 ® 9 

Hf bbls 5 00 ca 6 ou 

1 tb cans 1 40 ® 1 45 

Pkid Cod, bbl8..22 00 @ 

Hf bbls 11 00 @ 

Mackerel, No. 1. 

Hf Bbls 9 50 @10 50 

In Kits 1 85 @ 2 10 

Ex Mesa 3 25 <Si 

Pkld Herring, bx 3 00 3 .50 

Boston Smkd H g 70 (g 

LIME, Etc. 
Plaster, Golden 

GateMilU.... 3 00 (5o 3 25 
Land Plaster, tn 10 00 @12 60 
Lime, Sta Cruz, 

bbl 1 25 @ 1 50 

Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 00 (3 2 25 

Portland 4 00 ® 

Asa ted sizes, keg 2 90 @ 3 00 

Pacific Glue Go's 

Neatsfoot, No 1.1 00 @ 90 
Castor, No 1 1 10 (g — 

do. No. 2 1 05 (g — 

Baker's A A 1 25 @l 30 

OUve, Plagnlol....5 25 @5 75 

Palm, tb 

Linseed, Raw, bbl. 

Lard ,.. 


Barrel kerosene. . . 
Downer Ker 


Pure White Lead. 8 ® 85 

Whiting 15(g — 

Putty 4 @ B 

Chalk 10 — 

Paris WTiite 2i@ — 

Ochre 3?® — 

Venetian Red 3J(a — 

Averill Mixed 
Paint, gal. 

White & tints. . .2 00 @2 40 
Green. Blue & 

Ch Yellow 3 00 @3 50 

Light R<jd 3 00 @3 50 

MetaUic Roof...l 30 @1 60 

China, Mixed, tb.. 5 ® 54 

Hawaiian 7 @ 7} 

Cal. Bay, ton.... 15 00 @22 50 

Common 10 00 Cai2 00 

Carmen Id 12 00 @14 00 

Liverpool fine... 19 00 (a 


Castile, lb 10 @ lOJ 

Conunon brands. . 45@ 6 

Fancy brands 7 (a 3 


Cloves, lb 45 0> 50 

Cassia 225(a 25 

Nutmegs 85 (a 90 

Pepper Grain 15 <g 17 

Pimento 15 (g 16 

Mustard, Cal., 

4 lb glass 1 50 @ — 


Cal. Cube, tb 114® - 

Powdered IH® — 

Fine crashed lis® — 

Granulated 11 @ — 

Golden 9i® 

Gal. Syrup kgs... 70 ® 
Hawaiian Mot sses 26 ® 


sses 26 

Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 27 

Country pckd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial * 50 la 60 

Hyson 30 @ 35 

Fooo-Chow 35 @ — 

Japan, 1st quaUty 40 ® — 
2d quality _20 WB25 

@ 30 

Shasta Co., Cal. 

Good Land ! 
Sure Crops! 
Prices Low. Terms Easy. 







The Read 
Ranch, in the I i^- 
per Sacrament" 
valley, ori?inall\ 
embracing over 
26,000 acres ol 
choice grain, or- 
chard and ])asturc 
land, is now 
offered for 
sale at low 
prices and on 
terms of pay- 
ment, in sub- 
divisions to 
suit purchas- . 

Tlie ranch 
was selected 
at an early u:iy by Major P. B. 
Reading, one of the largest pioneer 
land owners in California. It is 
situated on the west side of the 
Jx> Sacramento River and extends 
over 20 miles along its bank. 
The average rainfall is about 30 
inches per annum, and crops have never 
been known to fail from drouth. 

The climate is healthy and desirable. 
Tlie near proximity of high mountain 
peaks give cool nights during the 
** heated term" which occurs in our Cal- 
ifornia summers. 

Pasturage, wood and good water tire 
abundant. The tillage land is mostly 
level, with complete drainage. 

Figs, Grapes, Peaches, Prunes, Al,' 
monds, English Walnuts, Oranges and 
other temperate and semi-tropical fruits 
can be raisea witli success on most of the tract without 
irrigation. Also, Alfalfa, Vegetables, Corn and all other 
cereals ordinarily grown in the State. 

The soil throughout the tilled portions of the ranch 
proves to be of great depth and enduring in its good 
qualities. It is quite free from foul growths. The virgin 
soil among the large oak trees on the bottom land is eas- 
ily broken up and cultivated. 

The title is U. S. patent. Prices range principally from 
$5 to $30 per acre. 

The California and Oregon railroad traverses nearly 
the entire length of the tract. There are several seik 
tions, stations and switches, besides depots at the towrS 
of Anderson and Reading, all of which are locate* 
within the limits of the ranch. 

The Sacramento River borders tlie whole tract on the 
southeast. Its clear waters are well stocked with fish. 
Good hunting abounds in the surroundinij; country. 

Producers have a local market, which enhances the value 
of their produce. The railroad transiwrtation route islevel 
throughout to San Francisco. A portion 
of the land is auriferous and located near 
rich mines now being worked. Land" 
• suitable for settlers in colonies can be 

obtained on good terms. 

Town lots are offered for sale in Read- 
ing, situated on the Sacramento river, at 
the present terminus of the railroad. It 
is the converging and distributing point 
for large, prosperous mining and agricul- 
tural districts in Northern California and 
Southern Oregon. Also, lots in the town 
of Anderson, situated more centrally on 
the ranch. Lots in both these towns are 
offered at a bargain, for the purpose of 
building up the towns and facilitating 
settlement of the ranch. 

Pui chasers are invited to come and 
see the lands before buying here or 
elsewhere. Apply on the ranch, to 
the jiroprietor, 

Anderson, Shasta Co., Cal. 
P. S. —Send postage stamp for illus- 
trated paper containing information 
about Shasta county and these lands, 
and say advertised in this paper. 

Location of Shasta County 

Shasta County lies not far from 
midway between the two most im- 
portant ports on the Pacific shore, 
t. e., San Francisco and Portland, 
Oregon, and directly on the overland 
route, which in the futurer will bo 
come the grand thoroughfare from 
Mexico to British Columbia. The 
town of Reading, at present, and 
probably for years to come, the head 
of railroad transportation on the 
California side of the mountains in- 
tervening below Oregon, is distant 
from San Francisco by railroad (via 
Vallejo) 255 miles; from Sacramento 
City, 169 miles; from MarysviUe, 117 
miles. ■'.( ' 


(T) " 






Fine Engraving. 

The Engraving Bureau belonging to the office 
of this journal is prepared to design and engrave 
all kinds of Wood Cvtb for illustrating new3pai>er8, 
books, catalogues, cards, circulars, advertise- 
ments, labels, badges, seals, etc., in tlie best style 
of the art. Our portraits and illustrations of ma- 
chinery, buildings and landscapes, are superior. 
Good engravings can bo made from paintings, 
lithographs, steel and copper plate prints, photo- 
graphs, models, patent office or other drawings. 
We have a photographic department and tlie best 
of machineri' for producing accurate and perfect 
work at the lowest prices. Original maps, charts, 
and diagrams are made by our New Piioto-Rki.ikk 
Process at greatly reduced rates. By the same 
process copies can be cheaply and quickly lu'o- 
duced of printed cuts, in fac simile, or they can 
be enlarged or reduced with equal facility. 

Any hand writing in perfectly lil.ack ink on 
clear wliite paper for manuscript letters 01 circu- 
lars, will be accurately reproduced in metal plates 
suitable for common printing. Also, fac aimih: 
signatures, monograms, sheet music, etc. We 
excel in trade cuts and matched plates for combi- 
nation color printing. With a large business, long 
established, and every facility for iini>rovemont, 
we can guarantee more than ordinary satisfaction 
to all of our iiatrons. All interested are invited 
to send for or call and see specimens and obtain 

Orders for electr./i.ypeB, stereotypes, steel and 
copper plates, lithographing, stomps and seal 
presses executed at low rates. 

Contents of Pamphlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S. Land Laws, Map of 
California and Nevada, Etc. 

Map of California and Nevada:^ The Publl' 
Lands; The Land Districts; Table of Rainfall, in Cafifor 
nia; Counties and Their Products; Statistics b( the Stat« 
at Large. 'i 

Instructions of the U. S. Land Commis- 
sioners.— Different Classes of Public Lands; Bow Lands 
may be .\cquircd; Fees of Land Office at Location; Agri- 
cultural College Scrip; Pre-emptions; K-xtehding the 
Homestead Privilege; But One Homcatead Allowed; Proof 
of Actual Settlement Necessary; Adjoining Farm Home- 
steads; Lands for Soldiers and Sailors; Land* for Indians; 
Fees of Land Office and Commissions; Laws to Pnirnoto 
Timber Culture; Concerning Appeals; Ret nnii^ of the Reg- 
ister and Receiver; Concerning Mining Claips; Second 
Pic-em|)tion Benetit. 'fj 

Abstract from the U. S. Statutertr-Tli^ Law 

Concerning Pre-em|>tioii; Conceriiing lloineBlejib; Amend.- 
atorv Act Concerning Timber; Miscellanci.uif ■Fri'vislonii* 
Additional Surveys; Land for Pre-emption; Li*, of 041'' 
ornia Post OtllccB. Price, ixist paid, 50 cts. . . , 

Published and sold bv DEWEY 4;ob., S F 


Greatest Labor-sav- 
ing Invention of the 
Age. rscdaudre- 
roniinendi'd by thn 
Leading l)airy((aen 
of tlic iCust. fcianyilo 
w itli full directions, 
liy mall, pqvtpaid, 
^^..'iO. LIbeMi In- 
ratcnk.<l Mny St"!!'. '8"«- ducemenlB to ' .Al(ents, 
Scnil for Ittnslmlofl firculiir . , , ' ' ' 

SPENCE & CO., Sole «gent8._, • 

24 Gearv St, ,San Frah^Sco. 

Dewey & Co. {sanaom^est} Patent Ag'ts. 



[July 5, 1879. 



This Jar ia exlensiv . it-^s. It is 

the most iiopiUar, cht.-ai>ts*., luji vwUiwut ^ii.aiut the simplest 
aud most tllcctive Fruit Jai- now in use. It is by far prefer- 
able to any Patent Self -Sealing Jar, and are as cheap as the 
poisonous tin cans. 



San Francisco and Pacific Glass Works, 





— ASD — 


At the Lowest Bates. 
Corner of Alameda and White Streets, 


Anderson's Springs, 


Nineteen miles from Culisto^ra, five miles from Sfiddle- 
town, and ten miles from the Great Geysers; between 
which and Andertiun's Sprirjrs there is a good sia^e ro;\d. 

For Rheumatism, Piiraiyyis, etc.; Cold Sulphur for Dys- 
pepsia, Diseases oi the Stouiauli and Bowels. Scenery un- 
surpassed. Climate mild and equLihle. Consumptives 
gener.tlly improve in health, and asthmatics are invaria- 
bly relieved. 


Deer Hunting in the Immediate Vicinity. 

il5?"Acconun'Ml:itiiins and Cookery good. Board from 
$10 tu$12 hy Uie week. 




— AND — 

Stories of California Life. 


The best delineations of Western character and incidon 
ever i>roduccd on tiiis coast. For sale by 


PRICE, S2 00. 

A Card to Grangers and Farmers. 


The unrlersignetl is now prepared to receive and soil Hay, 
Grain, Horsos and Cattle tliat nuiy lie conaignnd to hini at 
the Highest Market Ritos, and will open a trade direct with 
the consumer without the inteiveution of middienieii. He 
alBj asks consum'-TS of Hay and firaiti and Stock Iniyers tu 
co-opuratfl with hiin, a'ld Ih'is hive but one commission 
twc. ii produc rand linyer. Address S, H. DKPUY, Nos. U 
and 13 Bluxome St., San Francisco. 


Pcrtumert, Snowllaka, Chroino, Motto Cards, name in 
L'oldandjct 10c. G. A SrRiNO, K. Wallinjford, Ct. 


Pfr/umtil, gilt edge 4 chrorao Cards, inelegant case, name 
in Hold, lOo. Atlantic Card Co., E. Walllnfiford, Ct. 

Agricultural Articles. 

The Famous "Enterprise," 

Self Regulating 


Pumps & Fixtures. 

TliCHe SUlls and Pumps are 
relinMc and alw.-iys jrive sat- 
isfaction. Simple, strt)nt^and 
dura))lc in all )>arts. ^olid 
wrouffhtiron crank siiaft with 
doublf hearintfi: forliiecnink 
to work in. all turned and 
run in hahbitted boxes.. 

Pi,nitirt-bi self rigulating, 
witli no coil spriiif; or springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
joints, levers or balls to ^et 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills in use six to nine years in good order now, that 
have ne\"er cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands in 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infor- 


ALA.MEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agrency, LINFORTH, RICE_ 
& CO., 401 Market Street. 


Adjustable Grain Lifter 



Drapers, and Draper Sticks 


Of wood work for all kinds of Farming Implements fur- 
nished at short notico. Also, 



No. 221 Mission Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


The^Best Farm Engine "^be World. 


Less Fuel. Less Water. Less Repairs than 

any other Portable EnKine. 
No Commission to Agents! Bottom Price to Purchasers! 

Engines for all purposes, with and without Wagons- 
Yi)U can save money by buying direct of us. Order early 
for iu!xt season's use. Scnil for Illustrated Catalogue and 
Price List. 

ARMINGTON & SIMS, Lawrence, Mass. 

ARMINGTON & SIMS were lately with the J. C. Hoadley.Co 


Took the Prcn ; . I - 1 . .1 I u plowing Match 

in Stockton, in H>i'i>. 

This Plow is thoroughly m:^<Ie by pra<.*tical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is required 
n the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. 
Sufficient play is given so that the tijngue will pass over 
cradle knolls without changing tlie working i)osition of tlie 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of the Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
and most desirable Gang Plow in tlio world. Send for 
circular to 




Easterday^s Improved Cali- 
fornia Planter 

For 1879 Is now ready for the Market. 

This is a No. 1 dropper for Com. Beans, Peas, and other 
Seed that may bo planted as the ground is plowed, and by its 
regularity greatly nicreases the yield, besides the seed and 
labor saved. Valuable improvements have been made with- 
in the past year, ami no etfort has been spareil to make this 
Machine just what it slimdd be. A large nundier of these 
Machines have been sold within the past two years. Our ira- 
pr.ived Machines have been constructed in the most durable 
manner, all wearing parts being made of iron. They are 
easily attached to either single or Gang Plows, and can be 
thrown in and out of gear ctmvcincntly witlujut leaving the 
driver's seat. When (udy every second or third furrtjw is de- 
sired to be pliinteil. the lever for the purpose need only be 
move<l biickward or forward to stop or start the Machine to 
operating. Distance of tlrop. from one to six feet, and easily 
regulated for amount and distance Being attached to the 
Plow Beam by a bar of spring steel, they pass easily over oh- 
stractions without in the least interfering with the working 
of the Plow, whili' at the same time Ih- .Vlachine is causL-d t<» 
move firiidy in the furrow. Price of the iniproveil Machine, 
$20. All parts duplicated. Full instructions with each Ma- 
chine. When ordering call for the Improved Machine. 

We also have on hand soiue of our last year's style Ma- 
chines, of which the cut here shown is an excellent represen- 
tation, which we will sell at reduced rates, niese are good 
Machines, aud warranted to work perfect. AU orders 
promptly attended to. 


Manufacturers, Watsonville, Santa Cruz County. Cal. 
BAICKR k HAMILTON, Gen'l Agts., San Francisco, 
This patent for sale by State Rights, or if desired the 
whole is offered on reasonable terms. 

Martin's (^entennial Windmill. 

H:is the fnll'twing positive Hilvan- 
tagea: (Jrcjtt power combined 
with gre:it simplicity and dura- 
l)ility; perffCtly inlf-rt'Kulating 
;ind Kiife in a-iy atonn; it can be 
run at any 8p*.ed frt>in 20 to 60 
rcvolntintis per minute in a brisk 
wind, at will. It is comparatively 
noist-le^H, and tuuk at tlie above 
6pee<l smootldy. It is simply and 
perfectly Sflf -regulated. It is 
strong and cbcap. On all these 
points it challenges comiarison 
with any other wind engine iu 
ust-'. It is especially wnrtby the 
examination of those needing to 
use wind power For pi Ices aud 
other infonuation aiblress 

Inventor and patentee, San Jose 
Cal., who carefully and ect)nomi' 
cally manufactures every mill at Altman's Foundry and Ma- 
chine Shop, near the Narrow Gauge K. R. Depot. 



Centennial and Eagle Hay Presses 



They arc the original Gove Patent Improved Press, com- 
bining strength, durability and compactness, are made for 
easy working, hight and moving, making them the best 
for Hay Pressing, for either light or hcav.v bales, and supe- 
rior to any other for compacting Fleece, Pulled or Scoured 
Wool, Cotton, etc., tor shipping purposes, and are oper- 
ated by horse or steam power. 

For any further information by circuhrs or orders, ad- 
dress Joiix II. GovK, Eureka Grain Storage Warehouses, 
North Point, San Francisco. Box 11'2'2 Or David N. Jlaw- 
Icy, Agricultural Dealer, 201 and 203 Market St. , cor. Main 





1306 San Pablo Avenue, OsUand, Cal. 

Also, maker of the "Colorado Wind Engine," Wind Grist 
Mills, Town Water Works, Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. 
A very heavy and superior pattern of Deen Well and Arte- 
sian Lift Ptunp Cylinders. Circulars free. 


PaWnted January' 8th, 1878. 


Works on a cog principle. Smallest siztt cutA one inch, 
and largest size two inches in diameter. Has br-en thor- 
oughly tested, and given perfect satisfaction. .Sold by 

Newcastle, Placer County. California. 



McAFEE BROS., Real Estate and Loan Brokers 
202 Sansome Street. - San Francisco. 

rOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
. Ten Cents. STEVENS BROS., Northford, Conn. 

Stock Notices. 


Breeder and Importer of the "Crown Prince, 
"Sambo," and ''Bob Lee" families of Berkshire*. 
Also, pure Suffolk hogs and pigs. Short Hom and 
Jersey, or Aldemey cattle. Merino and Cotswold 
sheep. Prices always reasonable. All animals sold are 
guaranteed as represented and pedigreed. 
PETER SAXE, Ruse House, San Francisco, 


Choice stock of thorou^^hbrcd Kiiuks and Ewes, guaran- 
teed free from disease. I'urchafccrs arc invited to exam- 
ine. About 10 minutes' walk from the Railroad terminue, 
adjoining State University. 

Berkeley, Alameda County, Cal. 

Thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep 


Woul Orowers and 
ShtJt p Breeders de- 
airouH of improve- 
ment are invited to 
examine the Ban- 
H< r and Preminm 
rtock i>f the Bute. 
All Ist Premiums 
taken at S'ate Fair 
in l<i78. n-ith strong 
coiupelition. Ko 
sheep superior In 
•ihe u-..r!d. 

UlOh^■ad yearling 
anil '20 head 2-year 
old Kam-' f jr eale. 
large t^izCTI carcass 
free from wrinkles. Heavy slicarers. long staple of white 
glossy wool. A few young Kwcfi also for sale. isT All Sheep 
warranted free from Disease. Send for* circular and price 
list or come aud see us at ouce. Laurel Randt, Haywardu. 
Alameda County, Cal. One mile from depot ou (\ V. R. R, 

Tlioro''bred Mares, 


Some of all the above (or sale. For particulars address 

the undersigned, 


San Francisco, Cal. 


Tlie undersigned would announce to those interested in 
ANGOKA GO.i.TS, and the public generally, that he will 
have a lot of 

Choice An^cora Bucks 

On Exhibition at the State and District 

This fall, .lamelv: At the SUle Fair at Sacramento, the 
Golden Gate Fair at Oaklanil, the Nevada State Fair at 
Reno, and the Oregon State Fair at Salem. 
These Bucks will be sold at fair rates. 


Hollister, San B«nito Co . CaL 



Corner Market and 9tb Sta., San Francisco, 

HORSE."! and SllLCH COWS sold on commission. Also, 

dealers iu HAY and GRAIN. 

Parties couisiKnini,' Stock or Grain to us can rely upon 
prompt sales and (piick returns. 

W E. Ciia.mi)Eri..\ix, Jr. 

Tiios. A. RoBixso.v. 



Elegant Perfumed Cards. Chromo, Motto. Lily. Etc., 
15c. Gift with each pack. H. M. Smith. Clintourillc. Ct. 


CHROMO, Gold Border, etc., lOc, no 2 alike, or 20 
Cupid Cards, 10c. J. R HUSTED, Nansau, N. Y. 

July 5. 1879.] 


The Accompanying Map 
shows the 

"Abel Steams' 


The Center of Los An- 
geles Valley. 

Six hundred Farms al- 
ready sold and improved. 
Within the Artesian Well 
Belt, and having water neai 
the surface. For sale in sec- 
tions or fractions by AL- 
tee, 120 Sutter street, neai 
Montgomery, San Francis 
CO, or apply to WM. R 
OLDEN, Anaheim, Cal. ;or, 
concerning the Colony, ti 
Westminster, Cal. Terms, 
one -fifth cash; balance, 1, 2 
and 3 years. Interest at 10 
per cent. , payable at end ol 
each year. The larger 
squares represent Town- 
ships six miles square, con- 
taining .36 sections. The 
smaller squares within tl 
represent 160 acres. Roads 
are proposed to be laid out 
on every section line, form- 
ing blocks of one mih 
square, with roads on all 
sides and on many quarter 
section lines. SEND FOR 






Winchester Repeating Rifle 

MODEL 1873. 

oiie-thiid bize by Dr. E. H. i'ardee. 

The Strength of Ail its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, . . , » , . 

■* 5» ' Btnng measuring from center of tar- 

get to center of each shot, 32 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, ^tS .httTfioo 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Huntijig, 
Defense, or Target Shooting, 

The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 
Round barrels, plaiir and set, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, plain, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set 
24, 28, 28, 30 Inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set, 24 
26, 28, 80 — extra finished, case hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch- 
extra finished— C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— beautifully finished— 0. H. & C. S., 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Eifies, muskets and carbines 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 

Sole Agent for Dupont's Mining, Blasting, Cannon, and Celebrated Brands 

of Sporting Powder, 

JOHN SKINKER, No. 115 Pine Street, Sail Francisco, 


Bone-Coal and FertilizinR Material Co. 

Office, No. 515 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Pure Bone Meal, Superphosphate, Animal Fertilizers. 

Bone Meal for Chicken and Stock Feed. 

In order to introduce our fertilizers, and to prove that we are usinj; nothing but pure materials, and being positive 
that when properly used they will double the yields of most crops, and at the same tune enrich the soil, we are willing 
to furnish small lots, of 100 pounds and upwards, at tan prices. 

For Circulars giving information concerning the use of the fertilizers on different crops, apply to or address the 
Company's oflBce, 615 Market Street, San Francisco. 

A. HAAS, Manager. 


MERRY, FAULL & CO., Proprietors. 


We are prepared to receive on Consignment, CATTLE, SHEEP aud HOGS, charging mod- 
erately for killing, delivery and guarantee, and making advances to shippers on receipt at our 
Yards, which are supplied v/ith every conveuieuca. We assure our customers a 


For their product, and invite their inspection of our facilities, which are the best on the Pacific 
Coast. We shall be pleased to give all information in our power as to Market Prices. 
Please address our 

Principal Office, No. 415 Front Street, Cor. Merchant, San Francisco. 

In consequence of spurious imitations of 


which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins 
have adopted A N£ W LABEL, bearing their Signature, 


which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and mthout which none is genuine. 

Ash for LEA &' PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper, 
Wholesale and for Export hy the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse and Blachwell, London, 
b'c; and by Grocers and Oilnven tkroi' hout the World, 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San Francisco. 

Mission RogI( DogI( & Grain Warehouses, 


40,000 Tons Capacity. Storage for the Season, $1 per ton. 

Grain received and weighed in free of expense Wheat Cleaned and Graded. Peep Water Berths for the largest Bhip 
Insurance and storage at the lowest rales. Loans effected on wheat stored in Warehouse at lowest rates. Apply to 

CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Superintendent, 

Or to the California Dry Dock Co., Office, No. 318 California Street. San Francisco 


We will give the use of 50 acres or more of choice land, 
rent free, f.)r one year, with the privilege of i)urol)asiiig 
at a low price thereafter; crops of nil kinds may bo planted 
nine months of the year. Apply to 

Room 10, No. 320 Sansonio Street, San Francisco. 

Agricultural Books. 

Orders for Agricultura' and Scientific Books in general 
will be supplied through this office, at published rates. 



The best Rubber Hose in market. Every 

foot guaranteed. 


General Agents, San Francisco, California. 


We will jiav AfSt-'ntd u t-nlniy ul per niuniii ana 

expeiist-a, or iiUow a large comuiissioii, to sell our new 
ftnu wondGrfiil inventions, lie mean u^hat we sav. 6am- 

■^free. Addreas SHliKMAN & CO., Marsball, Mich, 



[July 5, 1879. 

Commission Merchants. 


No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

Rkkkrbncii.— Tnulesmen's National BaniC, N. Y. ; EU 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Roed; Sacra 
mento, Cal.: A- Luhk & Oo., San Francisco, Cat 


Commission Merchants, 


No. 8 Davis St., near Market, San Francisco. 

Charles N'al'ma.v. 

Feank Nacuan. 

O. & F. NAUMAN & CO , 

Wholesale Commission Merchants 


227 Ss 229 Washington St., San Francisco. 
^^Consignments Solicited.*^ 


Commission Me reliant, 

General Agent for the CALIFORNIA HXCK HOLDER. 

306 Davis St., San Francisco. 

tS" Liberal advanres made on Consignments. "^Jl 

A. GALLI & CO., 

General Commission Merchants, 


Tropical, California and Oregon Fruits, Nuts, Produce, 
Butter, Cheese, Poultry, Eggs, Honey, Hides, 
Potatoes, Grain, Wool, Etc. 

516 and 518 Sansome St., San Francisco. 
<yCash can be drawn for immediatel}' upon recuipt of 
account of sales. 



I 35 Cents. Just out. Great favorite. 


9 5 


35 Cents. Well knomi. Always good. 


^ !^ 35 Cents. Very beautiful songs. 


o| ..... 

d a 
S o 



PQ o 


$2 50. Capital I'iano Pieces. 


$2 50. Brilliant Waltzes, etc. 

^ Lives of Bethooven ($2.00), Mozart ($1.75), Schu- 
niann ($175), and others; most interesting; also, 
I Ritter's HtnUiry of Mtisic, 2 vols., each $1.50. 
; Musical Record ($2.00). Good reading; once a 
week, all the news, and fine selection of music. 

Descriptive Catalogues (10 Cls.), of almost all 
Music r.ooks that are published. Very valuable 
^for reference. 1,800 books. 

Any book mailed for retail price. 


C. H. Dltson & Co., 843 Broaaway, N. T. 


24 J'ost Street 

Near Kearny, 
San Francuco, CaU 

The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
0Uch broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
stnictionis given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modem Languages are practically taught. The 
discipline is excellent, ana ts system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladiks' Departmknt.— Ladies will be admitted for «- 
Btruction in all the Dei>artments of the College. 

Teleorapbic Drpartmest.— In this Dejiartment yomig 
men and young ladies arc practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Posl 
street, or a-ldrcss for circulars, B. P. HEALD 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 


My Berkshires are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
great care from the best herds of imported stock in the 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit can- 
not he excelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
"American Berkshire Record," where none but pure bred 
Hogs arc admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

18tli and A Streets, Sacramento City, Cal 

Tbls paper Is printed with Ink furnished by 
Cbaa. Bneu Johnson & Co., 609 South 10th 
St., Philadelphia & 59 Gold St., N. Y, 


Celebrated Detrick "E W " 22x36 Grain Bag. 

OUR No. 1, No. 2 aud No. 3 SECOND-HAND GRAIN BAGS selected and graded with care. 

f'TWr^^gjl 3, 4 and 5-plv for Grain Bags, 6 and 8-plv for Potato Gunnies, 3-plv extra pise loi Flour 
X. W Xi^ Jui9« Bags, made exiircssly for our trade and tJUALITY Gl'AUA.NTEED. 

FLOUR BAGS Printed to Order wmioiT kxtra cuaroe. POTATO GUNNIES, Wool, Bean, Ore and 
Salt and Seamless Ct»ttoii Bags. 

Tents, Awnings and Hydraulic Hose. 


119, 121 and 123 Clay St., and 118 and 120 Commercial St., Saa Francisco. 





At Prices that Nobody can beat! 


Is one of the leading Pianos, and 
has been before the Public 
For Forty Years. 

We Sell no Bo^s Instruments. 



Post Street, near Dupout, 


700 Acre^ The Finest Stock and Grain 
Farm in Northern California. 

Price, $2.^,000, including Fanning iniplenicnts. The 
wliole under fence. 

The Stock upon this farm, all thoroughbred and gradc l. 
embracing some of the finest in the State, will \>i soM at 
private sale. Among the stock is some that has lie n 
awarded different premiums at State and County K:iir« 

This is one of the finest opportunities forani '.-! of 
means in the State. For full particulars apply t" 

D. B. HAYS. 
Real Estate Agent, Orovillc, Cal. 

Flour Mill for Sale or Rent. 

A gcKxi water power fl<mr mill, with twu rims uf 4-feet 
wheat stones, one iniddHiig and unc feed »tuue, nil in good 
order, Hituate in southern California, with a good wheat 
crop near the mill, can be bouj^ht cheap, or a part inter- 
est can be purchased by a jjood, reliable mill man, or the 
property* can be leased; mill iu runninij, and haa a good 
reputation. Want of exj)eriuuce, and other busincBs, in- 
duces the ow ners to offer a good trade. Apply to JOS. 
WAGNER & CO., 105 and 107 Mission street, S. F. 


nntnnTn COUNTRIES; tra*iemark.s. labela and copy- 
rHInlllS ">'^^*' registered through DEWEY & C<J. 8 
I UlU|ll|J AfiNiNo Ai<D SciKNTiFic rREs-* Patent 
Agency. Saa Ffftuciioo. S«iid for fretJ oircalar 


Three Young Short Horn Bulls, 

l(e:uly for ii.ic. Selected from the old established herd of 
H". L. Overhiscr, and got by that beautiful Gwynne bull, 
"Minstrel Duke," whose sire, "Kirklevington Duke, 2d,'> 
and d;ira, "Oxford Minstrel, 2d," I bought in England and 
now own. Pedigrees guaranteed. 

Baden Station, San Mateo County, Cal. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For tlu- half vu ir ending this ilate, the Board of Direc- 
has declared a Dividend on Term Deposits at the rate of 
seven and one-fifth (7 1-5) i>er cent, per annum, and on 
Ordinary Deixisita at the rate of six (6) per cent, per an- 
num, free from Federal Taxes, and payable on and after 
the l.')th day of July, 1S71). By order' 

GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 

San Francisco, June 30lh, 1879. 

Superior Wood and Metal EngraV' 
ing, Electrotyping and Stereotyp- 
ing done at the office of the MlNINO 
AND SciKNTiKIc PiiRss, Sail Frauclsco, at favorable rates. 
Send stamp tor our circular and samples. 








Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 


Wire Mills. 
Office, No. 6 California St. 



Of every ki^ on hand or Made to Order. 




40 Head of Horses, 

Will arrive about Sept. Ist, 1879. 






Grand Prizes in Europe and America, 

Awarded Grand Medals by the French Gove.^ment, and 
also Grand Medal, Diploma and Special HeiKirtatthe 


Tbe largest ami most Complete Eetublishment of the 
kind in America. 

t^iiy Catalogue, with history of tlie breed, sent free. 


Wayne, DuPage County, niinola. 


Tension Sewing IVIachines! 

A large number of nearly neV genuine SINGER, 
OROVER & BAKER, DOME.STIC, etc , will be sold very 
cheap, many as low as tlO. These Machines were taken 
in exchange from families for the "AUTOMATIC" or 

Wilcox & Gibbs' S. M. Co., 


No. 361 Twelfth Street, Oakland, Cal. 




Comer of Front and M Streets. Sacramento. 


Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 


i^Corainunications Promptly Attended to. 

COOKE St SONS. Successors to Coorr & Oriotort. 

Should con- 
sult DEWEY 
J: CO., Amer- 
ican AND Foitr.iiiN Patkxt .Solicitors. Established in 
1860. Tlieir long experience as journalists and lar^e prac- 
tice as patent attorneys enables them to offer P&cinc Coast 
inventors far better service than they can obtain else- 
where. Send for free circulars of information. Office of 
the MiMixo A.ND SciKNTinc Pkkss and Pacific Rcral 
Press, No. 20-2 Sansome St.. San Francisco. 

California Inventors 


Parties wishing to experiment in the cultivation of 
rhapparal as an economical and valuable suhslitute for 
fencing, can obtain the seeil in DO Cts. and SI packages, at 
W. R STRONG'S, Sacramento. ^p'Sent by mail. 

Volume XVIII.] 


Number 2. 

The Influence of Early Rains. 

The farmers of south Australia were at last 
accounts engaged in figuring the influence of 
early rains upon crops. Their seasons are of 
course the complement of ours, and while we 
are in the depths of winter storms and rank 
growth of grain they are looking for the early 
rains and calculating the effect of their absence 
upon the season's work. Thus they have before 
them from January to May the problems which 
visit us from October to December. This j'ear 
the early rains have been withheld, and to re- 
press evil anticipations our contemporary, the 
Adelaide Observer, prepares a table to show 
that they have had the best average crops in 
those years which lacked the early rains. The 
table is as follows: 







Four montha. 


, . 11 




1859 60 





, . 13 





... 10 





... 12 




. . . 14 




, , . 11 




. . . 8 





. 14 





. . . 4 



3.. 582 






1869-70...'. ... 

. 5 










, , . 5 





, , , 11 





, , 7 










. , , 11 





... 5 





... 7 





... 7 




Gen'l average, busli. 48 lbs. 



From this table it is deduced that in 11 in- 
stances the yield was • J ^.xoess of the average 
of the 21 years. In 7 of these instances the 
rainfall in April was exceptionally low, that is 
to say, lower than the general average for the 
whole period, and in 8 of them the rainfall dur- 
ing the tirst 4 months of the year was also below 
the general average. Putting the matter in 
another shape, it will bo noticed that during 11 
years out of the 21 the rainfall during April 
was below average, and in 7 of these years the 
wheat crop was above average. Similarly it 
will be found upon examination that in 8 out of 
the LS years in which the rainfall for the 4 
months was below average, the yield was above 
average, while in 3 other instances it was near- 
ly up to the average. Our exchange says that 
the tirst 4 months of the present year threaten 
to have the distinction of being the driest since 
1858 9, the rainfall for 3 out of the 4 beius only 
1.817 in. 

We do not know that crop statistics can be 
had to make a similar comparison of the yields 
of grain per acre in years when our 
early rains were small, but there is a general 
opinion born of experience and observation 
which favors the absence of heavy rains very 
early, followed as they are apt to be by a long 
drouth before the regular winter down-pours 
begin. At all events we have learned that the 
absence of rain during the 4 months following 
harvest is not an augury of a dry season, and 
this is just what the figures prove to be the 
case in Australia if we correctly understand 

Now that the Observer has given us a table 
of rainfall for certain months during a period of 
years, will it not give us a complete table for 
each month of as long a series of years as possi- 
ble? This would be very valuable to make a 
comparison with our own for the same period, 
to ascertain if there be any sequence in them. 

SnEiiP During Drouth. — Flock owners in 
some parts of Australia are losing heavily by 
the protracted drouth which prevails. We 
read in an exchange that at Burrumbeep men 
are kept constantly at work lopping the shea- 
oaks, which is eagerly devoured by the sheep. 
As soon as they hear the ax at work a stam- 
pede takes place from all around, and, the flock 
congregating roun.i the trees, awaits the fall of 
the branches. The Merinos seem capable of 
withstanding the severity of the season much 
better than the large-framed sheep, which are 
falling off so rapidly in some directions as to 
keep one man employed at skinning the 

In the University Test Grounds. — We 
spent an hour the other day in looking through 
a part of the experimental grounds of the State 
University at Berkeley, in company with Mr. 
Dwinelle, lecturer on practical agriculture. We 
found that many foreign plants, which promise 
to be of value in this State were being grown, 
and that accurate notes were being taken of their 
progress which will be embodied in Prof. Hil- 
gard's report this fall. Several varieties of the 
cereals were being grown with reference to es- 
tablishing their correct nomenclature. A num- 
ber of plants of native and imported clovers, 
each grown with and without irrigation, will 
furnish material for comparative judgments. 
There is also quite a group of sorghum canes 
being grown for the same purpose. The Cuzco 
corn forwarded by a correspondent of the Ru- 

R.4L in Chile, is growing vigorously and shows a 
heavy stalk, and a complete freedom from 
suckers. A part of the garden is already occu- 
pied with medicinal plants, and the propagat- 
ing houses are bringing forward hosts of new 
growths which will be ready for fall planting 
out. Although this is the first year of the gar- 
den it shows some valuable accomplishment al- 
ready, and is in readiness to go forward rapidly 
another season. It will prove very valuable 
both for the general facts ascertained from the 

First Story. Second Story. 

experiments, and as an adjunct to the means for 
practical instruction furnished by the institu- 

The Jeanne/fe Bennett's Polar steamer left on 
her voyage Tuesday, July 8th, escorted to the 
ocean by the yacht fleet and numerous tugs — 
receiving from the fort a salute. She will float 
on the Japanese and Polar currents from 
Behring's strait to Davis strait. 

Japan Persimmon in Californi.\. — Prof. 
Meehan of the Gardeners^ Monthly has held a 
long and eventful career as a horticulturist, and 
doubtless he has found many reports to try his 
patience, and yet he should not let go his hold 
upon the anchor of faith in the general truth 
and honesty of his fellow men. In a recent 
comment upon the Japan persimmon we under- 
stand him to express a doubt whether the fruit 
has ever been grown on the soil of the United 
States. This is in the face of the items concern- 
ing the fruit picked from California trees, which 
our own eyes have seen and our own hands 
handled, which have been printed in the Pres.s. 
The fact is that fruit has been produced here 
from imported trees for several years. There 
were at least half a dozen growers in different 

parts of the State who picked it last year and 
for one or more years preceding. We name 
three who come first to mind: Col. Hollister, 
of Santa Barbara; H. G. Kllsworth, of Mission 
San Jose, and Mr. Rixford, of Sonoma. Others 
there were last year and the fruit now hangs green 
upon trees here and there in nearly all sections 
of the State. Prof. Meehan may be wise in 
opposing the tree at the East, and if we believe 
all he says about that, he should believe us and 
other California writers who have commented 
upon the specimens grown in this State. 

The PiEV'olving Grain Car. — Some time ago 
we alluded to the design of an Eastern inventor 
who proposed to transport Western grain to the 
P]ast in revolving cars — cylinders that rolled 
along the track as they were pulled by the 
locomotive. We now learn from the Prairie 
Farmer that preliminary tests of these cars have 
proved satisfactory. One came into Chicago full 
of corn. Major Fitch, the state inspector of ele- 
vators, says: "The grain is in perfect order and 
is improved if anything by being transported by 
the new system. This car was not loaded quite 
full, lacking probably 10 or 15 bushels. I re- 
gard the car as an undoubted success." We 
are informed that among the points demon- 
strated by the trip were the following: The 
rate of speed required for permanently liolding 
the grain to the shell by the centrifugal force, thus 
forming a solid cylindrical mass, preventing all 
attrition of the grain, was found to be about 
four miles per hour. Second, the perfect circula- 
tion of the air through the grain while in transit; 
also the effect of having the cylinders only 
partially filled, which was found to be in no 
way detrimental to the grain or car. 

Ui" to the present time $10,523,-574 lias been 
expended in the construction of the Brooklyn 

A Village Residence. 

In the architectural designs which we have 
presented during the last year we have made 
variety the standard of judgment in selection, 
because of the variety of tastes and necessities 
which must prevail in a wide circle of readers. 
We have given cottages of most simple design 
and small cost and mansions of considerable 
pretension and expense. At this time we strike 
a mean between the two and give a drawing of 
a residence of moderate cost and one well 
adapted to erection in some of the many thriv- 
ing villages of our State. 

The design is by J. H. Hobbs & Sons, of 
Philadelphia, and, as may be seen by the pic- 
ture, it is well contrived to catch sunlight, a 
quality which Californians most highly prize. 
It is intended to be built of frame, covered with 
diagonal sheathing boards and weather-boarded. 
If one desires an extra warm house it will be 
well to cover the sheathing with tarred build- 
ing paper before putting on the exterior board- 
ing, but both this and the diagonal sheathing 
may be omitted if it is desired to cheapen the 
construction as much as possible. Our equable 
climate makes this thinner covering admissible, 
althouirh the more perfect enclosure is desirable 
nevertheless. The French roof is designed to 
be covered with ornamental slates, but shingles 
carefully painted could be substituted, and 
would be better if the frame is to be weakened 
by omitting the double boarding. 

By reference to the ground plans and measure- 
ments below it will be seen that the rooms are 
of good size and well arranged for beauty of 
interior. The following are the sizes a«d loca- 
tions of the rooms : 

First story: A, porch; P, parlor, 12 by 15 
feet; D, dining-room, 12 by 22 feet 8 inches; 
K, kitchen 12 by 12 feet; 8, scullery, 10 by 12 

Second story : P C, principal chamber, 12 by 
15 feet; H, hall; C C, chambers, 11 feet 4 
inches by 12 feet; B R, bath-room, 7 feet 6 
inches by 12 feet; <S' R, store-room, 4 by 12 

The third story, within the French roof, can 
be finished into neat chambers, and we presume 
the architect intends to locate there the closets 
which he has omitted on the chief chamber 
floor. The "store-room," on the second floor, 
will, however, serve for closet purposes, and it 
is large enough to give the good wife room for 
all her stored treasures. 

Shipping Melons by the Carload. — Most 
of the watermelons coming to this market make 
the trip upon the river steamers, and those by 
rail arrive, so far as we have noticed, in cases. 
It seems that they are shipped from Florida to 
the Eastern cities in bulk by the carload. The 
Florida Dispatch thinks that there is no advan- 
tage to be gained by putting decks in the cars, 
so as to load the melons in tiers, as the risk of 
their breaking down is greater than any benefit 
which could be realized. The Dispatch advises 
shippers to cover the bottom of the car a few 
inches deep with any soft, elastic matter that 
will not pack too densely or become hard. 
Upon this you can stojre the melons three deep, 
and carry with safety to the most distant mar- 
kets. It continues: "The most perfect bed 
we ever saw upon which melons were packed 
and transported from south Georgia to Chi- 
cago without the loss of a melon, was wheat 

The Centennial Harvester. — We met Mr. 
C. J. Cressey, of Merced county, the other day 
and learned from him that the Centennial 
harvester, which is the name applied to the 
combined header and thresher which came into 
prominence in the San Joaquin valley last year, 
is being worked actively this season. A num- 
ber of the machines are now running. Mr. 
Cressey is running one with four men and 20 
mules, harvesting from 35 to 40 acres per^day. 
Among the first new grain to reach the city this 
year was a carload of clean Propo harvested by 
Mr. Cressey with the "Centennial," and sold at 
$1.65. The sample we saw was plump, large 
and beautiful grain. 





[July 12, 1879. 


We admil, unendorsed, opiniona of correspondents.— Eds 

The Beet-Sugar Industry. 

Editoks Pkess: — According to the statistics 
furnished by the Government, the total product 
of all mines in the whole United States of 
precious metal, both gold and silver, during the 
year 1878, has been, in round figures, §82,000,- 
000. The total sum of money paid to foreign 
nations for the one single article, "sugar," ac- 
cording to the same source of information, has 
been the almost identical sum of §82,000,000 : 
we have therefore shipped every ounce of gold 
and silver which every mine in the United States 
has yielded, in payment for our supply of sugar. 
If the United States had produced the sugar 
she consumes at home instead of buying it 
abroad, and on the other hand had not produced 
one single dollar's worth of gold or silver from 
her mines, she would be financially in exactly 
the same condition she is in at present (leaving 
the infiuence this would have on our agriculture 
out of the question). If traces of gold or silver 
are discovered in the direst wilderness, which 
cannot be reached without exposure to the 
greatest hardships or even risk of life, thousands 
of adventurous men stand ready to rush there, 
and millions of dollars will flow in that direc- 
tion in the hope of producing the "almighty 
dollar," in order to be shipped like all the rest 
to foreign countries in payment for one single 
commodity wiiich could be produced at home, 
and which, if this was done, would retain our 
money at home, giving employment to innumer- 
able idle hands and employing iniliious <i{ dollars 
of idle capital. It requires a vivid imagination 
to point out the influence it would have on our 
national j^rosperity if our mines continued to 
produce the precious metals, and we discon- 
tinued to ship it out of the country. 

Thecjuantity of sugarconsumed annually in the 
United States is, according to statistics, 1,800,- 
000,000 pounds. One acre of well cultivated 
land produces on an average 1,800 pounds ; it 
would therefore require exactly 1,000.000 acres 
of laud devoted to the production of sugar beets 
to produce an equal amount of value as all our 
mines produce in both gold and silver. 

It is much to be regretted that statistics 
which furnish us readily with abstract figures, 
furnish us no comparative figures. If we could 
ascertain the number of men engaged directly 
and indirectly in gold and silver mining, the 
number of actual miners, mechanics and la- 
borers from the machine factory which fur- 
nishes mining machinery through all the long 
and often crooked windings, till the bullion 
reaches the Mint, from which it emerges in the 
shape of dollars; if we could find out the im- 
mense amounts of investment the insatiable 
vampire, "mine," has swallowed without yield- 
ing any return, the most sceptic mind would be 
convinced that one-tenth part of capital invested 
and one-half of labor annually spent in mining 
would yield double the return in coin, if applied 
to the sugar production, than what the whole 
does in gold and silver mining. With other 
words, a day's labor and a dollar permanently 
invested in sugar production will give larger 
returns (and most infinitely surer and safer) 
than a like amount of labor and money invested 
in mining precious metal. 

This being an indisputable fact, is it not sur- 
prising to see thousands of men from every di- 
rection and thousands of miles distant rush to 
a barren wilderness because there are some 
" indications " that some of the hills there, 
black or white, contain traces of gold ? Nearly 
everybody will hear of these "indications" to 
make him discontented with his own lot in life, 
but very few will ever see anything of these 
hoped-for riches except the misery brought to 
the many. The question involuntarily rises to 
one's lips, why is it that thousands of men rush 
after a phantom in the distance, while there are 
nearly everywhere some of the million of acres 
of gold-producing land, each of which can be 
made to yield annually from §200 to §250? 
Why risk fortunes or let other fortunes lay idle 
when they could be invested with good returns, 
and safer and surer than in anything else ? 

In comparing the two industries, the sugar 
production and the mining, both of which are 
of exactly the same importance to the nation, 
because each involves the exact even sum of 
$82,000,000 per annum, we will find they are as 
difi'erent as two things possibly can be. The 
sugar industry being an agricultural business is 
most conservative in its character, sound calcula- 
tion and indomitable energy and application 
only can to final success. Mining, on the 
other hand, is a speculative business, luck or 
chance decide the success or failure; the miner 
"ho2}es" continually for some big thing to turn 
up. When his courage is nearly exhausted, a 
single bar of the precious metal, which he pro- 
duced, will revive it to a most wonderful degree, 
though he may have to expend the value of 
many such bars of bullion to produce the second. 

The sugar industry does not admit of luck or 
chance, as it is based entirely upon science and 
sound calculation. A man or a company can 
and ought to satisfy themselves that every re- 
quisite is at their disposal before they enter 
into the sugar industry, if every factor neces- 
sary is at their disposal, success is sure, if on 
the other hand one or more of these factors are 
wanting, failure will certainly be the result. 
The conditions and requisites necessary for suc- 

cess are but few, but these are imperative, and 
if wanting, all the hope for some good luck will 
not avail any. 

How many of the conditions to make the 
sugar industry one of the most profitable busi- 
ness do we find combined here in California ? 
But before I enumerate them let me state that, 
in speaking of the sugar industry as such, I only 
mean the production of sugar from beets, as 
this is the only sugur industry of the future. 
Last the greatest part of all the sugar pro- 
duced in the world has been produced from the 
sugar beet. Fifty years ago sugar from beets 
was almost unknown except as a subject of 
science, and 50 years hence cane sugar will be 
unknown except as a subject of curiosity. With 
the last vestiges of slavery the cane-sugar in- 
dustry will have received its death blow, as 
slavery disappears from Cuba and Brazil so will 
the production of cane sugar disappear. Chinese 
coolieism may galvanize it to life again for a 
very short space of time, as we see it in Peru 
and Cuba, but the fact is indisputable that in 
future we have to produce our own sugar or 
look to Kurope for the supply of the same. 

According to the repeated analyfes made in 
the Agricultural College of the University of 
California by Prof. Eng. W. Hilgard, sugar 
beets grown on most all the cultivated fields in 
the different parts of California are as rich in 
saccharine matter as they are in Europe, iii some 
few isolated cases where the soil needs better 
cultivation than it receives so far, a few years 
proper cultivation will produce a superior beet. 
Where the soil is too clayey, or, as commonly 
expressed, too adobe, tile-draining, sub-soiling 
and the application of coarse manure will not 
only make this kind of soil first-class for sugar 
beets but also greatly improve it for alternate 
wheat and barley crops. As the climate of 
California is the best imaginable for growing 
the sugar beets and the soil well adapted, the 
supply of raw material for manufacturing sugar 
may be considered immense. 

But under any circumstances, parties who in- 
tend to engage in this industry can ascertain, 
beyond the shadow of a doubt, it the special 
locality where they propose to locate their 
works will produce good rich beets without 
improving the soil previously. 

An ordinary size beet-sugar factory will re- 
quire 20 tons of coal per day, and a large one 
double the cjuautity. It will also require from 
three to five cubic feet of good water per 
minute during the whole day, which ought to 
be borne in mind in selecting a site for the sugar 
works. A fair sized beet-sugar factory, as they 
are constructed in Europe, will produce from 
.^2,000 to §3.000 worth of sugar per day, or 
about §500,000 worth of sugar in a season, 
which recjuires to do it a large amount of very- 
perfect machinery, and anyone attempting the 
work with insudicient or imperfect machinery, 
because they have not the capital to procure the 
other, will do better to save what little capital 
he has instead of courtmg certain failure. The 
sugar business cannot be touched without large 
sums of money. This refers to buying and sell- 
ing or to refining. Why, then, should we ex- 
pect the manufacture or production of the same 
to be different? And last, though not least, to 
secure success in the sugar industry requires ex- 
perienced and competent men to conduct the 
manufacturing part of the work. The time 
when a pick and shovel were the principal tools 
for gold mining is past long ago, and so is the 
time when a kettle and skimmer were the same 
in sugar making. 

The closest scrutiny will find that we have in 
California everything requisite for this impor- 
tant industry combined. We have the best of 
soil and climate to produce the raw material; 
of fuel, both coal and wood we have abundance; 
and of water, very often in many places super- 
abundance. Should we lack the capital, when 
the Pacific slope produces nearly all the gold 
and silver the United States annually ships to 
foreign countries? 

A few more weeks and the (juestion will be 
put to the test again: Can the beet-sugar in- 
dustry in California be made as profitable an 
undertaking as mining? And if, as the prospect 
now is, it will yield a sure profit of 4% or 5% a 
month, as it does in many cases in Europe, the 
problem is practically solved. In this case this 
important industry will be given the attention 
it so fully deserves, while it by no means follows 
that mining should be on that account neglected. 

Ek.nest Tii. Gensert. 

Alvarado, July 4th, 1879. 

Measuring Grain from the Thresher. 

EuiTOH.s — We are in a grain dispute 
up this way just now, we small farmers of the 
hill-locked valleys, who in the old-fashioned 
home way have built granaries and our good 
old-fashioned barns, that w ill hold a heap. We 
now find as the change has come o'er the spirit 
of our dreams, that the mountains with their 
valleys and their hills are turning out the 
golden stream of wheat instead of yellow dust, 
we must raise more wheat and less of the 
mixed crojjs of hay and barley. Our granaries 
are filled to overflowing with sacks, in stacks 
left on the field, and we too must seek the 
world for a market and money instead of the 
mountains. We are putting the sackliolder to 
our machine spouts and self-feeders to the 
snouts of the separators, all to lessen the cost 
of threshing. Now comes in our difficulty. 
Mr. J. says lie can afford to pay for a good 
measurer at the spout (§100 to §150 for the 
run) out of what he would lose in settling 
by putting the grain in bins and com- 

puting its solid capacity after being tramped 
upon in shoveling back and leveled down. 
Mr. D. says there is not so much loss 
as that, and maintains that there is a 
warehouse rule to make allowance for packing 
down. I have examined all the books of 
reference at hand; none of them hits the point. 
" Wells' Business Guide " gives a rule under 
the head of measuring grain and corn in the bin, 
but it's a cheat, and ought to be smutted out, as 
it does not apply to wheat at all, but to corn. 
But in my " Old Thomson's " I find a slip from 
the old Rural Calif or iiian "To Measure (irain in 
the Bin." Multiply length, breadth and depth 
together; then eight-tenths of the cubic feet is 
the number of bushels in the bin. To find eight- 
tenths of the cubic feet multiply by eight and 
cut off one decimal from the right, and you have 
it. This rule gives the true result, but does 
not count fer packing and treading. Please let 
us know how much to allow for this. 


Freestone Ranch, La Grange, Cal. 

[Will some reader help our correspondent 
with a rule for the computation he desires to 
make? — Eds. Press.] 

Poultry Diseases and Their Treatment. 

Editors Press: -Will vou please give me some irifurma- 
tiun how to remedy ^-apes in chickens two and three 
months old. I had .'iO different ages ami sizes, hut they 
are dropping away daily. I try to make them eat, stuff 
tliem with food, and pierce tlieir cro})s with a needle to 
prevent the gathering of air, hut tliey seem to drttp off 
after all. 

What is best to prevent sore eyes and partial blindness 
in chickens, with which they are trotiblcd with also here. — 
t'u.\RL£s CoLgi iiorx, Livermore, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Editors Press:— Complying with your re- 
quest, I will reply to these questions. Gap&s 
are caused by small worms in the windpipe. 
There is a large louse or tick which fastens upon 
the heads of young chicks ; they are especially 
numerous in hot weather. My idea is that the 
eggs from which the gape worm is hatched is 
deposited by the parasitic progenitor of the 
worm upon these ticks or lice, and when the lice 
approach the nostril, the egg is inhaled and 
lodges in the windpipe, becoming attached to 
the mucous membrane and there hatching. 

This is but a theory ; but this I know as a 
fact: That unless this large louse be present on 
the chick it will never be artlicted with the 
gapes. I have demonstrated that fact by re- 
peated experiments. 

The way to get rid of this louse, as described 
in my pamphlet on Domestic Poultry, is as fol- 
lows: Anoint the head of each chick with the 
following ointment well mixed: Mercurial oint- 
ment, A oz. ; crude petroleum, J oz. ; fine sul- 
phur, 1 oz. ; carbolic powder, 1 oz. ; lard, 2 oz. 
Coal tar may be used instead of crude petroleum 
where the latter cannot be obtained. This pre- 
vents the advent of large head lice which cause 
the chicks to droop and die; they are also, when 
thus treated, never subject to gapes. To cure 
those already afflicted, first anoint with the oint- 
ment spnrinr/bj, or it will kill the chick. Then 
take a shovel of live coals and pour on it a few 
drops of carbolic acid ; hold the chick in the 
fumes until the worms are killed, but be careful 
not to hold it until the chick itself is suffocated. 
The worms being killed, the chick will cough 
them up. 

Chicks afflicted with these lice are also weak- 
ened and liable to colds, " swell-head," sore 
eyes and roup, and other diseases. 

Sore Eyes, Etc. 

Editors Press : -.\ subscriber would like to know what 
is the matter with his young chii:kens. They come from 
under the hens mornings, some of them, with the eve-lids 
stuck together, so that it is necessary to puH them apart 
80 the chicken can see. The eye-lids do not swell much, 
and the swelling does not extend from the eye. Please 
prescribe treatment in Ri ral Pkess.— W. A. TR.\tv, 
Westminster, Cal. 

This trouble is the same as that mentioned by 
your Livermore correspondent, and both in- 
quiries may be answered as follows : 

A simple remedy for cold or running at the 
nose, with wheezing, is to confine the birds in a 
small house or large box, and fumigate' with 
sulphur. Place a few live coals on a shovel and 
set it in the box with a dozen fowls; throw on a 
teaspoonful of flowers of sulphur, let the box 
remain closed for five to ten minutes. Repeat 
night and morning for a few daj's. A neglected 
cold soon degenerates into roup, and very often 
the fowl is not noticed until a lump appears on 
the side of its head, or an offensive discharge 
accumulates at the nostrils. Place the fowls in 
a warm, dry place, give a good dose of castor 
oil, feed soft, stimulating food. Wash the head 
and throat with Labarraquo's solution diluted 
with three times its bulk of water. The follow- 
ing recipe for Labarraque's solution, equally 
as good as that purchased in a drug store, may 
be made very cheaply ; Dissolve one-half pound 
common washing soila in a pint of warm water, 
also one-quarter pound chloride of lime in three 
pints, mixing gradually until smooth: let stand 
a few hours; unite the two mixtures, shake, let 
stand until clear, and then pour the supernatent 
fluid into a bottle, cork tightlj' and keep out of 
the heat and sun. .-V half gallon need cost thus 
but 15 cents. A roupy fowl should be at once 
separated from the flock, as the matter which is 
coughed out or oozes from the nostril will cause 
the spread of the disease. 

Young and half-grown fowls if crowded, 
especially in summer, take cold at night. Those 
on the inside, where they are huddled together, 
become too warm, and then make their way to 

the outer edge of the flock, and there become 
chilled. Chicks hatched late and not well 
hovered by the hen during the nights which 
are so warm at nightf.all, but cold towards 
morning, also catch cold, as do those where too 
many are given to one hen. The cold becomes 
chronic, the chicken assumes a pinched look, it 
is stunted, pines away and often dies. The 
luucus may be pressed from the nostril with the 
linger. Chicks so diseased should be removed 
at once; placed in a warm,/lry place, fed stimu- 
lating food, and well housed at night. Those 
not yet attacked may be saved by removing the 
cause of the disease. It is contagious : that is, 
those roosting with others so afflicted, and 
breathing the same confined air, soon become 
sick also. M. Kvre, Jr. 

Napa, Cal. 

The California Black Wabut 

Our contributor, W. C. L. Drew, of El Dora- 
do, writes to the Rural New Yorker concerning 
the characteristics of our native black walnut. 
As there are many California readers who do 
not know this indigenous growth, for it is not 
yet introduced in many localities, we shall re- 
produce Mr. Drew's description : 

I have seen few trees which, for ornamental 
purposes, are more worthy of culture than the 
California black walnut, Juijlans niijra Cali/or- 
nica. Trees of this kind were found growing 
only in one locality in the foothills of the Sierra 
Nevada, but from there they have been intro- 
duced into nearly all sections of the .State. The 
tree is a slow trrower, and has to be from eight 
to ten years old before producing fruit, but after 
it has once borne fruit it will never fail to set a 
yearly crop. The tree grows from 20 to 40 feet 
high, is strong, hardy and well branched. The 
foliage is of a rich, dark green, and quite differ- 
ent from that of the English or Eastern walnut; 
it is unequally pinnate, compound, from 10 to 

14 inches long, the leaflets, of which there are 

15 to ;'t5on a leaf, are lanceolate in shape, about 
three-quarters to one inch across at their broadest 
])ortion and from two to three and a half inches 
in length; the foliage is very densely set on the 
tree, much more so than in the English walnut. 

The nut is from three-quarters to one and a 
quarter inch in diameter, being inclosed in a 
thick husk, which dries on the nut and has to 
be removed with the aid of a knife or other 
instrument. The shell is rather hard, reauir- 
ing the use of a hammer to break it. The meat 
of the nut is rich and pleasant to the taste, and 
is not only relishtd by children, but the "old 
folks," too, go after it. The tree is much hard- 
ier than the English walnut, growing and 
producing fruit in sections where the latter 
will not even grow. Asa shade tree, it is much 
handsomer than the other walnut varieties and 
far ahead of locus, willow, or such trees. The 
tree holds its foliage until after frost, and unlike 
other trees throughout the summer, the ground 
under it is always clean, never littered with 
leaves or other refuse. The nuts« should be 
planted as soon as ripe, without removing the 
husk, when they will germinate in from five to 
eight months. The first two seasons in very 
cold climates, I would advise a slight protection 
in winter. The nuts are ripe in September and 
October. In our grounds we h.ive six bearing 
trees, which are the admiration of aU who see 
them. When known in the East this tree can- 
not be otherwise than popular. 

The Seedling or Bud Question in Florida. 

A correspondent of the Florida Agriculturist 
writes as follows : I see an article in your last 
week's issue, copied from a correspondent of the 
Pacific Rcral, in which the writer 
makes some erroneous assertions in regard to 
budding the orange into sour orange and lemon 
stock. He says : 

" In regard to this point at issue the wild orange and 
lemon trees that abound in Florida have been liberally 
grafted, in three years beginning to yield fruit, t>ut experi- 
ence shows that after S or 11) years fruitage the orange 
begins to rim back to the parent stock, a sour or bitter- 
sweet, and the lemon, rough, thick skins and corky meat. 
A gi-eat many such groves are for sale, and as the fruit is 
sure to degenerate," he advises those conteinpla' ing set- 
tling there to "refuse to buy such groves at any price." 

You, yourself, Mr. Editor, know this to be 
an error. He says : " Experience shows, after 
8 or 10 years the fruit degenerates." Whose 
experience? A gentleman at my side suggests 
that I refer you to the famous Gwynn grove 
where the trees have been in successful bearing 
for 'M years, and where is there finer fruit to- 
day ? (io ask Captain Starke where he gets bis 
best fruit and which brings him from one to one 
and a half cents more than his neighbors. Go 
ask any one who has a grove, and the universal 
verdict is in favor of the budded stock. Where 
do we get our fine peaches or apples, or any fine 
fruit except by budding ? Do you suppose for 
a moment that you could go into any Northern 
State and .sell a seedling pear at any price Go 
through any of our large nurseries of the North 
and every one, without exception, make budding 
a .specialty. 

Commenting upon this letter the editor of the 
Aiirieulturint remarks : Most of our best groves 
in this .State are budded trees, and all the cele- 
hrated groves are so. The Hart, Gwynn, Dum- 
mett, Starke, Bishop, Harris and a number of 
others, and the fruit of these groves stand Al 
in the market, in fact we have no large grove of 
seedling oranges in full bearing, to compete with 

July 12, 1879.] 


The Use of the Feet in Sowing and 

Editors Press:— At the annual meeting; of the Ameri- 
can Association of Nurserymen, Florists and Seedsmen, 
held in Cleveland, June ISlh, a paper was read by Peter 
Henderson, of New York, which created such interest and 
called out such profitable discussion that I send you a 
copy for publication, thinking- that it would surely in- 
terest California {gardeners and farmers.— D. Wilmot Scott, 
Secretary, Galena, 111. 

Mr. Henderson's Pedal-Power Paper. 

I candidly admit, that, although I have been 
extensively engaged in gardening operations for 
over a quarter of a century, I did not fully 
realize, until a few years ago, the full import- 
ance of how indispensable it was to use the feet 
in the operations of sowing and planting. Par- 
ticularly in the sowing of seeds I consider the 
matter of .such vast importance that it cannot be 
too often or too strongly told, for the loss to the 
agricultural and horticultural community by the 
neglect of the simple operation of forming the 
soil around seed must amount to many millions 
annually. Prom the middle of April to nearly 
the end of May of this year, in many sections of 
the country, there was little or no rain; such 
was particularly the case in the vicinity of New 
York city, where we have hundreds of market 
gardeners who cultivate thousands of acres of 
cabbage, cauliflower and celery, but the "dry 
spring" has played sad havoc with their seed 
beds. Celery is not one-fourth of a crop and 
cabbage and caulillower hardly half, and this 
failure is due to no other cause than that they 
persist in sowing their seeds without ever taking 
the precaution to firm the soil by rolling. 

We sow annually about four acres of celery, 
cabbage and cauliflower plants, which produce 
probably 5,000,000 in number, and which we 
never fail to sell, mostly in our immediate 
neighborhood, to the market gardeners, who 
have, many of them, even better facilities than 
we have for raising these plants, if they would 
only do as we do — firm the seed after sowing, 
which is dene thus: After plowing, harrowing 
and leveling the land smoothly, lines are drawn 
by the "marker," which makes a furrow about 
two inches deep and a foot apart. After the 
man who sows the seed follows' another, who, 
with the ball of the right foot, presses down his 
full vveight on every inch of soil in the drill 
where the seed has been sown. The rows are 
then lightly leveled longitudinally with the 
rake; a light roller is then passed over it and 
the operation is done. By this method our croj) 
has never once failed, and what is true of celery 
and cabbage seed is nearly true of all other 
seeds requiring to be sowa during the late 
spring or summer months. 

On July 2d of 1874, as an experiment, I 
sowed 12 rows of sweet corn and 12 rows of 
beets, treading in after sowing every alternate 
row of each. In both cases those trod in came 
up iu four days, v/hile those unlirmed remained 
12 days before starting, and would not then 
have germinated had rain not fallen, for the soil 
was dry as dust when planted. The result was 
that the seeds that had been trodden in grew 
freely from the start and matured their crops to 
a marketable condition by fall, while the rows 
unfirmed did not mature, as they were not only 
eight days later in germinating, but the plants 
were also, to some extent, enfeebled by being 
partially dried in the loose, dry soil. This ex- 
periment was a most useful one, for it proved 
that a corn crop sown in the vicinity of New 
York as late as July 2d could be made to pro- 
duce "roasting ears" in October, when they 
never fail to sell freely at high rates. But the 
crop would not mature unless the seed germi- 
nated at once, and which would never be cer- 
tain, at that dry and hot season, unless by this 

The same season, in August, I treated seeds 
of turnips and spinach in the same way; those 
trod in germinated at once and made an excel- 
lent crop, while those untirmed germinated 
feebly and were eventually nearly all burned 
out by a continuance of dry, hot air penetrating 
through the loose soil to the tender rootlets. 

Of coarse this rule of treading in or firming 
seeds after sowing must not be blindly followed. 
Very early in spring or late in fall, when the 
soil is damp and no danger from heated dry air, 
there is no necessity to do so; or even at other 
seasons the soil may be in a suitable condition 
to sow and yet to be too damp to be trodden 
upon or rolled. In such cases these operations 
may not be necessary at all, for if rainy weather 
ensue, the seeds will germinate; but if 
there is any likelihood of continued drouth the 
treading or rolling may be done a week or so 
after sowing, if it is at such a season as there is 
reason to believe that it may sufler from the 
dry, hot air. 

Now, if firming the soil around seed to pro- 
tect it from the influence of a dry and hot at- 
mosphere is a necessity, it is obvious that it is 
even more so in the case of plants whose rootlets 
are even more sensitive to such influence than 
the dormant seed. Experienced professional 
horticulturists, however, are less likely to neg- 
lect this than to neglect in the case of seeds, for 
the damage from such neglect is easier to be 
seen, and hence better understood by the practi- 
cal nurserymen; but with the unexperienced 
amateur, the case is different. When he re- 
ceives his package of trees or plants from the 
nurseryman, he handles them as if they were 
glass, every broken twig or root calls forth a 
complaint, and he proceeds to plant them gin 
gerly, straightening out each root and sifting 

the soil around them, but he would no more 
stamp down that soil than he would stamp on 
the soil of his mother's grave. So the plant, in 
nine cases out of ten, is left loose and waggling, 
the dry air penetrates through the soil to its 
roots, the winds shake it, it shrivels up and fails 
to grow, then comes the anathemas on the head 
of the unfortunate nurseryman, who is charged 
with selling him dead trees or plants. 

About a month ago I sent a package of a 
dozen roses by mail to a lady in Savannah. She 
wrote me a woful story last week, saying that, 
though the roses had arrived seemingly all right 
they had all died but one, and what was very 
singular, she said, the one that lived was the 
one that Mr. .lones had stepped on, and which 
she had thought sure was crushed to death, for 
Mr. Jones weighs 200 pounds. Now, though 
we do not advise any gentleman of 200 pounds 
putting his brogan on the top of a tender rose 
plant as a practice conducive to its health, yet 
if Mrs. Jones could have allowed her weighty 
lord to press the soil against^the root of each of 
her dozen roses, I much doubt if she would now 
have had to mourn their loss. 

It has often been a wonder to many of us who 
have been workers in the soil for a generation, 
how some of the simplest methods of culture 
have not been practiced until we were nearly 
done with life's work. There are few of us but 
have had such experience. Personally, I must 
say that I never pass through a year but I am 
confounded to find that some operation cannot 
only bcquicker done, but better done than we 
have been in the habit of doing it. 

Improved Seedling Lemons. 

Editors Pkess: — One of the most promising 
features of California horticulture, is the com- 
mendable enterprise displayed by our fruit 
growers in originating new and improved va- 
rieties. Much has already been accomplished, 
considering the few years that attention has 
been directed to the subject, but with energetic 
and inteiligent cultivators, and soil and climate 
unsurpassed for the purpose, the possibilities of 
the future lead us to expect still more valuable 
results. The superior merits of the seedling 
pears originated by B. S. Fox, of San Jose, ex" 
cited the astonishment of Eastern pomologists' 
while the Briggs early peach and the Aughin- 
baugh blackberry have been the means of ex- 
tending the season of these fruits considerably 
beyond previous limits of earliness. 

Lately the semi-tropical fruit growers of the 
southern part of the State are attracting atten- 
tion by the success of their efforts in obtaining 
improved varieties of the citrus family. The 
want of a thin-skinned lemon, free from the bit- 
terness so objectionable iu most California seed- 
ling fruit, has been felt several years, but sys- 
tematic efforts at improvement are of quite 
recent date. The difficulty and expense attend- 
ing the introduction of the best varieties from 
Europe have induced careful selection and propa- 
gation of promising seedlings, until several have 
been obtained which compare quite favorably 
with the best Messina and Palermo varieties, 
while possessing the additional advantage of a 
vigor pertaining to seedling trees "to the manor 
born. " 

The specimens of seedling fruit raised by 
(ieorge C. Swan, of San Diego, which you hand 
me, at his request, for an expression of opinion, 
include four varieties, known as his Olivia, No. 
1, No. 2 and No. 3; all probably grown from 
Sicily seed. The lot included but one specimen 
of each, hardly a sufficient number from which 
to form an intelligent judgment, though prob- 
ably average samples of each kind. In general 
appearance, the specimens resemble Sicily 
lemons found in abundance in this market, 
though in several respects inferior to them. The 
Olivia, which Mr. Swan regards with most 
favor, is a handsome fruit of medium size, regu- 
lar oval shape with long, pointed projections at 
both ends, and the usual transverse furrow or 
sinews near the apex, commo\i to the Sicily 
lemon. The skin is smooth and delicate, and of 
a deep yellow color, three-sixteenths to one- 
fourth inch thick and entirely devoid of bitter- 
ness; pulp similar in color to the best Sicily, of 
excellent flavor, but deficient in juice. The 
branches forwarded with the specimen, show 
but few thorns, and those of small size. There 
is no doubt that by persistently propagating 
from thornless buds, trees will soon be obtained 
entirely thornless. The only faults that can be 
found with this lemon, are its small size, rather 
thick skin, and meager yield of juice. "This de- 
ficiency, however, may have been due to the 
somewhat dried and wilted condition of the 
specimen furnished. 

No. 1 is a handsome, good-sized lemon, with 
a skin of delicate texture, one-eighth to three- 
sixteenths of an inch thick, and somewhat bit- 
ter, but less so than in much of the Sicily fruit 
frequently found in market. This lemon is 
heavy, with an abundance of juice. Its faults 
are the bitterness of the skin and large number 
of seeds, there being 2'.i in the specimen ex- 
amined, as against 3 to 4 in the best imported. 

No 2 is of medium size, juicy and heavy, skin 
very thin, due iu part probably to the specimen 
having been taken from the tree some time ago, 
and imparting a slight bitter taste to water in 
which it had remained for 12 hours. The pulp 
is of good flavor, somewhat darker than the 
best Sicily, and containing 15 large seeds. 

No. 3, the largest of the lot, has a bitter skin, 
from one-fourth to five-sixteenths inches thick. 

and 29 well-developed seeds. The thickness of 
skin and large number of seeds are objections so 
serious as to make its propagation of doubtful 

All these lemons possess decided merits com- 
pared to nine-tenths of the California fruit sent 
to this market, but the best of them is not quite 
equal, in all respects, to the choicest imported. 
They, however, show that progress is being 
made toward a better standard of quality, and 
that continued efforts may result in a variety 
even better than any now found in this market. 
Probably no culivator in the State would now 
think of planting an orchard of common seed- 
ling lemon trees. The question, therefore, 
naturally suggests itself, which variety is it best 
to plant? We should unhesitatingly say, the 
variety that produces the best iMessiua lemons 
imported. If such trees are not obtainable, no 
mistake would be made in planting the Lisbon 
lemon. This has already been quite extensively 
propagated by our nurserymen, from trees im- 
ported from Australia, and can be obtained in 
quantities. The fruit of this variety produced 
in Australia, and now abundant in market, com- 
pares favorably with that from the Mediterra- 
nean, and if it were as carefully selected, would 
sell at equally as high prices. 


Experiments with Orange Wine. 

The constantly extending ravages of the phyl- 
loxera have induced the inhabitants of certain 
wine-growing countries to consider from what 
fruit might be obtained a product which, by ap- 
pearance, taste and bouquet, would most resem- 
ble the juice of the grape. Experiments have 
been made, and the fact has been established 
that the liquid extracted from the orange would 
constitute a resource on which to fall back. 
The first trials made showed that the oranges, 
when they have attained their full development, 
are unfit for the purpose proposed, and they 
must be selected, not when they have become 
quite mature and superabound in the sugary 
principle, but before they are wholly ripe, and 
still possess an appreciable amount of citric and 
mallic acids. At present four different sorts of 
wine have been obtained from that fruit. One 
called Imperial and a dry wine are procured in 
January with the fruit of the season; another, the 
Mandarin, is furnished by the orange grown in 
April. Those three sorts have a color pleasing 
to the eye, are perfectly translucid, have an 
agreeable flavor with a tinge of acidity, and an 
alcoholic richness of about 15%. As to the 
fourth, sparkling wine prepared by a special 
process, it possesses little more than 12% of al- 
cohol. However, the experiments made hith- 
erto are still too iusutficient, and the methods 
of fabrication too rudimentary for the article to 
be placed upon the market. Besides, another 
very important question arises, viz., if every 
success is obtained in the production, can a suf- 
ficient quantity of the fruit be procured to re- 
place the grape, and if so, what will be the rel- 
ative cost of wine from the vine of the orange? 
Doubtless, attention once turned in that direc- 
tion, we shall be provided with some sort of 
liquor, probably of excellent quality, but we 
vastly doubt whether the orange or any other 
fruit can compete with the grape. — Town and 
Country Journal. 

The Wool Trade of the Half Year. 

E. Grisar & Co., of the San Francisco Wool 
Exchange, send us their customary half-year re- 
port of the wool trade of this city for the six 
months ending July 1st, 1879, from which we 
quote as follows: 

In order to explain the exceptional features of 
our wool market for the last few months, it is 
necessary to allude to the condition of the trade 
in the East during the period ranging from July, 
1878, to April of this year, when continued de- 
pression and constant shrinkage in values were 
the marked features. 

The cause of this can readily be ascribed to 
the very unhealthy condition of the manufac- 
turing interest, which was loaded down with a 
large stock of goods and heavy monetary obliga- 
tions, accruing from a former over-production. 

Several large failures destroyed general con- 
fidence, and the uncertainty as to who was en- 
titled to credit, together with the discourage- 
ment arising from the downward course of wools, 
combined to render the outlook for the future 
very unsatisfactory. This feeling was strongly 
manifested by the conduct of buyers at the 
opening of the spring season here; and although 
prices opened at a lower range than had been 
known for many years, neither California ship- 
pers, nor Eastern buyers, showed any disposi- 
tion to speculate on a large scale. 

The improvement in trade, however, through- 
out the country, and the advance in our staples, 
especially cotton, had its effect upon our wool 
market, and early in April a demand sprung up 
which daily grew stronger, with prices gradually 
advancing, until it culminated, about the 1st of 
.lune, when most of the Eastern buyers left. 
During the past month transactions have been 
limited, as stocks have been unusually light. 
Prices, however, have not materially declined. 

During the early part of the winter there was 
a great scarcity of rain, so much so, that fears 
were entertained that we were going to have a 

dry season ; however, in February, we had 
copious rainfall, which continued much later 
than usual, spreading over the greater portion 
of the State. In some sections almost no rain 
fell, and the wools from those were dusty and 
unsightly, resembling much the wools of 1877. 

Generally, however, the clip was very superior 
in condition, soundness of growth, and, in 
northern wools especially, in length of staple 
and freedom from vegetable matter. Most of 
the wool grown in the southern and middle 
counties was either long or short stapled, and 
there was an unusual scarcity of what is called 
good stapled. The long wools, except from the 
southern coast, were generally sandy and un- 
sightly, and were for a long time neglected. 
Average staple wools, except from the sections 
affected with drouth, were bright and resembled 
the wools of 187G, and consequently were much 
sought after. Southern coast wools were, as a 
rule, in good condition and of strong staple, 
but contained more than ordinary amount of 
bur. Northern wools have been better than 
ever before, their shrinkage was exceptionally 
light, staple of good length, and of sound growth, 
and an unusual freedom from bur and seed. 
Wools generally have been free from tags and 

At no time during the spring has there been 
any large accumulation of wool. At the com- 
mencement of the season, while buyers were 
somewhat timid, receipts were small, and as 
arrivals increased, the anxiety of buyers for 
wool grew stronger, until the market became 
very excited with prices advancing almost daily. 
Wools were taken immediately on arrival, and 
stocks were smaller on June 1st than we have 
seen since the production became considerable. 
Stocks, to-day, are made up chiefly of arrivals 
during the last month, and are either composed 
of Oregon or northern wools. 

Average wools opened at 13c. for dusty and 
unsightly parcels, and 15c. for bright lots in 
good condition. These prices advanced to 18c. 
and 20c. respectively. Ordinary southern wools 
of fair staple, but having considerable bur, 
opened at 12c., and good staple parcels at 13c., 
but were afterwards taken at IGc. to 18c. Most 
of the long stapled, dusty wools brought from 
1,3c. to 15c. Choice wools began to arrive early 
in May; sales were made at 18c. to 20c., but 
under eager competition advanced rapidly to 
27c. , and for some fancy lots even higher rates 
were obtained. 

Oregon wools began to arrive earlier than 
during any previous season; most of the receipts 
are Eastern, which are in much superior condi- 
tion to those of former years. The staple is 
stronger, there is less extremely coarse, frowsy 
wool, and more freedom from alkali. The mar- 
ket opened at 20c. for good, and 22c. for choice, 
but rapidly advanced to 22^c. to 25^0. Owing 
to large receipts and small demand, prices have 
receded to nearly opening rates. 

Stocks of these are now large, and are in- 
creasing, but as yet holders are not inclined to 
meet buyers. The receipts of valley wool are 
too small to afford a reliable opinion as to its 
character. Sales have been made at 26c. to 
27c. for fair wools. 

The number of bags received during the six 
months, is larger than in 1878. The amount of 
wool in the country to come forward is less than 
last year, so that the production of spring wool 
will probably not be as much as last year, al- 
though early in the season an excess was ex- 

Freights by rail during most of the season 
have been 2JjC. per lb., and by sailing vessels, 
one cent. Sailing vessels have taken more than 
double the quantity they took last year. Manu- 
facturers are the largest shippers by this route, 
comparatively small amount going to dealers. 
Wool Production. 

Receipts at San Francisco; 

January 360 bags. 

February 181 " 

March 1,678 " 

April 18,i;88 " 

May 29,796 " 

June 10,307 " 

Total 60,910 " weighing 18,273,000 Ibg. 

Shipped exclusive of above 2,378 039 " 

Total 20,651,039 " 

On hand, January 1st, about 1,400,000 " 

Total 22,0.'jl,039 " 

Oregon, 10,911 bags 3,164,190 " 

Foreign, 81 31,596 ' 

Grand Total .' 25,246,825 " 

Comparison of Exports. 

January 1st to June 30th, 1877 29,8.55,198 lbs. 

January 1st to Juno 30th, 1878 19,120,316 " 

January 1st to June 30th, 1879 23,291,472 " 

On hand July 1st, about 9,333 bags, partially 

The weights of receipts and exports are gross. 
The usual tare of bags received is about three 
pounds each; on pressed bales shipped, 14 to 16 
lbs. each. 

Comparison with Former Years. 

1870, California Fleece 20,051,039 lbs- 

1070' " " 18,842,020 " 

IS77' " " 28,289,640 " 

lUfi' " 27,895,314 " 

luir,' " " 2:i,642,880 " 

ISVi' " " 19,3.55,082 " 

107..' « •' 14,6.58.497 " 

1070' " 12,607,280 " 

187l' " 13,381,390 " 

New Dye. — Sulphoamidoazobenzolic and 
sulphoamidoazotoluolic acids have been made 
permanent canary and orange yellow dyes by 
the conjugation of the sulpho-acids with amido- 
azobcnzol and amidoazotolual, the excess of 
acid neutralized by dissolution in alkali and 
concentrated. The colors are dyed in a slightly 
acid bath. 



[July 12, 1879. 

Correspondence cordially invited from all Patrons for this 
department. „___ 

The Patron's Pledge. 

After the supplementary declaration of pur- 
poses was adopteil at the last meeting of the 
National Grange, a pledge of devotion to the 
principles enunciated, and the co-operation of 
all good men and women invited, was also 
adopted, which reads as follows ; 

" In accordance with the above objects of our 
organization, and the methods hy which they 
are to be obtained, we pledge our unyielding 
devotion to the work marked out. We believe 
the principles enunciated in our declaration are 
in full accord with the highest welfare of our 
country, and that they deserve support, especi- 
ally by all farmers. The history of agriculture 
on this continent shows that no organization in 
its behalf has ever been attempted without 
direct effort on the jiart of those who prey upon 
its products to neutralize the work, and the 
lessons of the past, establish the conviction that 
our only hope is in the full and cordial co opera- 
tion of farmers, * wherever located, to insure 
that success which is within their grasp. 

"We appeal, therefore, to good men and 
women, whose interests are our own, to join 
their efforts with ours, confident that with their 
support we shall not wait long for the consum- 
mation of our hopes. We appeal to the agricul- 
tural journals of the land, asking their great 
influence in aid of the above objects as a potent 
means for the attainment of a great object. To 
these forces and to the intelligence of our peo- 
ple, we present the purposes which animate 
many thou.sands of farmers in every State of our 
Union, and reverently trust in the direction of 
the wise Providence by whose decree we were 
made tillers of the soil, that our efforts may be 
rewarded by the full accomplishment of the 
measures which justice demands in the relief of 
an oppressed industry and the higher enligliteu- 
ment of its votaries." 

The foregoing is the declared sentiment of the 
National Grange, the highest authority known 
in our organization who have adopted it with 
great unanimity in annual session with 28 State 
Granges represented, pledging unyielding devo- 
tion to the work marked out in the declared 
purposes of our Order, believing the same to be 
in full accord with the welfare and best interest 
of the whole country, and deserving of the 
hearty support of every good man and woman, 
and especially of every farmer. That our de- 
clared purposes arc right and just, and in ])er- 
fect harmony with the true principles of a free 
government, and in the interest of all classes, 
no man can deny, and every farmer desiring 
the best welfare of him-self, his family and the 
people, is in duty bound in justice to himself 
and his interest to admit this fact. — H. Kxh- 
haugh, W. M., Mmouri State Grange. 

What is Being Done. 

In a late paper it was asserted that the pre- 
dominant purpose of the Grange had undergone 
a change. That is, that which once seemed to 
be made of the first importance, has either 
dropped out entirely or is made subordinate to 
higher objects. The principles which underlie 
the work remain the same. The aims and pur- 
poses which the Order seeks to accomplish con- 
tinue unchanged, but the modes of reaching 
them differ. The importance and value of a 
social intercourse among the farmers is better 
appreciated, and there is a tendency to make 
the Grange meeting, even in its routine of busi- 
ness, still more social. Its pecuniary advantages 
were at one time considered the leading object, 
and engaged in many Granges almost the entire 
time of the members. There were undoubtedly 
good reasons for this. Hard times pressed sore, 
and the farmer, like everybody else, only, as he 
thought, more so, felt the pressure, and sought 
to buy in the cheapest market. The principle, 
"buy for cash in quantity and keep out of debt," 
has lifted the discouraged farmer out of liis em- 
barrassments, and while still keeping his eye on 
the main chance, sees a larger success in another 
direction. Whatever the cause, the prices of 
machinery and commodities have "comedown." 

Store-keeping has no particular attraction for 
the farmer, and is making way for a distribution 
at tlie Grange Hall of such supplies as may be 
wanted. The outlay is not large, the profits 
reasouable, and the expense nothing. 

But another tliought is gaining ground — that 
large crops raised at a minimum expense con- 
cern the agriculturist more than big prices. 
The co-operation and education of the Grange 
can solve this bettor than anything else, and 
while the organization, from its very nature, is 
progressive, we believe this, until it shall be 
attained, will directly or indirectly be made a 
conspicuous feature. — Orange Bulletin. 

Thk Mautisez Grange Warehoi'sk.— Tlie 
Gazette says: The Railroad company has ar- 
ranged with the Grangers' Business Association 
to put in a switch and lay a track up along the 
creek side of the Association's ground, so that 
grain for transportation to Oakland or San 
Francisco can be loaded directly on the care. 


FOR 15 YEARS- J1\E, 1804, TO MW., I8;». 

The fiillowine table, compiled with much care by A. Mokti-kllier, Manager of the Grangers' Bank, shows the 
fluctuation of prices in the S. F. Wheat Market, accordiagf to the monthly average quotations for good Shipping 


1864— 'l8C5— 
es I G6 

18C6 — 18C7— 18C8- iSfiD- 
67 68 I 69 70 


\i Ct8.l$ Ct8. 

Highest It 05 4 75 
Lowest. 2 60 1 90 
Average 2 82J4 3 32)4 

Highest 3 52;<i'l 90 
Lowest. 3 15 |1 70 
Average 3 SiJi 1 80 

Highest 3 .W 
Lowest. 2 55 
Average 2 90 

% cts Is cts. $ cts. $ ctE. 
1 65 !l 90 2 05 1 80 
1 iiaW C7i,-!l 90 I .55 
1 5Gii I 7S5i 1 97 k 1 C7}« 

1870— 1871— 11872— 11873- 1874— 187S— ,1876— ,1877— 1878- 
71 i 72 I 73 74 ! 75 76 I 77 78 79 

Highest 3 8i) 
Lowest. 3 50 

1 83 
1 70 

1 775s 1 V'Hl 

2 00 
1 8.5 

I 55 

II 36 

Average3 67)^ 1 92541 45 

Highest 4 37,'4'2 12 541 87)4 2 Oliil 
Lowest. 3 85 l 2 00 11 65 2 37)4190 |l 
Average 4 \\M\i OG)al 71!i 2 45 jl 9GJijl 

lHiRlieBt'4 37)4 2 15 1 93 , 2 52!4 1 95 1 
Lowest. ;3 50 2 on 1 72?4'2 47)^11 80 1 
Average 3 9394 2 OIH 1 83»;'2 60 1 8<)4'l 
I 'III'' 
Highest 4 25 2 25 I 95 l2 75 2 10 ll 
Lowest. 3 .50 2 15 1 82)4-2 47>4'l 97)« 1 
Averagp:3 87)4 2 20 1 885i;2 611^ 2 0334 1 



Highest,4 75 
Lowest. j4 25 
Average, 4 50 

Highest 5 00 
Lowest. 4 75 



jAveragej4 87)4|2 30 

Highest 5 00 
Lowest. 5 00 
.\vcrage 5 00 


iHighcst 5 00 \\ 
April. iLowest.14 77>4l 
Averagc'4 88?4 1 


Highest 4 73 1 75 2 05 '2 20 ll 60 1 
May. Lowest. 4 62>4l 02)4 1 87>4 2 07)4 1 55 1 
Average 4 68^4 1 G8?4 1 96?:i 2 13?4 1 .57)4,1 

1 85 '2 95 ]2 12)4 
1 72)4 2 70 1 97)4 
1 7854 ;2 82)4 2 05 

1 82)4 2 95 jl 97)4 
1 6754 2 82)411 75 
1 75 .2 88'4 1 8(i)4 

! I I I 

5 00 2 20 1 87)4 3 05 1 75 1 
5 00 1 95 1 70 12 .55 I 67)4 1 
5 00 2 07)4 1 78?£ 2 80 1 7U.i'l 


_ 15 2 7-2)4 1 OV 541 
2 00 2 15 ll 57 54 1 
2 0754j2 43?4 1 0254 1 

00 1 67Vi 
82"< 1 57 54 
9H4 1 0254 

Visiting the WAREnonsEs of the We.sterx 
Sacramento Valley.— The banks and business 
houses being closed on the 4th and .5th of duly, 
A. Montpellier, Manager of the (irangers' Bank, 
availed himself of the opportunity to visit the 
wheat-growing district on the Vaca Valley R. 
R. to Winters and Madison: thence along Putah 
creek to Davisville in Volo county ; thence, on 
the North Pacific R. R., to Willows and Colusa 
City: returning through Solano county to Val- 
lejo ; thence to Benicia, crossing to Martinez ; 
thence to Paoheco, Concord, and San Ramon 
valley in Contra Costa county ; thence to San 
Francisco. Mr. Montpellier's object was to see 
for himself the location, condition and tonnage 
capacity of each grain warehouse, and to confer 
with the owners and keepers about loans to the 
farmers on their grain stored at home. Over 20 
warehouses, representing a storage capacity of 
some 100,000 tons, have been visited in four 
counties, and Mr. Montpellier expresses his 
opinion that about half a million of dollars will 
be disbursed to farmers by the (Grangers' Bank 
this year, a result highly gratifying, and due 
principally to the energy of the officers of the 
bank. In this connection we would call atten- 
tion to the official statement of the Bank to the 
Bank Commissioners, which appears in our ad- 
vertising columns this week. 

The Grange contemplates three things con- 
cerning the farmer: The making of money, the 
acquisition of knowledge, and the building up 
of character — or which may be expressed in 
three words — labor, culture, fidelity. The true 
Grange keeps these coLstantly in view, and 
works to promote them. Differences of opinion 
may exist as to the best mode of attaining the 
ends aimed at ; but to insure success it will not 
do to ignore any of them. Each must have its 
due attention, because each has its bearing upon 
the farmer's life, and he only can be called a 
successful man, who has given due attention to 
all. The firange is a blessing only in the good 
which it dispenses. 

Wheat Prices. — The table of wheat prices 
which we give on this page, is reduced from the 
large sheet issued by the Bank. For the use of 
the table we are indebted to the Cali/ornia 

In Memohiam. — Sonoma County Pomona 
Grange has adopted resolutions expressive of 
honor to the memory of Bro. John L. Mock, 
Treasurer-elect of the (Jrange. 

Odd Fellows' Library Association. — We 
are pleased to note the increase of the above li- 
brary. It appears from the 24th annual report 
for 1S7>S-'J that l,6(;o volumes have been pur- 
chased during the past year, and 90 volumes 
donated. The reading room is well supplied 
not only with Pacific coast journals, but with 
all the leading American, Knglish and German 
newspapers and periodicals. The total number 
of volumes in the library is .")00. The circula- 
tion for the year was 107, .jl2 volumes, an excess 
of last year by .'i,502 volumes. From the statis- 
tics it appears that 86,427 novels were drawn 
out to 35C> theological and 2,814 scientific works, 
a result which appears in the published statis- 
tics of every library. The cabinet connected 
with the library contains many valuable and in- 
teresting articles. George A. Cames is the li- 
brarian, and to him we are indebted for a 'copy 
of the neat report. 

Harvest Field Disaster. 

.Vbout o'clock Tuesday afternoon the boiler 
of L. B. Anway's steam thresher, at work near 
Rio Vista, Solano county, exploded, injuring 
the fireman, Andrew Larson, so severely that he 
died within half an hour afterward. As the 
fireman was in the act of putting straw into the 
furnace the inside Hue collapsed, blowing out 
the fire-box, the door of which struck him with 
great force. His clothing was saturated with 
liot water and steam and his face was somewhat 
scalded. Mr. An way, who was standing beside 
the engine, within two feet of the fireman, says 
that the steam gauge indicated a pressure of 
only 85 pounds. 

On Wednesday the Coroner's inquest was 
held, and after hearing the testimony of im- 
partial experts who had examined the boiler 
subsequent to the explosion, rendered a verdict 
\f herein they found that the explosion was the 
result of a defective boiler. The engineer testi- 
fied that there wa.s plenty of water in the boiler 
at the time of the explosion, and, so far as can 
be ascertained, no blame is attaclied to him. 
Indeed, there was nothing in the evidence suffi- 
cient to inculpate anyone. The boiler, it ap. 
pears, has served in its present capacity since 
1873, prior to which time it had been in use 011 
a dredger for a number of years. 

California Grapes in Indiana. — We read in 
the report of the Indiana State Board of Agri- 
culture, which we have just received from the 
Secretary, Alex. Heron, that the thanks of the 
Board were lately voted to Mr. J. C. Wtin- 
berger, of St. Helena, Napa county, Cal., for 
the display of grapes he made at the Indiana 
State fair last fall. It is a good thing to make 
these displ.iys at the Eastern fairs where our 
producers find it convenient to do so. The 
displ.iys need not be made in the same spirit 
and with the same State glorification which has 
inspired such exhibits heretofore. Such things 
are wellenough, l)ut itismore important nowthat 
we should show our fine fruit products so as to 
attract the attention of Eastern consumers to 
the quality we have for preserving, etc. It is 
but a step from California grapes to California 
raisins, so the excellence of one will foreshadow 
the desimbility of the other. Mr. Weinberger 
did well to make a display at the Indiana State 
fair and we congratulate him upon the recogni- 
tion he secured. 

Lo.MPOc Colony. — Reports from Lompoc tem- 
perance colony in Santa Barbara county speak 
of the continued success of the colony enterprise, 
and of the prosperity of residents. The char- 
acter of the community which has gathered un- 
der the auspices of the colony association proves 
the wisdom of the system which was adopted 
and the list of produce exports show rapid 
agricultural growth. It may be seen by the ad- 
vertisement of the company that land is still 
accessible, and the claims of the locality should 
certainly be ascertained by those in search of 
new homes. 

The Sackett School. — Prof. D. P.Sackett, 
who will open theSackett school in Oakland, July 
15th, is well known and highly recommended 
as an educator. The school will be for boys 
and young men, and is both a boarding and day 
school. Prof. Sackett's prospectus, of which we 
have received a copy, shows that the school 
will extend many advantages to students. 



In.ii'rie.s to Wheat. — 7V);ioA, July 5: The 
late rains we had this season have injured the 
wheat crop, but we hope not to a serious extent. 
On some of the bottom lands, the wheat is 
down badly and the damp is producing rust. 
We hear also of indications of rust where the 
graiu is not laid. A deterioration of 30% would 
be a moderate estimate of the injury caused to 
wheat by the late rains. 

Ai.MOXD Profit.— Antioch Ledger, July 5: 
It is said of late that there is too much uncer- 
tainty, too many off years in almond bearing for 
profit in orchards of that kind in this State. 
That may be so in some localities; but we hope 
and believe that ours will prove an exception. 
This week we drove out to Mr. Wm. Darby's 
place, six miles south of town, and through his 
beautiful almond orchard now heavily laden 
with the paper shell nuts. About 800 trees are 
in bearing with the third successive crop. The 
oldest portion of the orchard is but six years 
growth, the other much younger. The first 
year they bore, they gave him $50 profit; the 
second, §200; this, the third, he thinks they 
will yield S7<:0 or ?S00, and we should think 
that he is not mistaken. Mr. Darby has full 
confidence in the profit of the enterprise, and is 
making considerable addition to his young trees. 
His cultivivtion of the orchard land is pleasant 
and profitable to look upon, deep plowed, well 
harrowed and smoothly rolled until it is as 
handsome as a well kept door yard, while as 
mellow as an ash-bank; not a green weed saps 
the moisture needed by the trees, not an atom 
goes ofl'by evaporation that can be retained' by 
a well mulched cultivation. 

A Place where Potatoes are Worth 
Somethino. — Republican, July 3: Our moun- 
tain farmers realize more for their products than 
do the valley farmers, with the chances of a 
good average crop greatly in favor of the 
former, and yet our mount.iin farmers are com- 
plaining of low prices. While in the Southern 
counties potatoes are selling at 2>') to 50 cents per 
100 pounds, our farmers are getting from §1.50 
to §2, with nearly every product in the same 

EoYPTLVN Corn. — Fresno Republican, July 5: 
Although our first experience in raising Egyp- 
tian corn may not have come up to our hopes or 
anticipations, enough has been demonstrated to 
place it in the front rank of our cereals. For a 
farmer with but a limited amount of land, in 
our opinion no grain can equal it. Planted on 
moist ground^with scarcely any cultivation it 
will return a yield of 25 bushels or upward per 
acre, and if well cultivated, and on good land 
there is no trouble in getting 60 bushels and 
upward per acre. The grain for poultry, horses 
or swine is more valuable pound for pound than 
any grain .ve know of. The white variety 
makes excellent bread when ground, and many 
people use the whole grains in place of rice, and 
prefer it to the best Carolina. Mr. Harbaugh, 
of the Central Colony informs us that last fall 
he fed large quantities of the stalks and partly 
matured heads to his horses and cattle and that 
they did well on it. There is still time enough for 
people on irrigated lands to plant, and for home 
consumption, no grain is so convenient or valu- 

Im.micr.vtion Projects. — Courier Cali/or- 
nian, July 5: In this county great change has 
been made in the ownership of the territory ad- 
jacent to the town, and it is presumed such a 
liberal policy will be adopted by the new pro- 
prietors as will greatly aicl in advancing every 
languishing interest. The plans of immigration 
adopted by Messrs. Haggin & Carr are the most 
comprehensive ever undertaken in the State, 
and if they attempt the fulfillment of them as 
is proposed, this year, the change in Kern 
county will not be exceeded anywhere. Nu- 
merous letters come to this office and to Mr. C. 
Brower, of inquiry about the valley, and hun- 
dreds are ready to come as soon as the way is 
made clear. We are promised full details of 
the plan of settlement to be entered into by the 
large land proprietors, and the men who have 
the matter in hand do not know how to do half 
way work with it. 

The Cold Season. — Susanville Advocate, 
June 20: Last Saturday there was a fearful 
gale of wind blowing all day, causing the air to 
be filled with clouds of dust. Sunday there was 
considerable wind, and as the sun went down 
the weather became quite cold, so much so that 
in many places there was severe frost. We 
hear that along Susan river, potatoes and other 
vegetables were frozen. ^Vhether grain is in- 
jured or not remains to be seen. 

Hayixc. — The ranchers in this- valley are 
now very busy cutting hay, and complain that 
the crop will average very light. 

Crops. — Lower Lake Bulletin, July 5: The 
crops in this vicinity have never yielded such 
large returns to the farmers as they are doing 
this year. Hay is yielding, on an average, about 
a ton and a half to the acre, while grain is turn- 
ing out from 45 bushels up, to the acre. Lake 
will be the banner agricultural county this year, 
in proportion to its acreage. 

July 12, 1879.1 




P'rdit for Arizona.— /oM/-«ai, July 1: 
Apples, pears, peaches, and a full line of small 
fruits are now in market in an abundance. We 
are told that an average of two tons per day- 
are now being shipped from thi.s city, the most 
of which goes to Arizona. 

Grapes.— Downey City Outlook, July 5: 
The vineyards of Los Angeles county are loaded 
with grapes this season beyond any former year 
remembered. Prices will be good, and the 
grape growers will be the most successful 
farmers in the State. Many new vineyards 
will be planted next winter, and henceforth the 
business of grape growing become the leading 
horticultural pursuit in southern California. 

Whitk Australian Wheat. — We have be- 
fore us a fine specimen of wheat, of the White 
Australian variety, grown on the farm of J. S. 
p]lliot near New river. The stalks are some four 
and one-half feet, the grains are well developed, 
free from rust, no irrigation has been used, and 
the early sown fields were pastured. 

Alfalfa Growth.— AV/jj-css, July 5: 
eral Shields has sent to this office a package or 
specimens of alfalfa stalks grown on his ra^ch, 
near Florence. One sample measures 67 inches 
in length; one, 105; and two, 106 inches. T'ns 
exhibit and the letter published in another col- 
umn were provoked by a paragraph appearing 
in a recent number of the Express, describing a 
new grass introduced in Eastern dairy districts 
from .Java. This grass measures eight feet in 
length. It will be seen by the above that the 
alfalfa samples now in this office measures from 
one to ten inches more than eight feet. 

Propo Wheat. — Argus, July 5; M. D. At- 
water, informed us on the 24 inst. , that he com- 
menced on that morning to harvest a field of 
2,700 acres of wheat. Mr. A. has for some 
years past planted largely of the variety of 
wheat known as Propo, and this year has the 
most of his land seeded in it. He claims for 
the Propo several advantages over any variety 
ever introduced into this valley, among which 
are — it matures early, yields largely, stands 
drouth well, and brings the highest price in the 
market. In the dry seasons of the past few 
years, he has been one of the few who have 
succeeded in making a crop. 

The Salinas Valley. — Democrat, June 28: 
Within the fog belt in our valley harvest opens 
favorably; compared with last year, the yield is 
much better, some farmers saying, indeed, that 
it is as good as in almost any previous season. 
The year being a comparatively dry one, this 
shows, of course, the beneficial efTects of the 
fogs, but it is true, nevertheless, that they but 
partially supply the place of irrigation. In this 
connection, Paris Kilburn makes a very inter- 
esting report of the results of irrigation in the 
Orestimba country from the Miller canal. 
Where the water has been applied — and but 
once — luxuriant fields of alfalfa and grain are 
the result, farmers saying that the increased 
yield, over that of seasons of good rains, more 
than pays the cost of the water and its applica- 
tion. Irrigation will cause the great San Joa- 
quin valley to become as famous for production 
as the delta of the Nile, and must, through its 
example, establish the like enterprises in coast 
valleys, such as ours. 


A Stool of Oats. — Register, July 5: To-day 
K. R. Hiimpton, who farms on what was once a 
portion of Hartson's adobe rapch, bi'ought into 
this office a sample of oats raised by him this 
season. The variety was the white cultivated 
wild oat, and the stalks numbered upwards of 
130 — the growth of one seed, each stalk well 
headed and about four feet high! This shows 
plainly what a thorough cultivation of our pro- 
lific soil will do. 

Harvesting.^ — Enterprise, July 4: Harvest- 
ing has commenced in earnest. Most of the 
barley has been cut and stacked and the clippers 
are cutting wheat. We learn from several of 
the farmers that there will be a very good crop 
of grain harvested this season, and in some 
parts of the valley the crop is equal to any of 
former years. This is somewhat encouraging. 
To have a failure of crops this season, would 
have ruined farmers in many instances, as 
several of them are involved to such an extent 
that nothing but a bountiful harvest will bring 
both ends together. 


The Honey Failures. — Index, July 3: Bee 
men, both in this county and in San Diego, are 
complaining severely of the shortage in the 
honey product. Wonder what the busy little 
insects have been about ? Many of our bee- 
keepers say they will liave none at all to sell. 
A gentleman from San Diego predicts that less 
than one ton will be shipped from that county 
this season against hundreds of tons last year. 
This is certainly a fearful falling off, and must 
tend largely to increase the scarcity of money. 

Bananas. — The banana is fruiting in T. V. 
Keeler's garden in our city. We learn that 
several have fruited before in this county, and 
no doubt some day they will be among our val- 
uable productions. 

The Bees. — Valle do los Viujas Cor. News, 
J uly 4: Although we have had but eight inches 
of rain during the season, crops are perhaps 
above the average, but water is extremely- 
scarce for the time of year, but no serious fail- 
ure in that line is anticipated. Bees are act- 
ually starving, and unless there is some depar- 

ture from the regular rule of nature, there will 
be scarcely any saved through without feeding. 

Foes of the Orchardist. — Spring Valley 
Cor. News: "Eternal vigilance is the price of 
liberty," said Jefferson, and I may say with 
truth that eternal vigilance is the price of all we 
try to raise. The first crop of figs (brevas) has 
been trying to become ripe enough to eat for 
some two or three weeks, but the linnets will 
not permit anything of the kind. They began 
on the figs before the fruit was grown, and only 
by poisoning 300 or 400 have we been able to 
eat some half ripe ones. There was an unusu- 
ally large supply of the brevas, and they are 
generally larger than the aftercrops. Mr. Bur- 
beck, for the same reason, has not been able to 
have any apricots, and has had to make use of 
partly ripe ones, generally began on by the 
birds, or go without. My vineyard is alive 
with doves, linnets and quail, all of which, to 
say nothing of the worst enemy of all, the bee, 
are just holding on for the early grape. lean 
kill the birds with poison, as I do every year, 
and thus save some fruit, but for "little busy 
bee" something else must ~be resorted to, and I 
have a recipe which I shall try on in due time. 


Stacking Grain. — Times, July 5: Farmers 
are busily engaged in cutting and reaping and 
putting their grain into the stacks. Prices 
being very low for grain, a large number of 
farmers are stacking theirs. This grain is 
stacked without being bound, some believing it 
will thresh as well, and, 'of course, at lower ex- 
pense than if bound. 


Los Alamos. — Press, July 5: Dr. Shaw, 
who has just returned from the Los Alamos 
Rancho, brought with him some fine specimens 
of wheat and barley from that section. The 
wheat, which was of the Proper and Sonora 
varieties, was well filled out, the heads being 
long, and the berry round and plump. The 
Chevalier barley looks remarkably well and 
will yield from 24 to 30 bushels to the acre. 
The whole section is doing splendidly and the 
croijs will be large and of good quality. The 
fire, week before last, burnt over some 2,700 
acres and destroyed a large amount of feed, but 
will prove a benefit in the end by clearing up 
the brush and fallen trees which covered the 
ground, and it is thought the grass next year 
will show the effect by a richer growth. 

Mysterious Sheep Disease. — Russian River 
Flag, July 3: Michael Young, of Alexander 
valley, gives us the following particulars, and 
requests us to ask for information or a remedy: 
About the 1st of May he and his neighbors. 
Hall & Critchfield, dipped their sheep, aggre- 
gating 2,000, in a solution of tobacco, sulphur 
and lime, into which had been thrown three 
boxes of concentrated lye. Since that time out 
of 900 belonging to Young Bros. & Cagwin, 150 
have died, giving no signs of sickness up to the 
moment of dropping, an autopsy showing only 
the lights and liver diseased. Those of Messrs. 
Hall & Critchfield are now going likewise. The 
dipping was supposed to be done so that none 
of the liquid entered the system, and pastures 
have since been changed several times. Opinions 
through the Rural Press or Flag are solicited, 
as the mortality continues. [Will some reader 
give us information covering such a case and 
describe any remedy which can be employed ? 
We should suppose that any poisoning resulting 
from the dip would have manifested itself much 
sooner. — ^Kds. Press.] 

California as a Wine Country. — Enter- 
prise, July 3: One day this week we had the- 
pleasure of a visit to J. G. Bermel's winery, in 
north Healdsburg. He says that in his opinion, 
based upon knowledge and close observation, 
California is even a more desirable place for the 
manufacture of wine than France. In the latter 
country the summers are generally too short to 
permit of a proper ripening of the grape; gener- 
ally it is not more than one season in ten that a 
really good vintage is secured. Here, where 
the climatic conditions are so favorable to the 
culture of the grape, every facility is offered 
that can tend to success. Mr. Bermel is hope- 
ful that wine-making will eventually be the 
most prominent industry of this coast, particu- 
larly in those sections where table or foothill 
land most abounds. He says this quality of 
land is the very best for grape-growing, and 
considers that a good vineyard on such soil 
will, eventually, be more profitable than a like 
number of acres on the bottom, where cereals 
are produced. In regard to his choice of grapes, 
he says foreign varieties are preferable — that 
they make better wine and command a better 
price by one-fourth or even one-third than will 
the Mission grape. Mr. Bermel recommends 
first of all the Zinfindel, and next to that the 
Malvoisie— both good bearers, and excellently 
adapted to wine-making. 


The Harvest. — Herald, July 3 : The harvest 
is now in full blast — heading and threshing 
being prosecuted vigorously in all directions. 
The yield, as far as ascertained from the 
threshers, is in excess of the estimate. Crops 
estimated to yield seven or eight bushels upon 
being threshed turned out 10 and 12 bushels. 
Summer-fallow crops estimated to yield 18 or 20 
bushels liave yielded as high as 25 and 30. As 
is usually the case, the actual yield, when come 
to threshing, is larger than the estimate. 

EniroKs Press: — Summer is fairly inaugu- 
rated. Harvest is progressing; fruit is ripening, 
and pleasure seekers are at the seaside, But 

the husbandman seldom finds leisure for recre- 
ation, or even improvement, except to improve 
his farm. Everything and every other man is 
heading towards Bodie. The return tide will 
soon set in, and then charity on a large scale 
sets in, if the future pan out as the past. It is 
a freak of nature to follow excitements, whether 
it be a "camp meeting" or a Eraser river. The 
excitement about Bodie is producing quite an 
extra activity in this county. The "Mono 
road " is being utilized for the conveyance of 
supplies. Fruit is one of the staples sent, re- 
lieving us of our extra supply. A party from 
Hill's Ferry, on the San Joaquin, brought into So- 
nora two wagons loaded with bacon and hams, 
and was obliged to carry them back for lack of 
market, nine cents being the price by wholesale 
for bacon, retailing for 12 cents. It seems as if a 
market could be found for home-made articles, 
when so much of the same are brought from 
Chicago. Home produce should receive atten- 
tion in the first place. Apples are under a 
cloud — of coddling moths. I fear for this sea- 
son's crop. Pears are an extra crop ; peaches, 
moderate. A very full crop of any variety 
seems to ensure a short one for the following 
season. Figs seem to thrive in this region 
better than any other fruit. The warm belc of 
the foothills seems especially adapted to their 
propagation. Our first crop is now ready for 
market, but no market within any reasonable 
distance. The fruit is particularly large and 
fine, but first crops will not dry so as to keep, 
or be of any use, except it may be for pickles. 
Figs made into a sweet pickle are delicious. — 
John Taylor. 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co. 's Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are worthy 
of special mention: 

Boring Implement. — William Heyn, S. F. 
Dated May 27th. This invention relates to 
certain improvements in implements for boring; 
and it consists in a novel construction of a cir- 
cular cutter, the lower or boring end of which 
is in shape and form like that of the usual 
double twisted augers, having a dovetailed or 
other suitably formed slot, locking or centering 
device across its diameter, and also two grooves 
running at right angles from the above-men- 
tioned slot towards a gimlet-pointed screw in the 
lower or boring end through which the shavings 
are baing discharged towards the operator while 
boring. In combination with this the inventor 
employs either a plain and smooth or a partly 
twisted stem or shank, having a beveled or 
other suitably formed projection or locking 
device, which fits those of the circular cutter in 
such a manner as to unite the two principal and 
vital parts into one solid whole, thus forming a 
veritable borer. 

Direct- Acting Horse Power. — L. Herbert 
and Wm.V. Henry, Hicksville, Sacramento Co. , 
Cal. The improvement consists in mounting on a 
horizontal bar moving in anti-friction devices 
between suitable guides, two pulleys which 
alternately pass in and out of depressions or 
corrugations formed on the periphery of a hori- 
zontal driving wheel, as the wheel is rotated. 
A rectilinear motion being thus imparted to the 
driving bar, and power being directly trans- 
mitted to a knee lever operating the pitman of 
a pump or similar device, without the interven- 
tion of any gearing. 

Ea.stern Nurserymen and the Tree Ped- 
dlers. — At the nurserymen's association meet- 
ing lately hold at Cleveland, Ohio, the subject 
of abuses by fraudulent tree peddlers was dis- 
cussed. The conclusions and recommendations 
arrived at were in brief as follows. Agents 
could not be dispensed with because they must 
be relied upon to bring the stock to the atten- 
tion of tree planters. Though the nurserymen 
deplore the tendency to exaggerate and mis' 
represent, on the part of unscrupulous dealers^ 
yet they assert with confidence that there are 
many honorable and entirely reliable dealers 
who are worthy of confidence, and should have 
the encouragement of all nurserymen and tree 
planters. It was decided that nurserymen 
should as far as possible control the grading 
and labeling of trees when packed upon their 
own grounds and use all other available means 
to do justice to the purchaser and planter. The 
society recommended all nurserymen to author- 
ize by proper certificate and letter their regular 
agents or dealers found worthy, and use all 
proper endeavors to expose dishonest and dis- 
reputable swindlers. 

BuHACH. — We notice that Mr. Milco of 
Stockton is again before the public in our adver- 
tising columns with his "Buhach" of California 
grown insect powder. We have found this in- 
secticide very effective. When we placed the 
first loaf of bread upon the pantry shelves in 
our new house, the possession of it was imme- 
diately contested by thousands of ants. Hav. 
ing a little package of Buhach we dusted it 
about the pantry and the ants disappeared im- 
mediately. Since then we have kept tliem com- 
pletely at bay by an occasional dusting of Bu- 
hach. We also found a rose bush beset with 
apliides. The yellow dust cleared it in a few 
minutes. These are facts of personal experi- 
' ence. 

News in Brief. * 

Port-au-Prince, Hayti, is in flames and all 
business suspended. 

The potato bug is doing much damage in up- 
per St. John, N. B. 

The strength of the Egyptian army has been 
fixed at 12,000 men. 

California and Consolidated Virginia pass 
dividends this month. 

Mutinies and revolts prevail in Mexico, and 
a reign of terror exists. 

A RAILROAD is about to be constructed across 
the Australian continent. 

There are 7,000 more colored residents than 
whites in Charleston, S. C. 

Many persons in England have been poisoned 
by licking postage stamps. 

The Chinese have taken Kashgar. Now let 
somebody take the Chinese. 

There are 300,000 seamen employed on the 
rivers and lakes of the West. 

Szegedin, Hungary, cannot be rebuilt this 
year, owing to the high water. 

Two HUNDRED AND FIFTY emigrants from Ice- ■ 
land are en route to Minnesota. 

Not one of the Imperial Napoleons has died 
in France, or upon French soil. 

Yellow fever is raging in epidemic form in 
nearly all the South Atlantic islands. 

In Texas there are 30,000 white children over 
eight years of age who cannot read. 

SiGNOR Cairoli has been intrusted with the 
task of forming a new Italian Cabinet. 

On June 22d a monument to Boccaccio is to 
be unveiled at his birthplace, Certaldo. 

Silver in London, 51J; consols, 98 1-16@9SJ; 
5% U. S. bonds, 106; 4s, 104i; 44s, lOSg. 

The devastations committed by grasshoppers 
in southern Siberia is said to be appalling. 

A MAN cannot fight well when down, but a 
cucumber does its best fiahting when down. 

A Nashville man has just received from 
England four dogs which cost him §1,000 each. 

The sum of !J31,000 was presented to Mr. 
Spurgeon on his completion of a pastorate of 25 

At Liverpool wheat is quoted at 83 6d@9s 4d 
for average California white, and 9s 2d@9s 8d 
for club. 

A Chinaman's queue shall not be cut off, but 
a white man's hair shall be. The U. S. Court 
says so. 

A SINGING canary in a cage is the most recent 
novelty offered as a premium by a religious 

San Luis Park, Colorado will be the toll 
gate of the confluent lines of way travel of the 
unified nations. 

Last Monday was the 32d anniversary of the 
raising of the Bear flag, and the first election of 
officers in San Francisco. 

In the museum in the Ordnance Bureau at 
Washington are the pistol and the bullet with 
which Booth shut Lincoln. 

The first car wheels manufactured in this 
State, south of San Francisco, have just been 
turned out by a Los Angeles house. 

LiEOT. Carey who was with the Prince 
Imperial on his ill-fated trip, is to be court- 
martialed for not stopping the Zulus. 

The population of Guaymas is 7,000, and of 
Hermosillo, 12,000. The distance from Guay- 
mas to the boundary line is 250 miles. 

Six thousand Chinamen are at work on the 
Texas Pacific railroad. Gov. J. C. Brown de- 
clared that none should work on that road. 

In San Francisco half dollars are quoted at 99 
buying, 99^ selling; trade dollars, 98 buying, 
93 selling; Mexican dollars, 93 buying, 93 sell- 

Glass, the product of silica and an alkali, 
was known prior to 3,000 B. C. ; made in Alex- 
andria, and cut, colored and gilded 300 years 
B. C. 

In New York Government bonds are quoted 
at lOlg for 43 of 1907; 103f for 5s of 1881; 106J 
for Us; sterling, |4.S6^@4.88i; silver bars, 
113;^; silver coin, .f@l discount. 

The stomach daily produces about nine pounds 
of gastric juice for the digestion of the food ; 
its capacity is about five pints. — E.c. [Nine 
pounds ought to be enough without any other 

The cause of the unity and uniformity of our 
popul.ation and of our exalted and permanent civ- 
ilization is due to the fact that North America is 
concave in its structure, while other continents 
are convex. 

The new steel bridge over the Missouri river, 
at Glasgow, Mo., is the finest bridge of the kind 
in the world. It is nearly 500 feet long, and 
every strand is warranted to bend double before 
it will break. 

Altala bay, at the junction of the river Culi- 
can and the Gulf of California, is to be the ter- 
minus of a railroad instead of Guaymas. The 
harbor is well protected and the water 60 feet 
deep at low tide. 

The grinding and finishing of the object glass 
for the great telescope for which the Russian 
government has apjjropriated 250,000 roubles, 
will probably be intrusted to Alvin Clark & 
Sons, of Cambridge, Mass. 

Ad.iu.stable Chair. — Our advertising col- 
umns contain an announcement of one of the 
most important mechanical contributions to the 
comfort of mankind which the inventor has 
produced. It is called the "Wilson adjustable 
chair," and is most highly commended by those 
who have used it in the many ways to which it 
is adapted. Those who desire such a protean 
comfort in their homes should send for the 
illustrated circular, from which many hints of 
its usefulness and value can be obtained. 



[July 12. 1879. 

One by One. 

One by one the samls are flowing, 

One by one the moments fall; 
Some are comin;;, some arc goin^ — 

Do not strive to grasp them all. 

One by one thy duties wait thee, 
Let thy whole strenyth so to each; 

Let no future dreajns await thee; 
Learn thou firat what these can teach. 

One by one bright frifts from Heaven, 

Joys are sent thee here below; 
Take them readily when given, 

Ready, too, to let them go. 

One by one thy griefs shall meet thee— 

Do not fear an armed band. 
One will fude as others greet thee. 

Shadows passing through the land. 

Do not laugh at life's lone sorrow. 
See how small each moment's pain; 

God will help thee for to-morrow; 
Every day begin again. 

Every hour that fleets so slowly 

Has its task to do or bear; 
Luminous the crown, and holy. 

If thou set each gem with care. 

Do not linger with regretting, 

Or for passion's hours despond; 
Nor, the daily toil forgetting. 

Look too eagcrly.beyond. 

Hours arc golden links, God's token 

Reaching heaven; but one by one 
Take them, the chain DC broken. 

Ere thy pilgrimage be done! 


What Some Men Say When They Talk. 

(Written for the KiRAI, Prkss by Howi.ett Kldridok. J 

A Reply to Rhodra Dendron. 

"How do you do? I enjoy extremely late 
nights at the 'Heart's Content' saloon. I 
couldn't begin to tell you all the games, win- 
nings and high old times we have there. Tom 
Slocum lost $.34 at draw poker; Joe Hard run a 
high-handed bluff and hauled in a pot of $23 on 
a pair of deuces; blast his cheek, 1 held a pair 
of queens myself. Sam Keen got away with 
$11 at euchre; I only lost $7.50, though. 

"Sed .Schooner took on such Take a 

cigar. No. one, lloj'al Havanas; dirt cheap, too; 
only $15 a box. As I was saying, Tom took on 
such a cargo of Conkling sling, Maderia pure 
and old Tom, that we had to pilot him home. 
He no sooner got into the house than he began 
to sling things at the old Tom cat. Missing 
him, he smashed his new meerschaum all to 
smithereens. That m.ade him so mad that lie 
slapped the twins and threw the lamp at his 

"I only took a few glasses of ale-nog straight, 
but that ain't what ails me this morning and 
makes me so far from '.straight,' for after I got 
to bed I could not get a wink of sleep. The 
baby had the croup, and Ora squawked with 
the earache, till I ached all over. The old wo- 
man said it was brought on by the child run- 
ning barefooted on the damp ground, but a 
fellow can't afford to buy shoes these doggoned 
hard times. After I had dragged myself out of 
bed this morning, the old gal almost drove me 
to something desperate, by lecturing me some 
thing about no meat, no wood, etc. I didn't 
pay much attention, for what did I want of 
meat, I wasn't hungry ! As for wood, I felt so 
much like wood that I could scarcely move; 
and what on earth she wanted of fire I could 
not imagine, for I was already burning with 
thirst and auger at being" 

"0, yes; I know what it is to be hectored and 
lectured all the time. Why, I h.ive had snakes 
in my boots, blindstaggers and the blues. A 
few days ago I lost heavily in stocks; last night 
1 bucked against the 'tiger' and was swamped 
to the tune of §.300; and this very morning 1 
was threatened with a suit if I did not pay 
Sharp & Flint the few hundred dollars I bor- 
rowed a few years ago. The old skinHiuts 
would rob a fellow if he was not mighty sharp. 
Why 1 haven't— take some fine-cut Jackson's 
Best. Away up price, too— known a happy 
day since the honeymoon. I tell my wife that 
it is a shame for her to be so unsympathetic. 
She don't know what I do endure, and" 

"No, of course not, how should they know? 
Women never have our trials. Besides, thev 
are selfish, unfeeling things, anyway. It is a 
blessing they do not know all we know and say, 
if they did there would be no living with them 
at all. As it is they know enough, and they 
pretend to be quite disgusted with what they 
call our filthy habits. And no wonder some men 
are so filthy and conceited as to disgust a 
chicken rooster. 

" would — thanks, I will take a 'chaw' 
of old Navy for a change— the world come to if 
they knew all our ways of getting pleasure. 
They are not quite fools if they are women. 
They are so apt at comparing; and comparisons 
are odious. Time you have lived as long as I 
hftve, you'll not have as good an opinion of 

them. Truth is they are a conceited, heartless, 
rattle-headed crowd of vile consumers, caring 
for nothing but dress I dress ! Doing nothing 
but eternally scolding and criticizing, and tell- 
ing us what is best for us. The very idea of 
their presuming to counsel us is unbearable to 
every man who has a mind of his own. Got a 
match ? " 

"Have you heard Ray lecture ? I would not 
go across the street much less pay oO cents 
these hard times. What good is it going to do 
any one to hear him spout about the 'Charms 
of home, domestic felicity and family harmony.' 
All bosh, 1 will assure you." 

"Yes, a deal of it; but, by the way, he tells 
some truth when he says that if men would 
h.ave pleasant homes they must help make them 
so. If husbands spend all their leisure time in 
bar-rooms and at the clubs, away from the love 
and confidence of wife, away from the sanctity 
of daughter and cheer of innocent childhood, 
they must expect the tender plant of love to be 
chilled and frozen by criminal neglect. Such 
talk sounds very nice, but I don't go much on 
him either. Is «ot that a noble animal of 

Browns, I would give a " 

"You bet she is a clipper. What a pity she 
caught cold in the last storm, for Brown says 
she is not fit to be at the races next week. Sin, 
too ! for I was going to put up heavy on hec. 
What will you take ? I'll take whisky straight. 
I don't often do that, but I feel so stupid and 

nervous like. Here is too " 

"Were you down to the shooting match ? 
There was some terril)le fine scratching done 
there. That Bangs is a capital shot, if he is 
kind to his wife. But I had put in some fine 
shots with my hundred and fifty dollar new 
patent Creedmoor, and was five scores ahead of 
him, when I had the infernal luck to get my 
eye powder burnt and after that I could not 

shoot worth a " 

"That was too bad, I would like to have seen 
you come out ahead old boy. There goes that 
temperance lecturer. Well I suppose teetotal- 
ism will do for the weak-minded that cannot 
stop when they get enough, but as for me I 
know (liic) when to quit. He is badly fooled 
if he thinks of getting any of the 'boys' to take 
up with his foolishnesb. He ought to be out at 
work, rather than sponging his living oH' his 
betters, turning respectable men against a (hie) 
harmless toddy, and ruining the government by 
killing the revenue. Take another snort, pard. 
This is the genuine truck. Have a jolly good 
time when j'ou can is my motto. What if a 
fellow does have a headache or the blues after 
a while, why just brace up again and be as 
happy as a gumdrop." 

"Hoy, so ! ole chum; you're a solid old 
cronie. A little stimulus is necessary, espe- 
cially when one has to work so hard to keep up 
appearances and make a half decent living, 
which would be the easiest thing out if a chap 
could get into some fat office. Were you at the 
last mass meeting? It was laughable, wasn't 
it ? Now that old I'oper has got nominated I 
expect they will pop him right into the legisla- 
ture, and he don't know half as much about 
politics as my wife's poodle. The bigger fool a 
man is the more likely he is to get shoved right 

into position, and " 

"That is so, by jingo ! Jemima ! I wish I 
was as near a blockhead, could drink as much 
bad liquor, and was as consummate a coward as 
old Wiggle, I might stand some chance of run- 
ning for sherift." 

"Yes, indeed, yon would get elected, sure. 
Well, I must be going. I suppose you will be 
down to the club to-morrow night? We are 
going to make up a purse for the boss shooter 
at the next round. The lucky winner will look 
handsome in a champion gold belt. And if our 
old War Horse don't run for a third term I will 
disfranchise myself and not vote for anybody. 
Well, so long; drop around again." 

Solus: "Catch me buying gold belts these 
dull times. Why, it is all I can do to keep my- 
self in three-cent cigars. As foi Grant, I have 
had enough of him and bad whisky, and if ho 
does run 1 11 take my party over to the Demo- 
cratic side. I do hope the old woman has got a 
steaming, tempting supper ready, for I feel 
awful gone like. It would be very tough on me 
now if I had to cook my own supper; it would, 
that's a fact." — Exit. 

(iivE IHE Girl a Room of heii Own. — A 
mother writes to one of our exchanges as follows: 
There are many reasons why a young girl 
should have a room of her own. She will learn 
to keep it in order, to arrange it tastefully, and 
take pride in collecting within it her little 
treasures. Then, too, we are apt to think that 
no season of life except our own present one 
contains any real trials; but they are scattered all 
along. The infant cries for its lost rattle, the 
child grieves over her broken doll, the school 
girl has her pet sorrows that everybody laughs 
at, and farther on come the love troubles which 
are certainly heart breaking. Through them 
all it is a comfort to have the privacy of one's 
own room, where, secure from intrusion, we can 
right our mental battles or seek our needed 
quiet. Mothers, give your daughters a room 
to keep, to decorate, and to cry in. 

A New Youk woman says with much truth: 
"Were it not for the self-sacrificing women of 
the land who marry and support so many men, 
the number of tramps would be largely in- 
creased. " 

The novelty in spring bonnets is of soft chip 
or Tuscan straw, with a large brim of the same 
dimensions all around : this brim the milliners 
indent to suit the face of the wearer. 

Our New Neighbors at Ponkapog. 

When I saw the little house building an 
eighth of a mile beyond my own, on the old Bay 
road, I wondered who were to be the tenants. 
The modest structure was set well back from 
the road, among the trees, as if the inmates 
were to care nothing whatever for a view of the 
stylish equipjvges which swept by during the 
summer season. For my I like to see the 
passing, in town or country; but each has his 
own taste. The proprietor, who seemed to be 
also the arcliitect of the new house, superin- 
tended the various details of the work with an 
assiduity that gave me a high opinion of his in- 
telligence and executive ability, and I congrat- 
ulated myself on the prospect of having some 
very agreeable neighbors. 

It was quite early in the spring, if I remem- 
ber, when they moved into the cottage — a newly 
married couple, evidently; the wife very young, 
pretty, and with the air of a lady; the husband 
somewhat older, but still in the first flush of 
manhood. It was understood in the village 
that they came from Baltimore; but no one 
knew them personally, and they brought no 
letters of introduction. (For obvious reasons 
I refrain from mentioning names. ) It was clear 
that for the present, at least, their own com- 
pany was entirely suflicient for them. They 
made no advancements toward the ac(iuaintance 
of any of the families in the neighborhood, and 
consequently were left to themselves; that ap- 
parently was what they desired, and why they 
came to Ponkapog. l'"or, after its black bass, 
wild duck and teal, solitude is the chief staple 
of Ponkapog. Perhaps its perfect rural loveli- 
ness should be included. 

Lying high up under the wings of the Blue 
hills, and in the odorous breath of pine and ce- 
dars, it chances to be the most enchanting bit 
of genuine couutri', within 50 miles of Boston; 
which, moreover, can be reached in half an hour's 
ride by railway. But the railway station 
(heaven be praised) is two miles distant; and the 
seclusion is without a flaw. Ponkapog has one 
mail a day; two mails a day would render the 
pl.tce uninhabitable. 

The village— it looks" like a compact village 
at a distance, but unravels and disappears the 
moment you drive into it — has quite a large 
floating population. I do not allude to the 
perch and pickerel. Along the old Bay road, 
a highway even in colonial days, there are a 
number of attractive cottages straggling off to- 
ward Milton which are occupied for the sum- 
mer by people from the city. These birds of 
passage are a distinct class from the permanent 
inhabitants, and the two seldom closely assimi- 
late unless there has been some previous con- 

It seemed as if our new neighbors were to 
come under the head of permanent inhabitants; 
they had built their own house, and had the air 
of intending to live in it all the year round. 

"Are you going to call on_them?'' I asked 
my wife one morning. 

"When they call on us," she replied lightly. 

"But it is our place to call first, they being 

This was said as seriously as the circumstances 
demanded; but my wife turned it off with a 
laugh, and I said no more, always trusting to 
her intuitions in these matters. 

.She was right. She would not have been re- 
ceived, and a cool "not at home" would have 
been a bitter social pill to us, if we h<ad gone 
out of our way to be courteous. 

I saw a great deal of our neighbors, never- 
theless. Their cottage was between us and the 
postotfice, where he was never to be met with 
by chance— and I caught frequent glimpses of 
the two working in the garden. Floriculture 
did not appear so much an object as exercise. 
Possibly it was neither; maybe they were en- 
gaged in digging for specimens for those arrow- 
heads and flint hatchets which are continually 
coming to the surface hereabouts. There is 
scarcely an acre in which the plowshare has not 
turned up some primitive stone weapon or do- 
mestic utensil, disdainfully left to us by the red 
men who once held this domain — an ancient 
tribe called the Punkypoags, a forlorn descen- 
dent of which, one Polly Crowd, figures in the 
annual blue book, down to the close of the 
Southern war, as a State pensioner. I quote 
from the local historiographer. 

Whether they were developing a kitchen gar- 
den, or emulating Prof. Schliemannat Mycena", 
the new-comers were evidently persons of refined 
musical taste; the lady had a vo'cs of remarkable 
sweetness, although of no great compass, and I 
used often to linger of a morning by the high 
gate and listen to her executing an operatic air, 
conjecturally at some window up stairs, for the 
house was not visable from the public road. 
The husband, somewhere about the grounds, 
would occasionally respond with two or three 
bars. It was all quite an ideal. Arcadian busi- 
ness. They seemed very happy together, these 
two persons who asked no odds w'hateverof the 
community in which they had settled themselves. 

There was a queerness, a sort of mystery, 
about this couijle, which I admit piqued my 
curiosity, though, as a rule, I have no morbid 
interest in the affairs of my neighbors. They 
behaved like a pair of lovers who had run off 
and got married clandestinely. I willingly ac- 
quitted them, the one and the other of having 
no legal right to do so; for, to change a word in 
tne lines of the poet, 

"It is joy to think the best 
Wemayof human kind." 

Admitting the hypothesis of elopement, there 

was no mystery in there neither sending nor 
receiving letters ? But where did they get their 
groceries ? I do not mean the money to pay for 
them — that is an enigma apart — but the gro- 
ceries themselves. No express wagon, no 
butcher's cart, no vehicle of any description was 
ever observed to stop at their domicile. Yet they 
did not order family stores at the sole establish- 
ment in the village— an inexhaustible little shop 
which (I advertise gratis) can turn out anything 
in the way of groceries, from a handsaw to a 
pocket-handkerchief. I confess that I allowed 
this unimportant detail of their house-keeping 
to occupy more of my speculation than was 
creditable to me. 

In several respects our neighbors reminded 
me of those inexplicable persons we sometimes 
come across in great cities, though seldom or 
never in suburban places, where the field may be 
supposed too restricted for their operations- 
persons who have no perceptible means of subsis- 
tence, and manage to live royally on nothing a 
year. They hold no government bonds, they 
possess no real estate (our neighbors did own 
their house), they toil not, neither do they spin; 
yet they reap all the numerous soft advantages 
that usually result from honest toil and skillful 
spinning. How do they do it ? But this is a di- 
gression, and I am quite of the opinion of the 
old lady in "David Copperfield" who says "Let 
us have no mcanderings !" 

Though my wife had declined to risk a cere- 
monious call on our neighbors as a family, 1 saw 
no reason why I should not speak to the hus- 
band as an individual, when I happened to en- 
counter him by the wayside. I made several 
approaches to do • so, when it occurred to my 
penetration that my neighbor had the air of try- 
ing to avoid me. I resolved to put the sus- 
picion to the test, and one forenoon, when he 
was sauntering along on the opposite side of the 
road, in the vicinity of Fisher's saw-mill, I 
deliberately crossed over to address him. The 
brusque manner in which he hurried away was 
not to be misunderstood. Of course I was not 
going to force myself upon him. 

It was at this time that I began to form un- 
charitable suppositions touching our neighbors, 
and would have been as well pleased if some of 
my choicest fruit trees had not overhung their 
wall. I determined to keep my eyes open later 
in the season, when the fruit should be ripe to 
pluck. In some folks, a sense of the delicate 
shades of difference between metim et tuum does 
not seem to be very strongly developed in the 
moon of cherries, to use the old Indian phrase. 

I was sufficiently magnanimous not to impart 
any of these sinister impressions to the families 
with whom we were on visiting terms; for I 
despise a gossip. I would say nothing against 
the persons up the road until I had something 
definite to s.iy. My interest in them was 
— well, not exactly extinguished, but burn- 
ing low. I met the gentleman at intervals, and 
passed him without recognition; at rarer inter- 
vals I saw the lady. 

After a while I not only missed my occasional 
glimpse of her pretty, slim figure, always draped 
insome soft blackstuff, with a bit of scarletat the 
throat, but I inferred that she did not go about 
the house singing in her light-hearted manner, 
as formerly. What had happened ? Had the 
honeymoon suffered eclipse already ? Was she 
ill ? I fancied she was ill, and that I detected 
a certain anxiety in her husband, who spent the 
mornings digging solitarily in the garden, and 
seemed to have relinquished those long jaunts 
to the brow of the Blue hill, where there is a 
superb view combined with several venerable 
rattlesnakes with 12 rattles. 

As the days went by it became certain the 
lady was confined to the house, seriously ill, 
possibly a confirmed invalid. Whether she was 
attended by a physician from C.tnton or Milton, 
I am unable to s.iy; but neither the gig with the 
large white allopathic horse, nor tlie gig with 
the homcupathic sorrel mare, was ever seen 
hitched at the gate during the day. If a physi- 
cian had charge of the case, he visited his pa- 
tient only at night. All this moved my sym- 
pathy, and I reproached myself with having 
hard thoughts of my neighbors. Trouble had 
come to them early. I would have liked to 
offer them such small, friendly services as lay 
in my power; but the memory of the repulse I 
had sustained rankled in me. So I hesitated. 

One morning my two boys burst into the 
library with their eyes sparkling. 

"You know the old elm down the road?" 
cried one. 

"The elm with the hang-bird's nest ?" 
shrieked the other. 

"Well, we both just climbed up, and there's 
three young ones in it." 

Then I smiled to think that our new neigh- 
bors had sot such a promising little family. — 
T. B. Aldrkh, ill Atlantic. 

Proposed Natio.n.\l Edi'c.uion for Fb- 
.MALE9. — A Washington report says that the 
Senate of the United States has adopted the 
following resolutions: Resohnl, That the Com- 
mittee on Education and Labor is instructed to 
inquire whether it is practicable and beneficial 
to aid in the establishment and endowment of 
schools of science and techniques in the several 
States and Territories, and in the District of 
Columbia, for the education of females in ap- 
propriate branches of science, and the useful 
arts, upon a plan similar in its principles to 
that upon which the agricultural and mechani- 
cal colleges have been aided by the United 
States, and that said committee have leave to 
report by bill or otherwi»e. 

July 12, 1879.1 



A Mother's Lesson for Girls. 

One who signs herself "A Mother," and 
whose writings are full of maternal wisdom and 
solicitude, writes to the New York Tribune as 
follows : 

Looking with a mother's interest upon the 
habits of young people, and their relations to- 
gether, in this day ; and looking also upon the 
personal experience of more than 50 years, I 
am profoundly convinced that idleness in women 
has as much (if not more) to do with the deep- 
rooted evil that is undermining our social and 
national virtue so rapidly and terribly as any 
other influence. The girls of this generation 
are idle, even where families are in but mod- 
erate circumstances, and suffering must come in 
somewhere from expenses entailed by necessary 
work that is not done by the daughters. House- 
work is considered degrading — even the light 
offices for her own room, which every true 
woman ought to feel unwilling should be done 
by any hands but her own, and by which every 
young girl should make that place a sanctuary, 
where her dignity and purity are to be recog- 
nized and guarded by each appointment and 
arrangement within it ; and sewing is handed 
over to the machine-workers as something quite 
out of the question to be done. 

If no more should be said respecting these 
points, it is pitiful to consider how they are 
missing their own happiness in this state of 
things. No girl is fitted for her future duties and 
responsibilities as wife and mother who cannot 
do these things, and do them thoroughly well ; 
and her future is not provided for unless her 
present is a steady and organized foundation for 
it, and that cannot be unless the mothers train 
the daughters from babyhood for the work that 
is sure to come to their womanhood. When 
this is done the happiness comes in. Mothers 
and daughters have a life together ; a bond of 
employment and interest that is in constant 
operation. Over their household matters, and 
especially over the work of their needles, they 
have a companionship that grows with their 
lives and brings them into a close intimacy, of 
which, alas, the mothers and daughters of this 
day know very little. They are really strangers 
to each other. The steady training which the 
character of the mother ought to be to the 
daughter is not known, because they have no 
work together. The needle is a part of woman's 
dower. I will not dwell upon "the benefits of 
the sewing machine." God means that women 
should use their needles, and there is not the 
slightest need of injury from its use, excepting 
in cases which correspond with any other neces- 
sity for overwork. It is a great subject, and 
not easily opened up in as brief space as is 
allowable here ; but I believe — as I believe in 
God and his appointments for us — that if the 
girls of this generation would take up a daily 
duty of work, no matter what their position or 
their means, the world would be happier for it. 
Mothers would have their society and their af- 
fection, as they sorely miss it now ; fathers 
would have many a dark hour of discourage- 
ment over heavy bills lightened; brothers would 
have a companionship of whose charm, as well 
as benefit, very few have knowledge now ; and 
young men in ot'ner relations would have a view 
of womanhood that is almost entirely lost in 
the present day. Women are never more bril- 
liant or fascinating (and they have a God-given 
right to be brilliant and fascinating) than when 
their hands are occupied. Awkwardness and 
embarrassment disappear; and — perfectly at her 
ease — a charming woman becomes mistress of 
the position, and, happy herself, makes all 
around her happy. 


If a man have a great many debts, are they 
very much to his credit ? 

A BOY of 12, dining at his uncle's, made such 
a good dinner that his auntie observed, ' 'Johnny, 
you appear to eat well." "Yes," replied the 
urchin, "I've been practicing eating all my life." 

A NOTICE in a Western newspaper ends as 
follows: "The captain swam ashore. So did 
the chambermaid; she was insured for .?15,000, 
and loaded with iron." 

PiioTocjRAntER — "You look sober; smile a 
little." He smiles, and the photographer says, 
"Not so much, sir; my instrument is too small to 
encompass the opening. ' 

In Stanstead, Canada, a man sold 10-cent 
packages "warranted sure death to potato bugs; 
no risk of poisoning animals as with Paris 
green." The packages were not to be opened 
until time to use them. One victim having 
three, opened one and found two square blocks 
of wood, on one of which was written; "Place 
the bug on this block and press firmly with the 

Pleasant Alternative.— Stranger: "Here ! 
You ! We can't pass your ox !" Rustic: 
' 'Carn't ye ? Let 'un pass yew, then. " ' 'Stranger : 
"No impudence, sir. The pass isn't wide enough 
for both." Rustic: "Bain'tit? Well, I leaves 
it to he. Mebbe he'll toss ye for it !" — Funny 

Tennyson's early poem, "The Lover's Tale," 
just published, contains about 1,100 lines. A 
pretty long tale to pour into her ear, and he 
must have gone to see her at least three nights 
a week for a year. When he left, at 2 a. m, 
Monday, he would tie a string around her fin- 
ger so she would remember where he left ofif| 
and whisper iu her ear, as he kissed her good- 
night, "To be continued on Tuesday evening." 

Y©^t^Ci F@Lks' CoL^I^M. 

Our Puzzle Box. 

To give our young friends a chance to sharpen 
their wits and exercise their ingenuity in dis- 
covering hidden meanings and in solving knotty 
problems, we have opened a "puzzle box" in 
this issue. It is expected that young readers 
who have taste for studies which will at the 
same time amuse and instruct will carefully work 
out tlie themes proffered, and write down their 
answers and keep them. We expect iu two weeks 
to give the answers to the "puzzles" in this 
issue, and then each one can see whether his or 
her answers are the correct ones; 

Numerical Enigma. 

I am composed of twelve letters. 

My 0, 2, 3, 1, is a net. 

My 4, S, 7, 12, is a steep rock. 

My 11, 10, 9, f>, is an African river 

My whole was an English heroine. H. J. L. 


A gentlemen owns a rectangular field, of which last 
season he sowed one-fourth to wheat and planted one- 
eleventh to corn. The remainder of the field, 310 rods in 
area remained in grass. What are the dimensions of the 
field, the proportion of the length to the breadth being 
as 11 to 10'/ Uncle Claudk. 


In morning bright, 

At dawn of light. 
My first the lark is doing; 

And genXle dove. 

On wings of love. 
When to his mate he's cooing. 

My second grim - 

We welcome him — 
From "fader-land" he's coming; 

With "sauer-kvaut," 

And "ginger stout," 
As "On the Rhine" he's hnniniing. 

My whole's a sprite— 

In stormy night 
The eeanian's dread and fear — 

A shadowy form, 

'Midst wind and storm, 
Foretelling shipwrecks drear. C . 


1. Transpose a political division of territory 

2. Transpose an expression of countenance into meas- 
ures of distance. 

3. Transpose companions into a great motive force. 

4. Transpose a companion into docile; airain, and 
form food. 

.S. Transpose constructed into a lady. 

C. Transpose an adhesive substance into narrow ribbons. 

Uncle Claude. 

Word Square. 

1. A place where goods are bought and sold. 

2. In this policemen oft wax bold. 

3. A term oft used on battle plain. 

4. To eat ray fourth a boy is fain. Jitniok. 

How A Little Girl Saved Her Brother. — 
A paper from way down in Georgia says that 
Mr. H. F. Gauldiug has a little daughter 11 
years old to whose nerve and courage he is 
indebted for the life of his three-year-old boy. 
The circumstances were briefly these: The 
boy was playing by the cistern in Mr. Gauld- 
ing's yard. There was a plank off, and through 
this aperture the little fellow fell. He caught 
a plank, however, in falling, and held for some 
time before he was discovered. But his hold 
weakened, and with a splash he fell into the 
cistern. His sister saw .and appreciated the 
situation. Most girls would have screamed and 
run off in quest of help. Not so with this little 
girl. The screams and struggles for life of her 
baby brother, gave her the strength and courage 
of a man. She saw a ladder, and with all her 
might, she dragged it to and placed it into the 
cistern, and then went down into the water, 
reached out, and caught her brother just in 
time to save him from a watery grave. By this 
time help arrived, and both were landed safely 
from their perilous position. All honor to this 
little heroine! 

An Affectionate Goose. — The visitor to 
the Halifax Public Gardens during the summer 
must have noticed the eccentric conduct of one 
of the wild geese which frequent the pond in 
the northern gardens. Whenever a certain old 
gentleman, whose name we do not know, ap- 
proaches the pond and calls "Bobby," the 
goose will leave the pond and sit beside him, 
and when he leaves to go home, will follow 
close at his feet like a dog to the gate, and 
sometimes into the street, when it has to be 
forcibly put back, to its manifest disgust, for 
it goes off' to its native element twisting its 
tail with indignation, and giving vent to 
sundry discordant squeaks. The old gentle- 
man says he has never fed it, or petted it in 
any way, which makes it more remarkable; but 
we were told that about two or three years ago 
a man used to come there and feed this goose 
regularly, so we are inclined to think that the 
goose takes the man for his old friend who used 
to bring him nice things. Anyway it is an 
interesting question. 

Bkioiit little girl:- "The robbers can't steal 
my mamma's diamond earrings, 'cause papa's 
hid them." Visitor: "Where has he hid them?" 
Little girl: "Why, I heard him tell mamma he 
had put them up the spout, and he guessed they 
would stay there." 

"Johnnie, what is a noun?" "Name of a 
person, place or thing." "Very good, Johnnie, 
give an example." "Hand-organ grinder." 
"And why is 'hand-organ grinder' a noun?" 
"Because he's a person plays a thing." 

On Diphtheria. 

Dr. E. M. Snow says, iu his last report as 
Register of the city of Providence: 

In connection with this subject I think it my 
duty to ask the attention of the people of Provi- 
dence, and especially of parents, to the follow- 
ing statements: 

1. No case of diphtheria occurs without an 
adequate cause. This is self-evident. 

2. The cause of nearly all cases of the disease 
exists in the houses or premises, or within a 
few feet of the houses where the cases occur. 

.3. The cause of nearly all cases that occur in 
the city is breathing impure air from privy 
vaults or sink drains, or cesspools; or drinking 
impure water. 

Origin of Diphtheria. 

Diphtheria is believed to have originated in 
Egypt more than 2,000 years ago. It prevailed 
in Egypt and Asia Minor, to which it extended, 
during the first 500 years, and hence was early 
called an Egyptian or Syriac disease. Having 
invaded Europe, the disease appeared in Rome, 
A. D. ."iSO, and being highly contagious, in its 
1,.500 years transit on the continent of Europe, 
it affected mainly rural districts and garrisoned 
towns. It extended to Holland, in which it 
was epidemic in 1337; to Paris in 1576, and 
again appeared there in 1771. It prevailed 
more extensively in France in 1818 and 1835, 
and in England, the United States and Canada 
from 1856 to 1860, and more or less since. — 
Hospital Oazetle. 

Drug Taking Mania. 

Women are rather more given to drug taking 
than men, though both are bad enough in this 
respect. Here is what one of our most eminent 
physicians has to say on this subject: 

"Dr. Holmes has said that it would be well 
for the world if most medicines were thrown 
into the sea; that it might be bad for the fishes, 
but it would be better for mankind. For this 
unasked and impertinent suggestion he has re- 
ceived a good deal of orthodox censure, which 
1 am here now to share with him, for I am of 
the same opinion as Dr. Holmes, and this opin- 
ion has long been a part of my Christian faith. 
That the major part of the world does not agree 
with us is plain. Indeed most people seem to 
think that the chief end of man is to take medi- 
cine. Babies take it in their mother's milk; 
children cry for it; men and women unceasingly 
ask for it. Shrewd men have taken advantage 
of this in.stinct, and in most civilized nations it 
is to-day one of the chief articles of manufacture 
and commerce. It is one of those things which 
is never permitted to be out of sight; but is 
thrust upon you in the nursery, in the streets, 
upon the lamp posts and upon the curbstones, 
along the highways, from the rocks which bor- 
der the rivers; the medicine chest follows you at 
sea, as if the sea itself, a vast gallipot of nau- 
seants, WBre not enough. One might naturally 
suppose that the supply would at length exceed 
the demand ! but it does not. Everywhere the 
people are stretching out their arms and beg- 
ging for medicine, blessing him who gives and 
cursing him who withholds. They believe, in 
their simplicity, that if medicines do no good, 
they can at least do no harm. They imagine, 
also, that there is a medicine which may be re- 
garded as a specific for every human malady, 
and that these are known to science, and that 
therefore we have the means of curing all dis- 
eases; but the people imagine a vain thing. 
Whatever medicine is capable when properly 
administered, of doing good, the same medicine 
is equally capable, when improperly adminis- 
tered, of doing harm; and drugs often substi- 
tute a malady more serious than that which 
they were intended to cure. The Irishman said 
his physician stuffed him so with medicine that 
he was sick a long time after he got well. — Dr. 
Frank Hamilton. 

Brain Work and Skull Growth.— The 
London Medical Record sums up as follows the 
results of some very interesting measurements of 
heads by two French physicians, Messrs. Lac- 
assague and Cliquet: Having the patients, 
doctors, attendants, and officers of the Val de 
Grace at their disposal, they measured the heads 
of 190 doctors of medicine, 133 soldiers who had 
received an elementary instruction, 90 soldiers 
who could neither read nor write, and 91 sol- 
diers who were prisoners. The instrument used 
was the same which hatters employ in measur- 
ing the heads of their customers; it is called the 
oonformator, and gives a very correct idea of 
the proportions and dimensions of the heads in 
question. The results were in favor of the doc- 
tors; the frontal diameter was also much more than that of the soldiers, etc. Nor 
are both halves of the head symmetrically 
developed; in students, the left frontal region is 
more developed than the right; in illiterate in- 
dividuals, the right occipital region is larger 
than the left. The authors have derived the 
following conclusions from their experiments: 

1. The heads of students who have worked 
much with their brains are much more devel- 
oped than those of illiterate individuals, or such 
as have allowed their brains to remain 

2. In students the frontal region is more devel- 
oped than the occipital region, or, if there 
should be any difference in favor of the latter, 
it is very small; while in illiterate people the 
latter region is the largest. 

Miss Dodd's Recipes. 

The following are recipes given by Miss Dodd 
in her Philadelphia lecture, to which allusion 
was made last week: 

Fish Cakes.— The recipe given for fish cakes 
included one pound of potatoes, one pound of 
codfish — boiled, pepper and salt, two eggs, one 
teaspoonful of cream', one-half ounce of butter, 
and a few tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs. After 
breaking the boded fish into small pieces, grate 
the potatoes while hot upon it through a sieve; 
add one-half ounce of butter, the yolk of the 
eggs, the cream, and mix all well together; 
when seasoned with pepper and salt, divide 
the mass into small fiat cakes on a well- floured 
board; beat the whites of the eggs, and, having 
coated each of the cakes with it, roll them into 
the bread crumbs; fry in hot fat or lard for two 
minutes. As soon as the cakes are done place 
them on a piece of paper that the superfiuous 
grease may be absorbed from them. 

Dressed Boiled Fish. — Her mode of dressing 
any boiled fish was demonstrated with halibut. 
To one pound of fish she used two ounces of 
butter, two ounces of flour, one ounce of grated 
cheese, one-half pint of milk and one gill of 
cream. The butter and flour are jslaced over 
the fire and mixed while the butter melts. 
Milk is then mixed and stirred until it boils. 
At the boiling point add the cream, pepper and 
salt and cook two minutes. The bones and 
skin having been removed from the fish, it is 
cut into small pieces and then mixed into the 
sauce, which should remain only long enough 
over the fire to heat the fish. Place the whole 
on a fiat di,sh, sprinkle over grated cheese or 
bread crumbs, add pepper and brown quickly 
in the oven. To boil halibut properly, she said 
it should be placed in boiling water, to which a 
tablespoonful of vinegar has been added. It 
should cook only twenty minutes, unless the 
fish is of unusual sise. 

Fillet of Beef and Dutch Sauce.— The beef 
should be cut in slices about an inch in thick- 
ness. It is then placed in the broiler, which 
should be lightly greased, and then subjected to 
the action of the fire for seven minutes, turning 
it but once in that time. The Dutch sauce was 
prepared with half a tablespoonful of cream, 
half a tablespoonful of water, the yolks of two 
eggs, a little pepper and salt, one ounce of 
butter, and the juice of h.alf a lemon. The 
water and egg yolks are beaten well together, 
and the lemon juice, cream and butter, with 
salt and pepper, are then introduced, and the 
whole is whisked over a slow fire until it 
thickens. This, however, must not be allowed 
to come to a boil. When finished, pour hot 
over the fillets of beef and serve. 

Cleaning Carpets. — A housewife writes to 
the Inier -Ocean as follows: By far the hardest 
work in housekeeping consists in taking up, 
cleaning, and putting down Brussels carpets. I 
think that by following my method of sweeping 
a carpet the evil day may be postponed three 
years, if not longer. About once a month I 
take a pail two-thirds full of warmish water, 
put in it a tablespoon of ammonia, take a large 
cotton rag, and without wringing it quite dry, 
go over the carpets thoroughly, not rubbing 
them, but taking up every particle of dust. 
The advantages of this method are: 

1. No dust is raised. 

•2. The furniture need not be moved. 

3. It kills moths. 

4. You can get spots off your base-boards at 
the same time. 

5. If one room is taken per day, it really is 
easier than sweeping. 

6. It keeps the carpets bright and fresh. In 
the center of the room I occasionly use a carpet 

Raspberry Vinegar. — The following recipe 
for making this delicious syrup for summer- 
drinking is the best I have ever tasted, says a 
writer in the Gcrmantown Telegraph: Put a 
pound of very fine ripe raspberries in a bowl, 
bruise them well, .md pour upon them a quart 
of the best wliite wine vinegar; next day strain 
the liquor on a pound of fresh ripe raspberries, 
bruise them also, and the following day do the 
same, but do not squeeze the fruit or it will 
make it ferment, only drain the liquor as dry as 
you can from it. The last time pass it through 
a canvas bag previously wet with the vinegar to 
prevent waste. Put the juice into a stone jar, 
with a pound of sugar to every pint of juice; 
stir it and when melted put the pan into a jar 
of water; let it simmer and then skim it; when 
cold bottle it. It will be fine and thick when 
cold, and the most excellent syrup for making a 
wholesome drink. 

Blacking Stoves. — If those who black their 
own stoves will grease them before blacking, 
they will find it prevents them from rusting. 
Add a pinch of brown sugar to the blacking 
just before applying. This causes it to stick 
and it polishes much easier and with lialf the 

Asparagus Omelette. — Boil with a little 
salt, and until about half cooked, eight or ten 
stalks of asparagus, and cut to eatable part in 
small pieces; beat the eggs and mix the aspar- 
agus with them; add a little milk while beating 
the eggs. 



[July 12, 1879. 

ui^ vVET & CO., Publishers. 


Office, SOS Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 

AicwAli SCBSCRIPTI058, $4; six months, $2; three 
months, $1.25. When paid fully one yenr in advance, 
F7rrT CENTS will be deducted. No nkw names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. C. orders at our risk. 
AvKRTiaiNO Ratrs. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mos. 12 mos. 

Per line 25 ' .80 S2.00 $ 5.00 

Hall inch (1 square).. $1.00 $3.00 7.50 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



Saturday, July 12, 1879. 


EDITORIALS.— The Influence of Early Rains; In the 
University Test Grounds; .Japan Persinnnon in Califor- 
nia; The Revolviiijf Grain far; A Village Residence; 
Shipping Melons by the Car-load, 17. Notices of Re- 
cent Patents, 21. The Week; The Wisdom of Letting 
Go; Darion Canal; The State J'air; The Round of Work, 
24. The Bennett Polar Expedition, 25. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— Kcsign for a Village Residence 
with Frciuh Roof, 17. Capt. llowgate's Map of the 
Arctic Regions, 25. 

QUERIED AND REPLIES.— Picking, Dryingand 
Gathering Almonds; Adobe and Stones in Wheat; Pajaro 
Valley Strawberries; Seedling Apricots; Gooseberries 
Eree from Mildew; Figs Dropping Off, 24-25. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— Dose for Diabroticas; The Red 
Scaie on Orange Trees; Parasite on Orange Scale 
Insect, 25. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Tlie Beet-Sugar Industry; 
Measuring Grain from the Thresher, 18. 

POULTRY YARD.— Poultry Diseases and Their 
Treatment. 18 

ARBORICULTURE.— The California Black Walnut; 
TliL- .Seeiilin;; or 15ud Question in Florida, 18. 

HORTICULTURE.— The Use of the Feet in Sowing 
and Planting; Imi)roved Seedling Lemoiis; Experiments 
with Orange Wine, 19. 

SHEEP AND WOOL. — The Wool Trade of the 
Half Year, 19. 

Pledge; What is Being Done; The Martinez Graiige 
Warehouse; Visiting the Warehouses of the Wemern 
Sacramento Vallcv, 20. ^ 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 20-21. 

HOME CIRCLE.— One by One (poetry); What Some 
Men Say When They Talk; Give the Girl a Room of her 
Own; Our New Neighbors at Ponkapog; Proposed Na- 
tional Education for Females, 22. A Motlicr's Lesson 
for Girls; Chaff. 23. 

YOUNG POLKS' COLUMN. -Our Puzzle Box; 
How a Little Girl Saved Her Brother; An Affectionate 
Goose, 23. 

GOOD HEALTH. — On Diphtheria; Drug-Taking 
Mania; Brain Work and Skull Growth, 23. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. — Miss Dodd"s Recipes; 
Cleaning Carpets; Raspberry Vinegar; Blacking Stoves; 
Asparaeus Omelete, 23. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Wheat Prices in the San 
Francisco Market Fifteen Years. 20. State Fair 
Premiums for Machinery and Manufactures, 26. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on page 21 and other pages. 

Business Announcements. 

Buhach Insect Exterminator, G. N. Mili^o, Stockton, Cal. 
Wilson Adjustable Chair Manufacturing Co., Boston. 
Golden Gate Academy, Oakland, Cal. 
6emi-AnnuaI Statement of Grangers' Bank of California. 

The Week. 

An improvement in wheat prices in this 
market comes just in time to cheer the harves- 
ters ; to gild the outlook for those who are 
gathering splendid crops, and to comfort those 
who find their weights cut short by drouth and 
winds, with the prospect that less weight will 
still yield a living measure of money. The ad- 
vance, if it be as we hope and believe, an 
improvement which will endure, is peculiarly 
fortunate now, because growers will realize its 
benefits. As we maintained last week there are 
good reasons to expect a fairly profitable rate 
for this year's wheat, because of a continuance 
of the European demand for foreign wheat with 
less stocks to supply it. The telegraph still 
reports the gravest apprehensions of injury to 
the English crop, and France is under the same 
untoward skies. The London Time.<< says the 
anticipations of large need for grain from 
America is already affecting the gold market in 
France, or, in other words, the firmness of 
French exchange is due to the prospect of a 
demand for gold to send to the United States 
for grain. This early sensitiveness of the 
European money market shows how grave is 
the situation and how clearly a deficiency in 
home crops is foreseen. The fact that gold must 
be gathered up to buy food from the United 
States, also shows the progress wliicii our 
country is making in supplying itself with 
articles which heretofore we have largely 
imported from Europe, and this means 
development in various arts of production 
and manufacture. This progress is highly 
satisfactory. Good prices this year for California 
wheat will prove a balm to soothe the many 
distractions which we are undergoing: and that 
a year so densely packed with politics as this 
one has been and will be till its close, shall also 
be a year of prosperity to our leading industry, 
will be a most happy concurrence of events for 
all our citizens. 

The Wisdom of Letting Go. 

We have been studying the face of mother 
earth at close range of late, courting such inti- 
mate acquaintance with the soil as one gets in 
weeding a lawn, peeping through the grass- 
blades to discover the main stems of the creep- 
ing plants which interfere with the dense velvet- 
like growth of grass which we desire. Employ- 
ing leisure hours in such work we have learned 
many lessons from the weeds, and one is the 
wisdom of letting go. For weeds there are 
which yield to the pull and others which seem 
strong as wire in the hand. And we have 
noted tliat those which let go were really the 
ones which held fast, and those which held fast 
were really the ones which let go. Herein is 
apparently a paradox, yet not in fact; for those 
weeds which seemed to let go, parted at the 
surface of the ground, and in thus really yield- 
ing, they at the same time held their root-hold 
ami would soon sprout anew and luxuriantly; 
while those which held like wire were pulled 
out root and rootlet, and the grass-blades arc 
never again parted by them. 

From these phases of weed life we deduce the 
lesson, of wide application, that sometimes it is 
a mark of the truest perseverance to cut loose 
from a work in which one is engaged; that 
sometimes the one who seems to yield to the 
inevitable is the conquerer rather than he who 
fights it; that sometimes the one who accepts 
the demonstration of failure in a certain work 
and, while letting go the unripe fruit of a hope 
less enterprise, still retains a root-hold of de- 
termination and hope, will be wiser than he 
who holds fast in the face of adversity until he 
is plucked up by the roots and cast out to 
perish in the dry wind of disheartenment and 

We have received letters from readers which 
indicate that some people there are who may 
profit by the lesson of the weeds. They are dis- 
appointed in the results which they secure from 
their inve itments and enterprises. They located 
their homes in places which have been gilded by 
the imagination of the descriptive writer or the 
smooth-tongued agent. They have partly paid 
for their small places with an amount of money 
which should have fully paid for twice the area. 
They have borrowed money^at a rate of inter- 
est which doubles the principal in three or four 
years. They have grown crops for which there 
is no sale, owing to distance from exporting 
points and a lack of local demand. In fact, 
they see nothing before them but a waste of 
time until they are ejected by the force of the 
obligations wliich they have assumed. And in 
addition to a waste of time we foresee a waste 
of spirit, a gradual death of ambition, a blunt- 
ing of energy, a blighting of industry; in short 
a wreck of hope, a triumph of despair. When 
these hopeless ones ask our advice we can but 
urge them to be up and doing, and count pres- 
ent sacrifice but a price which must be paid for 
past mistakes. If the illusion which designing 
men created in the mind has passed away, do 
not linger in contemplation of it. Although we 
most earnestly deplore the spirit of unrest which 
causes many to continually seek new homes and 
fields for labor, there are occasionally cases in 
which it is eminently wise to take a fresh start, 
and when this is indisputably determined, the 
sooner the fresh start is taken the better. 

But though this is true we should all guard 
most carefully against blaming conditions and 
surroundings for results which may rise from 
our own faulty methods or lack of energy or 
enterprise. Before we conclude that our condi- 
tion and location are incompatible with success, 
let us inquire whether anyone in the neighbor- 
hood has succeeded. If there should be amid 
the gloom of failures a single ray of success, 
labor diligently to ascertain upon what plan and 
by what means success was attained. Some- 
times such an inquiring will show a plain path 
by which we may encompass evils rather than 
My from them. It will sometimes appear that 
we are too heavily burdened to attempt work 
which they with free hands can easily discharge; 
that they with no interest to pay can make a 
comfortable livelihood, while we are continually 
goiug backward. There are cases in which past 
errors can be retrieved by unceasing effort, cases 
where it is best to search for money wliere it 
was lost, but on the other hand there are some- 
times inconquerable difficulties which it is folly 
to fight, and enterprises in which it is wise to 
let go before spirit is lost and strength dissipated 
in vain endeavor. 

This much is easily said, and its significance 
is to warn all who may be falling into morbid 
indolence because they consider their conditions 
hopeless. This state of mind is the most dan- 
gerous result of disappointment. If a man 
holds fast to his ambition and his industry the 
world may be said to surely hold some measure 
of success for him. How shall he discover the 
opportunity to secure it ? This is the harder 
question because it can only be answered after 
a thorough understanding of individual traits 
and abilities, and even then the question is a 
hard one. To those who have wrecked their 
fortunes in vain endeavors, there still remains 
the vast public domain where new homes may 
still be carved out amid conditions which call 
for strong hands and stout hearts. There are 
also now and then chances outheld where men 
can gain the chance to earn a home with those 
who hold out land, teams and seed to those 
who desire to labor and divide results. Some 
of these offers are doubtless made with honest 
intent and may help the man with broken for- 
tunes. But we cannot attempt to prescribe a 

general course to fit individual needs. The 
lesson is to hold fast to industry, to frugality, 
to ambition and hope, and then employ every 
means to discover in what way these agents 
may be employed to reap desirable results. 
Never sit down in despair, no matter how great 
delusions and errors have vexed the soul. Be 
up and doing. Cast aside burdens which de- 
press and enervate, and while these be let go, 
seize hold upon something, upon anything, 
which promises a reward for effort. 

Darien Canal 

We shall have occasion to present to our 
readers in a short time a complete exposition of 
the proposed canal. In the meantime the reso- 
lution offered in the last Congress by Senator 
Burnside with reference to the foreign owner- 
ship of the Darien canal interfering with the 
Monroe doctrine, has been criticised by the 
press of France in such a manner as can leave 
no doubt that .Senator Burnside's ideas were 
correct. It appears from Ln Ri'puh/i'jue Fran- 
<-aUe that the canal will be absolutely neutral 
territory, and that in consequence America 
need not fear entrusting the management 
thereof to foreign hands. This absolutism is 
just what America has always and will always 
contend against. Its destruction was the rea- 
son of the Monroe doctrine, and the true doc- 
trine of national free will finds an ardent expo- 
nent in the American nation. Hampered on 
every side by the restrictive ties and contracts 
with nations foreign to this continent, how can 
this country hope to maintain its prestige ? 
This Darien canal question comes home to our 
interests, if not more, as much, at least, as our 
war with England. What the nations cannot 
accomplish by brute force, they are now at- 
tempting to accomplish by diplomatic skill and 
finesse. "The United States must be checked." 
It has penetrated to everj' quarter of the globe 
with its mechanical and industrial products, 
and is fast crowding out of the markets of the 
world the products that heretofore have given 
European nations their greatness. We cannot 
afford to permit this thing, and on our OM'n 
coast the matter is of great importance. The 
Orient is open to us, and we are gradually 
commanding its trade. Europe cut off by the 
natural obstruction of the Western continent, 
seeks by every effort to cut us off. National 
ambition to grasp the commerce of the East is 
the mainspring that moves northwest passage 
expeditions, and years ago the Darien canal 
was broached but suspended because it was 
thought a passage through the Polar sea would 
be discovered and made availalile. But now 
there is no hope of a highway in that direction, 
so the /)arien canal has assumed its complete 
features. Upon the assumption that the United 
States can control eventually the commerce of 
the world, the foreign element on this hemis- 
phere must be kept at a distance, and to Amer- 
icans belong the right of controlling a highway 
theirs naturally. The same policy that Euro- 
pean nations adopt to protect their commerce, 
must be adopted and enforced by us; and there 
is not a nation on the earth that would oppose 
us in our demands, or that would resist our 
enforcement of the Monroe doctrine. The star 
of Europe is setting, while our star of empire is 
ascending, hence the struggle of Europe to re- 
new its luster at the expense of ours. 

The Si ate Fair. — Producers of all kinds of 
commodities can learn the inducements offered 
them to show their best works at the State fair 
this year from the list of premiums which we 
are now publishing from week to week. The 
prizes offered are large enough to constitute 
them rewards for excellence, but they have other 
and deeper value, because they draw together 
material from all sources which enable both ex- 
hibitors and visitors to enjoy the advantages of 
close comparisons between different products 
and manufactures. Thus a fair well furnished 
with exliibits becomes a great "object lesson" 
from which one can learn facts of value which 
otherwise could only be obtained at great cost of 
time and money, if at all. We trust all our 
readers will examine the lists we print to ascer- 
tain the recognition given by the State Society 
to the specialties in which they are specially in- 
terested and then prepare to contribute to the 
success of the fair by preparing to send forward 
the objects they deem most worthy. All those 
who possess merit may thus receive wide re- 
cognition and at the same time do the public a 
service by furnishing advanced standards of ex- 
cellence which will be accepted eagerly by a 
progressive people. 

The Round of Work. — Indications are each 
year accumulating of tlie w'isdom of a much 
longer working season in grain growing in the 
San Joaquin valley and in many other parts of 
the State. Indeed, the system of agriculture 
which pays best there is one which keeps the 
farmer and his teams busy nearly the whole 
year. Mr. Cressey's operatious in Merced county 
illustrate the truth of this statement. His fine 
crop this year is due to the vigor with which he 
pushed summer-fallowing last sea-son. This 
year, as soon as the crop is gathered, he will go 
to work plowing with .W-mule power, until he 
plows 5,000 acres, and .3,000 acres will then be 
plowed twice. Then he will put on the seed 
sowers and sow at the rate of a quarter section 
a day. Then his trap will be set for the rains, 
and he will get and hold the full advantage of 
them in his well cultivated soil, while others 
will lone half they get by evaporation. 

Picking, Drying and Gathering Almonds. 

EiiiTORS PRESs:_-Could yon induce some of your many 
intelligent contributors to give some information rela- 
tive to the proper time for gathering and ttie best mode 
of drying almonds. Should the fruit be gathered before 
the husk parts '; If gathered too early will not the kernel 
shrink ? On the contrary, if the nut is exposed on the 
tree will it not become discolored and thereby injure the 
sale or compel the use of brimstone to bleach it, and run 
the risk of injuring the kernel by its becoming four? 
What is the best mode of drying, in the sun or shade? 
The almond crop is becoming of considerable importance 
and will be much increased if growers learn to handle it 
intelligently, and any information relatire to the produc- 
tion or care of the almonds will be interesting to many 
besides.— IxguiRKR, San Francisco. 

Editors Pre.s.s: — According to your request 
I will give some facts relating to the subjects 
proposed by "Inquirer." Almonds should not 
be picked until the husk bursts open. If the 
producer will cause the tree to be gone over 
several times and those almonds picked which 
have burst open, he will secure bright colored 
almonds which will need no bleaching and more 
pounds to the tree. This will not be done by 
most persons. 

The next best way is to wait until nearly all 
the almonds have burst, then spread a canvas 
under the tree, get into the tree and shake each 
limb and complete the work by striking the 
scattering almonds with a small stick. 

The almonds are afterwards run through a 
machine for hulling, which is a cylinder of 
wood fluted like a washboard, which revolves 
against slats set in a concave position on spiral 
springs. The cj'linder is solid, but the slats 
give and thus permit all the almonds to pass, 
the hulls fall through the slats and are sepa- 
rated. After passing them through this ma- 
chine they are sorted as to size and color. 

The best arrangement for drying almonds is 
this: Take 2x.3 scantling 1'2 feet long. Nail 
two of them together by a board 3 inches wide 
and 4 feet long at the <nds. Then nail heavy 
laths across from one to the other, so that an 
almond cannot drop through the cracks — very 
much the «ame as for plastering. These racks 
will receive the almonds and may readily be 
placed one upon the other and covered at night, 
and in the morning be separated so that the 
sun and wind will dry them. When well dried 
these same racks may be also used for bleach- 
ing the almonds. 

if the almond is thoroughly dried, kernel as 
well as shell, there will be very little bad effect 
resulting from the fumes of brimstone. To 
bleach, make a box which will hold all your 
racks, leaving a space next the ground one foot 
deep. Dig a trench one foot deep and a foot 
wide along the center. This box may be made 
of boards set on edge, the cracks covered with 
paper. At each end of the box should be a 
movable board so as to feed the fire. A small 
fire of charcoal, covered by a piece of sheet iron 
or old tin, must be kept burning in each end of 
the trench; the heat must not be great. Hav- 
ing placed a rack a foot from the ground, fill it 
with almonds, then place a piece of inch board 
across each end and another rack on top, which 
is to be filled with almonds, until all are filled. 
Cover the whole with clotli or boards, and you 
are ready to fire up. This is done by feeding 
the fire occasionally with pieces of roll brim- 
stone, which is cheapest and best. Be careful 
not to smother the fire. 

Almonds sliould be prepared for bleaching by 
pouring them into a basket and sinking the 
basket into a tub of hot water for a moment, 
when it is emptied into the rack. When the 
almonds become white or light colored, the 
racks are lifted out and the almonds dried as 
soon as possible. They must not be exposed to 
dew. — W. W. Brier, Centerville, Alameda Co. 

Adobe and Stones in Wheat. 

Editors Pre.';s: — I read an item in your issue 
of June 14th, taken from the Record- Cn ion of 
.June 6th, in relation to finding crumbs of adobe 
soil and broken stones in shipments of wheat. 
As the leading journals of the State pronounce 
this an evil to be abated, it would be as well to 
examine the matter a little further, so that by 
gettingat the whole truth of thebusiuess a remedy 
can be sooner applied. The evil did not spring 
into existence with the introduction of the der- 
rick fork. It was brought to my notice, long 
before derrick forks were thought of, by various 
county millers, particularly those of Napa City, 
asking me how they came into the sacks, said 
parties knowing I was in the threshing business. 
The evil is not attributable to the derrick fork 
but to the shovel, hoe and rake of the econom- 
ical farmer, who insists that every possible hand- 
ful of grain shattered out about the separator 
and stack bottoms shall be run through, saying 
it counts in weight all the same. Occasionally 
a farmer tells us not to clean up too close, as he 
don't want dirt in his wheat ; but nine out of 
ten insist upon a thorough clean up, often to 
our terror and disgust as we listen to the click 
of the stones among the cylinder teeth, bending 
one here and breaking out another there. 

15 /ery thresher for his own safety runs his 
forks so as not to take stones and dirt into his 
machine, and they can be and are so run. On 
a variety of soils it makes no difference, as the 
machine will crush to dust and blow out every 
particle ; but when we arrive at a stack located 
on gravel or adobe, caution is used, and the 
machine has no trouble till the forks are laid 
aside and the cleaning up comes. I threshed a 
week last 3'car where the Orestimba overflows 
its banks near the foothills, making a perfect 
gravel bed of the whole place from the Bize of it 

July 12, 1879.J 



bean to a walnut. I objected to threshing there 
unless the cleaning up was omitted. I used 
caution for my own safety and not a stone did 
my forks take up, nor had one ot the 5,000 bags 
there a particle of stone dust in them. 

It is of little use for threshers to object to 
this cleaning up, as their advice is attributed to 
self-interest, and only when the farmer realizes 
that he is taking the chance of a bad sample 
coming to the hand of the buyer and spoiling 
the value of a choice lot of grain, will the evil 
disappear. — G. W. T. Carter, Point of Timber, 

Pajaro Valley Strawberries. 

Editors Press:— I sent you, per express this morning, 
two boxes of Blrawberries containing the followinff va- 
rieties: Cinderilla, Great American, Crescent Seedling 
and Cumberland Triumph. They are from plants set out 
in March last. Cinderilla and Great American have been 
irrigated once; the others have had no water yet. The 
Cinderilla ia an enormous bearer, and tliose sent you are a 
fair sample as to size, etc. The jilaut is a vigerous sjrower 
and of robust habit; frnit stalks very large and stroncr, 
standing well up off of the jrround. I think it is going to 
provc-a valuable variety with us. The Great American is 
not a very vigorous grower; it is a good bearer and the 
fruit is fine and large, and, as you will see, resembles the 
Cinderilla in many respects. The Cumberland Triumph is 
very large, a little soft, and I fear its light color will be 
against it. The Crescent Seedling sent you arc small; this 
comes from the want of water. They are of fijie flavor, 
and when irrigated grow to a good size. They are enor- 
mously productive; the form of the berry being very 
rough, is much ag:unst them as a market berry. 

I have sent you these samples for you to pass your judg- 
ment upon them and see how they v.'ill compare with the 
berries from other localities. I have several other va- 
rieties, but they have not borne enough fruit yet to tell 
anything about their value. The New Rochelle raspberry 
is doing finely with me; it is most enormously productive. 
I have never seen anything to equal it. The berries are of 
good size, firm and bear shipping well; the flavor is good. 
— Jajies Waters, Pajaro Valley Nursery, Watsonvile. 

These berries arrived in very poor condition, 
probably being a trifle overripe when picked. 
Occasionally one remained intact and showed 
fine flavor, but the most were tainted by the 
fermentation. The boxes being deeper than 
the drawers usually employed in shipping 
strawberries, doubtless contributed to the decay 
by bringing too great a mass of the fruit to- 
gether. Our correspondent's notes upon their 
growth and qualities are valuable and much 
better than any we could make, since the spec- 
imens are so far from their best estate. In a 
general way, however, it may be truly said 
that there is nothing coming to this market 
any better than these berries were when picked. 
Some of the Cumberland Triumph had a cir- 
cumference of fully 44 inches. The light color 
seems to be fully balanced by size and flavor, 
for light colored, large berries usually sell from 
10 to 25 cents liigher per drawer than the 
average kinds received by dealers. We trust 
our correspondent will inform us of his 
future experience with these varieties, and of 
any other new fruit which he may introduce. 

Seedling Apricots. 

EnnoRS Press:— Per express I forward a few specimens 
of early seedling apricots. You may say to yourself, "early 
apricots," when the fruit has already been in the market 
the past three weeks. Yes: but did any of them come 
from this valley? I also send a few of the earliest known 
varieties for comparison, Dubois Early Golden and Royal. 
You will notice No. 12 is larger than Royal, and will be 
ripe long before that variety. — Bernard S. Fox, San Jose, 

The specimens came in good shape except 
that the seedlings were overripe, and their 
juice exuded slightly, while the Early Golden 
and Royal were very firm flesh — just on the 
verge of ripeness. It was easy to see that the 
claim for earliness iu his seedlings as main- 
tained by Mr. Fox was well substantiated — we 
should think there was the advantage of at 
least 10 days to seedling No. 13, and a little 
less to No. 12. As compared with the Early 
Golden and Royal, grown in the same locality, 
Mr. Fox's, No. 12 has a decided advantage 
in point of size, the gain being in tlesh, for the 
pit was very little larger. We think a richer 
hue of flesh and higher flavor may also be fairly 
acceded to this seedling. These characteristics 
also belong to seedling No. 14, although it is 
nearer the standard varieties named in maturity. 
We should consider all the seedlings worthy 
of propagating, and of introduction in parts of 
the State which produce the earliest antl largest 
fruit. The fruit was all of medium size, but as 
all the samples come from the same locality the 
comparative tests are good ones. 

Gooseberries Free from Mildew. 

Editors Press ; — I send you by a friend a small box of 
gooseberries that you may see what we can do at Ukiah 
in raising that kind of fruit. They were not selected 
expressly when picked for you, but taken from a box of 
seven pounds picked from one bush the day before for 
market in this place. Those in the papers are also an 
average of anotlier kind. N. Waoen', Ukiah, .June 

These berries are very fine, large and tender, 
and the skin perfectly free from mildew. Our 
correspondent is one of few who succeed in 
getting such fruit from the English varieties of 
gooseberries, and we believe he has had long 
experience in growing them. We hope he will 
give us an account of his method of growing and 
what he does to succeed so well while others 
near him fail. Some experimental information 
concerning gooseberry culture in this State 
would be very acceptable to many of our 

Pigs Dropping OS. 

Editors Presss:— Will readers tell us if there is any- 
thing which can be done to prevent fig tree? from drop- 
ping the first crop of fruit before it matures. I have the 
Smyrna and While Marseilles, and they invariably lose the 
first crop. The second crop does well. — Hbnry HorrEi.L, 
Saratoga, Santa Clara Co. 

Will fig growers respond with their experi- 

On File.— "The Garden," S. C. B.; "Moun- 
tain-Top Letters," J. 

Dose for Diabroticas. 

Editors Press:— According to request, in the Press of 
June 28th, I send a remedy for diabroticas, which has been 
used successfully in this neighborhood: Steep the leaves 
of the laurel or bay tree in water (quite strong) and 
sprinkle the plants. It is a very simple remedy and very 
effective.— Henry Hoppell, Saratoga, Santa Clara Co., 

Thanks. This remedy should certainly be 
tried by all who are afflicted by these light- 
green, "black- spotted pests. Tiie bay leaves are 
at hand in the bay counties, and perhaps else- 
where, and the tea is a safer material than 
poisons and more cleanly than dusting with 
lime, etc. We shall try the bay leaves at once. 

D. A. Learned, a reader of the Press, writes 
from Stockton that they have a few diabroticas 
in that region. Are they found by the Sacra- 
mento fruit growers? We should like to hear 
from the rascal wherever he appears. 

A Michigan farmer gives the following dose 
for the "striped cucumber bug," which may be 
tried in connection Vith the various antidotes 
which we described last week: "Take ^ lb. 
quassia root, I lb. smoked tobacco, 2 quarts 
water; boil down to one-half; strain, and add 
1 quart soft soap; bottle; when wanted for use 
add 8 quarts soft water, and apply witli a 
syringe on the under side of the leaves. One 
application is generally enough, although the 
new leaves will need some on as they grow out. 
It is cheap and good." 

The Red Scale on Orange Trees. 
The Riverside Press has a note on the red 
scale on orange trees which may convey infor- 
mation to some of our new orange growers, and 

The Bennett Polar Expedition. 

The JeanneUe has departed on her eventful 
voyage to the mysteries enclosed within the 
Polar circle, and with her and her brave crew 
have gone the best wishes of the nation for the 
successful attainment of the objects proposed. 
To us as a nation relying more upon individual 
effort than upon national interference will un- 
doubtedly be awarded the solution of a problem 
80 long sought but never solved. To follow the 
route of the noble sailors who passed Cape 
Farewell on the cast coast never to return to 
their homes might have been reg-arded as un- 
wise if not folly, but the same genius that 
directed the movements of Stanley in Africa, 
planned also the present movement upon a 
scientific theory, carrying with it every possible 
and probable element of success. Amply pro- 
visioned with everything that ingenuity could 
devise or imagination invent, and manned by 
tried men and true, the hearty farewell shake 
of the hand dispelled all doubts of courage and 
faith in the seaworthiness of the good ship and 
the successful issue of the voyage. 

The numerous currents existing in the ocean 
have been the cause of the disasters attending 
former expeditions in search of the northwest 
passage by way of Baffin's bay. These ocean 
currents, the great rivers of the sea, move 
steadily on through waters comparatively tran- 
quil, spreading aver hundreds of miles upon the 
broad bosom of the pcean, not only upon the 
surface, but also in deep waters, often moving 
in different directions. The cause of these 
ocean movements is found in the difference of 


lead them to watch for the appearance of this 
pest, and fight it if discovered. It says this in- 
sect appears to attack the leaf rather than the 
stem of the orange tree, and its presence can at 
once be detected by holding up a leaf to the 
sun, when it will be found to be filled with 
small punctures, scarcely larger than the pores 
themselves, defined by a circle of yellow. The 
leaf soon becomes entirely yellow and falls off. 
The fruit itself is also covered with very small 
red scale, and it ceases to increase in size as soon 
as attacked. The remedy which has been success- 
fully used in San Gabriel is three pounds of 
bluestone in .30 gallons of water, after which 
1.30 gallons of strong soap suds is added. It is 
applied by a force-pump to all parts of the tree. 
Parasite ou Orange Scale Insect, 
In a brief note in the Canadian Entomologist 
for May, W. H. Ashmead, of Jacksonville, 
Florida, announces the discovery of minute 
black mites, which he discovered running in 
and out of the scales on some orange twigs 
which he was examining. He has no doubt 
that these mites prey upon the eggs of the scale 
insect and thus diminish its increase to a certain 
extent. Success to the mite; may it live long 
and j)rosper. 

Meteorolooical Summary for June. — The 
report of the United States Signal Service officer 
of ,San Francisco, for the month of June is sum- 
marized as follows: The mean hight of baro- 
meter for the month was 29.9)3; mean temper- 
ature, 59.4; mean humidity, 70.4; prevaiHng 
winds, west; highest barometer, 30.103; lowest, 
29.76(>; highest temperature, 8.5'; lowest 49°; 
monthly range, .34°; greatest velocity of wind, 
30 miles per hour; total number of miles traveled 
by wind, 8,038 ; total raiufall, .05 inches. 
Rainfall in June during former years : 1872, .04 
inches; 1873, .02 inches; 1874, .14 inches; 1875, 
1.02 inches : 1876, .04 inches; 1877, .01 inches; 
1878, .01 inches. 

temperature between the polar and tropical re- 
gions acting directly upon the waters, the con- 
figuration of the continents exercising a certain 
controlling force as to direction and variation. 
The cold and heavier waters of the polar re- 
gions tend incessantly to flow into the warm 
and lighter w.aters of the tropics, and when 
both meet the colder waters sink and disappear 
below the warm waters, which return as sur- 
face currents towards the polar regions diverted 
from a perfectly straight course by the steady 
action of the earth's rotation and by continental 
obstructions. To illustrate this, place at one 
end of a glass vessel of suitable dimensions, 
filled with water, a piece of ice, and apply heat 
at the other end by means of a spirit lamp; 
then color the cold water end with carmine and 
the warm water end with indigo. A current of 
carmine will immediately flow towards the 
heated end and meeting warm water will sink, 
while the blue warm water will flow on towards 
the cold end. forming continuous currents of 
carmine and blue, one flowing towards the ice 
on the surface of the water, the other flowing 
towards the heat below the surface. 

The Gulf stream, which is tlie current of the 
North Atlantic, affecting Arctic expeditions in 
that direction, arises from the accumulation of 
the waters of the equ.atorial current in the 
Gulf of Mexico. It proceeds east until its 
course is changed to the north by striking 
against the Bahama Banks. Flowing with 
great r.apidity along the coast of the United 
States, gradually expanding in volume and 
diminishing in velocity as it proceeds north- 
ward, it turns east at the latitude of New 
York and crosses the Atlantic to the Azores, 
wlien it divides, the main branch returning 
southward along the coast of Africa, while the 
northern branch continues its slanting course to 
the British Isles and Norway. A branch of the 
gulf stream flows fro.a about the latitude of 
I Newfoundland north towards Iceland, and 

sweeping around in a semi-circle between 
bergen and Lapland, is divided into 
branches by impinging against Nova Zembia, 
thence uniting its streams again in the Kara 
sea where it is lost in the Polar current. The 
Polar current, appearing at the eastern bound- 
ary of the Kara sea, flows steadily and r.apidly 
around it and within the 80° parallel of north 
latitude, oftentimes witliin 7° of the north 
pole, forming the Polar channel, thence south 
between President land and Grant land, under 
the great ice barrier to Hall land, on the ex- 
treme northern end of Greenland, whence it is 
divided into two branches, the one flowing 
south along the east coast of Greenland, the 
other south along the west coast of Greenland 
through Baffin's bay and Davis strait, until re- 
uniting after passing the most southerly point 
of Greenland it flows on steadily in one great 
current until it is lost by sinking beneath the 
gulf stream at or near the latitude of New- 
foundland. This outflowing Polar current has 
been the cause of the failure of former Arctic 
expeditions ou the eastern coast. The ship is 
either forced back away from the j)ole by the 
force of the current, or else locked in the ice, it 
is floated with it in its southern course out into 
the Atlantic, the main outlet of the north Polar 

Upon the Pacific ocean the great equatorial 
current, divided by the coasts of Asia and Aus- 
tralia, divides, and sends one branch south, the 
other flowing north bends to the north and 
northeast after passing the Phillipine islands 
and Formosa and becomes the .Japanese current 
(Kuro-Siva), the Asiatic gulf stream. This 
noble stream, with its vast body of deep blue 
and warm waters, flows swiftly along tlie east- 
ern coasts of Japan slanting across the north 
Pacific to the peninsula of Alaska, one branch 
sweeping northeast directly through Behring's 
strait into the Polar sea. Thence sweeping 
around along the north coast of America 
to the Arctic islands it unites with the eastern 
and southern flowing Polar current through 
the great ice barrier — Barrow's strait, Jones' 
and Smith's sound — uniting with and form- 
ing part of the great Polar current which 
finds its way to the Atlantic, carrying 
upon its bosom the ice of the Polar regions. 
In this current the Jeannelte will be continu- 
ally carried onward, east to the Atlantic ocean, 
as inevitably as she would be carried to the 
Gulf of Mexico by the current of the Missis- 
sippi. Whether frozen in the ice or not, she 
will be carried east to the Atlantic, or in the 
direction of the North Pole, by the steady 
flowing current in that direction. In fact, there 
is no current f oiring in anij other direction. The 
Polar currents all crowd to the east on the 
American coast, under the influence of the 
earth's rotation, and because the Atlantic is the 
only outlet, the shallow, narrow passage of 
Behring's strait preventing them from sinking 
under the warm Japanese current, so that from 
the Pacific to the Arctic ocean there is a con- 
stant injloujin;/ rvrrent, and from the Arctic to 
the Atlantic a constant outjhu^ing rurrent, reason 
enough why the Jeannette should succeed if 
success will ever attend a Polar expedition. 
The scientific features of the expedition will be 
of the highest order. No observation will be 
neglected, whether made by deep sea soundings 
or in the air, for the benefit ot meteorology. 
Every preparation has been made to provide 
for the comfort and safety of the men. Electric 
lights will be used for signaling, and these with 
300 miles of wire with telephones, will enable 
the observers to communicate with the ship at 
a distance of 4.50 miles from her, so that sledg- 
ing parties can report their discoveries or needs 
to those remaining ou the ship. Amply pro- 
visioned for three years' voyage as to provisions, 
and safe for two years as to fuel, the officers 
and crew feel buoyant and cheerful, expecting 
nothing but success, in fact, determined to suc- 
ceed. With six chronometers, chemicals, mi- 
croscopes, and barometers of a new and perfect 
make, and a varied and valuable library, the 33 
brave men who compose her full complement, 
will receive a schooling during her long Arctic 
sojourn, such as it does not fall to the fate of 
every man to receive. A strong, tight, com- 
fortable ship, battened throughout with felt and 
canvas, and all iron below decks carefully 
covered, the fate of the crew cannot be con- 
sidered hard. 

The route after passing Behring's strait will 
be governed entirely by circumstiinces — none 
has been or can be determined upon. The in- 
fluence of the inflowing current will be permitted 
to determine the direction, for it is expected 
that this current will solve the problem of the 
Polar regions. After leaving San Francisco the 
ship will proceed to Alaska and receive addi- 
tional supplies from her convoy, and then weigh 
anchor immediately for Behring's strait. Suc- 
cess to the Jeannette and to her mission. 

The general course of tlie Polar current may 
be traced from the description by reference to 
the map of the Arctic regi<ms on this page — for 
the use of which wo are indebted to I)r. A. B. 
Stout, of this city. 

Four hundred tuou.sand jiersons are em- 
ployed on the railroads in this country ; 2,000,- 
000 depend upon them for immediate support, 
and $400,000,000 are annually paid to employes 
and persons furnishing supplies. 

In searching the premises of the late Mr. 
Burke, at Clatsop, Oregon, a few days ago. 
United States bonds to the amount of $3,000, 
with the coupons for 1880, were found sewed in 
the garment worn by the daughter. 



[July 12, 1879. 

State Fair Premiums for Machinery and 

We continue tliis week our list of the pre- 
miums ofl'ered by the State Agricultural Society 
for competition at the fair, in Sacramento, Sep- 
tember Sdi to ISch, 1S79: 

Second Department -Machinery, Imple- 
ments, Etc. 

For the most meritorious exhibition in this department, 
the Society's gold medal. 

Models iu Classes 1, 11, III and VI, cannot compete with 
full sized machines. 

All machinery, as lar as practicable, to be exhibited in 

All articles named in Classes I, 11, III, IV, V, VI and 
VII, of this department, if of California manufacture, 
will receive the premium offered and diploma; if not, the.v 
will be awarded a diploma only. 


Best display of frcneral machinery from one shop S-10 

Best light portable prospecting mill for reducing 

quartz 20 

Best concentrator tor copper ores 20 

Best grinding and amalganiatirg pan combined 20 

Btst turbine wheel (California manufacture) 20 

Best quartz crusher (California manufacture) 2u 

Best steam engine (California manufacture) 50 

Best portable steam engine (California manufacture). . 40 

Bist portable sawmill 20 

Best saw gummer 2 

Best self-setting sawmill head-block 

Best slave machine ^ 

Best shingle machine 

Best lath machine 5 

Best hoop machine 5 

B.:st molding machine •> 

1 e it mortising .nachiiie 5 

Best sash machine 5 

Beat tenoning machine 5 

Best scroll saw machine 5 

Bist wood turning lathe 5 

Best iron turning la^ he 5 

Best iron planing machine 10 

Bist wood planing machine 10 

Best water wheel 10 

Best fire extinguisher Diploma 

B3<t gas machine Diploma 

Best self-generating gas burner Diploma 

Best machine for manufacture of screwed boots 

and shoes Diploma 

Best imchino for securing gold from quartz (^Caifornia 

manufacture) 25 

Best machine for reducing cement and securing the 

gold (California manufacture) 25 

Best diamond drill Silver Medal 



BiSt display of sgricultural machinery b}' any cue 

house (California manufacture) 350 

Boat threshing machine 50 

Best sweep, horse power (California manufacture). ... 10 

Best circular sawmill, operated hy horse power 10 

Best log crosscut sawmill, horse or steam power 10 

Best ditching machine, operated by steam power. 50 

Best clover huller and cleaner , 5 

Best hemp and flax dressing machine 10 

Best cider mill and press 5 

Best horse hay rake 10 

BiSt hay and straw cutter 5 

Best hay press 20 

Best power com shcllcr 5 

B-iSt hand corn sheller 5 

Bjst corn husker, from stalks Diploma 

Bjst c irn husker, ears only Diploma 

Best lawn mower 5 

Best goplier trap 5 

Best post hole auger 5 

Best well auger Diploma and 5 

Bist vegetable washer 5 

Best vegetable cutter 5 

Best lawn sprinkler. 3 



Best header (California manufacture) ^.iO 

Best wheat drill (two horses) 10 

Best wheat drill (one horse) 5 

Best broiuiea.'-.t sowing machine 10 

Best machine for cutting and shocking corn 5 

Best clover seed harvester 5 

Best self-raking reaping machine 10 

Best reaping machine 10 

Best mowing machine 10 

Best combined reaper and mower 10 

Best display of reaping and mowing machine knives. . 5 

Best hay loader 10 

Best elevator for stacking grain 10 

Bejt nets for header wagons for stacking grain 5 

Best derrick rig complete 15 

Best lifter for header. 5 

Besf- self-binding harvester 20 

Best solf-feeJcr for threshing machine 25 

Best hay pitching machine 5 

Best corn planter (horse-power) 5 

Best corn planter (hand) 2 

Best potato planter .5 

Best potato digger 5 

Best field roller and crusher 10 

Best harrow 10 

Best one-horse cultivator .", 

Best cultivator 10 

Best horse hoe 5 

Best double shovel plow 5 

Best ramie cleaning machine 20 



Best smut machine 810 

Beet farm feed mill 10 

Best fanning mill 5 

Best flour packing machine .1 

Best windmill ' ] ' 25 

Best stock scales for general purposes, to be set up by 
exhibitor, and be used by the Board during the 

lair, tree of cliaige 25 

Best platform scales. 5 

Best farm gate [ [ 13 

Best beehive (without bees) . ' 3 

Best refrigerator ' 5 

Best agricultural boiler , , , , 5 

Best ornamental fence !!!!!! 10 

Best grain separator Diploma 

By Nash & Klees, of §25, tor a better grain cleaner 
or fanning mill than the " Nash & Cutts," to be 
tested by a committee of farmers on the ground, 
Tbursdav, September 11' li. 

Best display of haying and harvesting tools $20 

Best ;-et draining tools 6 

Beat farm road scraper 5 

Best garden seed drill 2 

Best cheese press ] ] ] \q 

Best cheese vat, with heater attached 10 

Best cheese shelf model , 5 

Best churn, in operation on the ground. .....].....[[ 10 

Best butter worker, iu operation on the ground 5 

Best cabbage cutter o 

Best 3 vusage meat cutler and stuffer. 2 

Best washing machine Diplomi aiid 5 

BMt clothes wringer. . . Diploma 

Best mangle or ironing machine 5 

Best clothes horse, to occupy the least space 5 

Best well pump 10 

Best apparatus for raising water for irrigating pur- 
poses p 20 

Best apiiaratus for raising water tor mining purposes. 20 

Best egg carrier 5 

Best milk cooler 10 

Best fruit gatherer 3 


Best gang plow ^50 

Best sulky plow 15 

Best stubble plow 10 

Best sod plow 10 

Best steel plow 10 

Best cast iron plow 10 

Best subsoil plow. 10 

B-St sidchill plow 5 

Best oue-horse plow 5 

Best mole or blind ditching plow 10 open ditching plow 10 

Best dynamometer 10 


Best Iwo-horse family carriage Diploma and ?30 

Best one-horse family carriage Diploma and 25 

Best open buggy 15 

Best top buggy Diploma and 20 

Best two-seated open carriage 20 

Best tr**tting wagon Diploma and 10 

Best farm wagon for general purposes 16 

Best spring market wagon 15 

Best cart 5 

Best track sulky 5 

Best track wagon 5 

Best ladies' phajtoii 15 

Best street goods wagon •. 5 

Best wagcin or carriage brake 5 

Best carriage or cab for children 5 

Best display of carriage wheels, hubs, etc 10 

Best assortment of carriage material and trim- 
mings Diploma 

Best carriage springs Diploma and 10 

Best exhibition of wngon and carriage wheels, made 

of California grown timber 15 

Best exhibition preserved wood Silver Mcdut 

Third Department— Textile fabrics and Ma- 
terials from which 'they are Made. 

For the most meritorious exhibition in this department, 
the Society's gold medal. 

Articles to be exhibited by or tor the manufacturer, and 
articles which have heretofore received a premium, to be 
excluded from competition. 


Best exhibiti<>n of silk goods hy one factory $25 

Best display of woolen goods by one factory 50 

Best ten yards of cloth of Hax cotton 5 

Best piece cotton sheeting 5 

Best fifteen yards woolen carpet Silver Medal 

Best fifteen yards tow cloth 5 

Best ten yards linen 20 

Best ten yards linen diaper 10 

Best ten yards kersey 5 

Best hearth rug 5 

Best double carpet coverlet 5 

liest pound linen sewing thread 5 

Best shawl 5 

Best Mackinac blanket 5 

Best stocking .yarn 3 

Best (j'Icloth table cover 3 

Best display of cordage Silver Medal 

Best ten yards rag carpet 10 

Best exhibition of burlaps and material of which it is 

made Silver Medal 

Best exhibition of carpets and rugs 20 

Best gentlemen's shirts 'Silver Medal 

Best knit bedspread 5 

Best wove bedspread 5 

Best ten pounds dressed flax 10 

Best five iiounds flax cotton , 10 

Best five pounds flax yarn 5 

Best exhibition of shoulder braces and corsets 

Silver Med.1l 

Best exhibition of neckties and bows Silver Medal 

Best exhibition of uaval and military goods and 

regalia Silver Medal 

Best display of dry goods 20 

Best dis|ilay of fancy goods 20 


Best display of shoe lasts, pegs and lasting machine. . 8 ^ 

Best pair of ilress boots 

B' St pair of heavy boots p 

Best pair of gentlemen's dress shoes ^ 

Best pair of congress gaiters ^ 

Best pair of ladies' slippers 5 

Best pair of ladies' gaiters 3 

Best i)air of bootees 3 

Best display of bound account books.Silver Medal and 5 

Best display of paper 5 

Best dis|i!ay of paperhangings and borders 5 

Best silk bat 5 

Best soft hat 5 

Best exhibition of gentlemen's clothing 10 

Best display of printing 10 

Best exhibition of men's and boys' clothing.. Silver Medal 
Best display of men's and boys' boots and shoes, 

gaiters, etc Silver Jledal 

Best display of ladies' and girls' boots and shoes and 

gaiters Silver Medal 

Best display rubber hose and belting Silver Medal 

Best display leather hose and belting Silver Medal 


Best display of children's and ladies' clothing, Cali- 
fornia made $25 

Best ottoman cover 5 

Best table cover ; 5 

Best fancy chair cushion and back 5 

iiOi t crochet shawl 5 

Best lampstand mat 3 

Best ornamental needlework 5 

Best silk embroidery 5 

Best embroidered sofa cushion 5 

Be.?t embroidered tablespread 5 

Best embroidered dressing gown 5 

Best emhruidereil ladles' dress 5 

Best embroidered children's clothes 6 

Best embroidered handkerchief 3 

Best chenille work 5 

Best embroidery with beads 5 

Best made and liandsomest dress for lady 10 

Best worked veil for lady 3 

Best embroidered handkerchief S 

Best silk bonnet 6 

Best vel\et bonnet 5 

Best vel\ et bat 5 

Best displiiy of feathers > 10 

Best knit cloak 3 

Best exhibit of men's clothing 10 

Best exhibit of boys' clothing 5 

Best exhibit of men's hats and caps Silver Medal 

Best colleciion of furs (not less than six pieces) 20 

Best assortment of leather gloves and mittens 

Silver Medal 

Best variety of linen embroider}' 10 

Best variety of artificial flowers 10 

Best specimen of wax flowers 10 

Best specimen of wax fruit 5 

Best and largest variety of wax fruit 10 

Best specimen of moss or lichen work 5 

Best ><pccimen of cone work 5 

Best specimen of I'-af work 5 

Best specimen of flower work 5 

Best si'ccimeu of shell work 5 

Best braid of straw or grass 5 

Best specimen of braid work ■ 5 

Best embroidered picture 10 

Best white quilt 5 

Best worked quilt 5 

Best silk quilt 5 

Best patchwork quilt 5 

Best child's afghan 5 

Best display of millinery 20 

Best prcser\ cd natural flowers Silver Medal 

Best wax work statuary 10 

Best outline embroidery 5 

Largest and best display of fancy articles by a lady or 

miss 15 

Best embroidery in crewel work 3 

Best lambrequin 3 

Best fine lace work 3 

Best and handsomest toilet set complete, work of a 

lady or mi>s 5 

Best display of skeleton leaves 3 

Best wax autumn leaves 3 

Best display ornamental grasses 3 

Best embroidery in crewel work 3 

Articles exhibited by misses under ten years of age, en- 
trance free. 

Best hand sewing, to consist of not less thjn four 

pieces Silver Medal 

Best pair knit dtton stockings Napkin Ring 

liest pair knit wool stockings Napkin Ring 

Best netting Napkin Ring 

Best tatting Napkin Ring 

Best crochet work Napkin Ring 

Best silk embroidery Butter Knife 

Best cotton embroidery Bulter Knife 

Best worsted embroidery Butter Knife 

Best wax work §5 

Best needlework picture 5 

Best silk quilt 5 

Best patchwork quilt Napkin Ring 

Best cotton quilt Napkin Ring 

Best pen drawing Napkin Ring 

Best jwinting in water colors Najikin Ring 

Best iienmanship Napkin Ring 

Best iiaiid-made shirt Napkin King 

Best leaf and moss work Napkin Ring 

Best hair work Napkin King 

Best braid work Napkin Ring 

Best feather work Napkin Ring 

Lands for Sale and to Let. 

Residence and Business Lots 


The Cheapest and most Desirable Property 
for Investment or for Home- 
steads in the State. 

Lots worth 8200 sold on inKtiillinents nf $-o per inontli. 
Lots worth $n00, SIO down; ir.staUmenla of $5 per month. 
Lot8 worth 1^500, $60 down; instalhnents of $10 per month. 
Lots worth $1,000, 3100 down; installments of ^'20 per mo. 

Witliin 40 minutes of the business center of San Fran- 
cisco, reachtd at an expense of If* cents for sing-le trips or 
S3 formontlily tickets, heinfj a point at which all the im- 
portant railroads of the State will center, and where the 
University and other edueational institutions of the coast 
are located. With fine view and deli;,'htful climate and 
its present rapid improvement, all combine to make this 
the moat desirattle place to locate. 

Give us a call and we will give entire satisfaction, as we 
have property in all parts of Berkeley, and can sell 
cheaper than any otlicrs. Call on 

652 >[arket Street, San Francisco. 

Or at residence, cor. 6th and Bristol Sis., AVcst Berkeley. 

A Good Fajm For Sale. 

The undersigned offers for sale a Farm of 480 acres of 
fine loamj' grain land in a hifjfh state of cultivation, 400 
acres being well fenced, with house, barn, outbuiliiiny-s, 
water tank, house and windmill, orchard, vineyard and 
garden .suilicient for family use. The water is excellent. 
It is situated 1^ miles north of Arbuckle Station, on the 
Northern Kaihvay, in Colusa County. 


A Schoolhouse is adjoining this farm, and evcrj thing 
desirable for a 

Nice and Comfortable Home. 

Can be bought for part Cash and iiart Credit, or pay- 
ments ill Installments to suit purchasers. Address 

Arbuckle P. O., Colusa Co , Cal. 

Farm For Sale. 

Yields an Income of $4,000 a Year. 

Pi-lce, $lO,50O. 

My Farm and Poidtry Business yield 
over S4,000 a year. The i)lace— 110 acres 
— with orchard, vineyard and improve- 
ments, has cost nie jl3,000. The good 
will of the business is worth fully 
.$8,000. I will sell the business and 
farm for SIO, 600, half cash, or exch.wge 
for San Francisco property. It is a 
bargain such as is seldom ofifered. 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 
Law Office in San Francisco, No 630 Clay St., Room 25. 

fiTI am in Napa each Saturday and Sunday; other days 
in [San Fi-ancisco. 


700 Acres. The Fmett Stock and Grala 
Farm in Northern CallforDla. 

Price. 92,5,000, including Farming implements. The 
whole under fence. 

The Stock upon this farm, all thoroughbred and graded, 
embracing some of the finest in the State, will b-j sold at 
private sale. Aniimg the stock is some that has been 
awarded different premiums at State and County Fairs. 

This is one of the finest opportunities for a man of 
means in the State. For full particulars apply to 

D. B. HAYS, 
Real Estate Agent, Oiovillc, Cal. 

■ M k I W% Oood land that will r<iise a crop every 
I A |k| i I year. Over 14,000 acres for sale in lots l« 
I U |V 1 1 suit. Climate healthy. No drouths, had 
^ 1^ I % floods, nor malaria. Wood and water 
convenient. U. S Title, perfect. Send stamp for illus- 
trated circular, to EDWARD FRISBIE, Proprietor of 
Reailing Uanch, Anderson, Shasta Ci.iunty, Cal. 

Temperance Colony. 

45,654 49-100 ACRES. 

Cheap and Desirable Homes. 

TERMS OF SALE ^.'j"; cash, and the reniahider In eight 
equal annual installments with interest at 10% per annum, or 
full payment and Deed immediately. 

Rich Soil and Healthful Climate. 

located in the Western part of Santa Barbara County, 
Cahfomia, Kiiihraciug 10,000 acres of the Finest Bean Land 
m the .State; as high as 3.700 11.8. of Bears to the acre have 
been raised the present year, while 3,000 tl«. to the acre is not 
an micommon yield. 


And Telegraphic Communication with all parts of the State. 
The Teitfgraph .Stajre Co. 'a Coaches now run dail)', each 
way. directly through the town of 


E. H. HEACOCK, President. 

IRVING P. HENNING, Secretary. 

NoTember 6th, 1878. . 

Flour Mill for Sale or Rent. 

A good water power flour mill, with two runs of 4-feet 
wheat stones, one middling and one feed stone, all in goml 
order, situate in southern California, with a good wheat 
crop near the mill, can be bought cheap, or a part inter- 
est can be purchased hy a good, reliable mill man, or the 
property can he leased; mill is running, and has a good 
reputation. Want of experience, and other business, in- 
duces the owners to ofler a good trade. Apply to JOS. 
WAGNER & CO., 105 and 107 Mission street, S. F. 



Office, 276 First St , San Jose, Cal. 

Will buy and sell Land Warrants; Locate and Survey Pub- 
lic Government Land. Pre cmption Honiestcads, Soldier's 
and Sailor's Homesteads, Timber and Wood LaniLs. Desert 
Lands, Etc. 

For Sale ill large- or small tracts, on easy icrins, in 
the best parts of the State. 

202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets. Oakland. 

Constniitly on hand and for pale, choice specimens 
of the folluwiny varieties of Fowls: 

Dark and Light Brabmas, Btiff 
■White and Partridge Co- 
chins, White & Bro'wn 

Leghorns, Dork- 
ings, Polish, Ham- 
burgs, Plymouth Rocks, 
Game and Sebright Ban- 
tams, Bronze Turkeys, Pekln, 
Aylesbury and Rouen Ducka 


No Inferior Fowls Sold at any Price. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
i^'For further information send stamp for Illustrated 
areolar, to GEO. B. BAYLBY, 

P. O. Box 1913. .San Francisco, Cal. 


That Mrs. C. 11. Sprague, at the California Poultry 
Yards, at Woodland, Yolo County, keeps the choicest lot 
and the greatest and best variety of Thoroughbred Fowls 
of any one west of the Mississippi river, and that one can 
get just what is wanted by sending orders to her. 


^4 Post Street 

Near KearQj, 
San Pranciiciff Cat. 

The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a sjiecialty; ^et its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
structioni^ given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modem Languages are practically taught. The 
discipline is excellent, and ts system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladies' Dki'Artmkst. — Ladies will be admitted for ■>- 
struction in all the Departments of the College. 

TRi/FOKAriiic Ukpaktment.— In this Deiiartment yoiuig 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operator, both by sound and [mper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending this date, the Board of Direc- 
has declared a Divideiiil on Term Deposits at the rate of 
seven and one-fifth (7 1-6) per cent, per annum, and on 
Ordinary Deposits at the rate of six ((i) per cent, per an- 
num, free from Federal Taxes, and payable on and after 
the 15th day of July, 1S79. By order. 

GEO. LETTE, Secretory. 

San Francisco, June 30th, 1879. 

Dewey & Co. Un^^^'lstlPatent Ag'ts. 

July 12, 1879.J 



pdrciia8er9 of stock will kind in tuis directory the 
Najibs of some of the Most Rkliable Brkeders. 

Our Katk8.— Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 


W. L. OVERHISER, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Durham Cattle, Sjjanish Mer- 
ino Sheep and Berkshire swine. The above for sale. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 323 Front street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 


E. W. WOOLSEY, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Importer and breeder of choice thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Sheep. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 


WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importer 
and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Berkshire 
and Magie Poland-China Swine. 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, While and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc^ 

A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send tor Circular. 

ALBERT BURBANK, 43 California Market, S. 
F. Importers and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry, 
Doirs, etc. Ecgs for hatching. Send for price list. 


ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal- 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine- 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Ilog and Sheep Labels. 

T. C. STARR, San Bernardino, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Berkshire and Poland-China Swine. Light Brahma and 
Black Cochin Chickens for sale. 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 


JOS. E. ENAS, Sunnyaide, Napa, Cal. Breeds pure 
Italian Queen Bees. Imported Queens furnished. 


Of all kinds constantly on hand, including Honey Extrac- 
tors. Send for illustrated catalogue. 

H. M. CAMERON, 232 Sutter St., S. F, 

Grangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 


Authorized Capital - $2,500,000, 
In 25,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $405,000. 


President.... G. W. COLBY. 

Manager and Cashier, 

Secretary FRANK McMULLEN. 

The Bank was opened on tlie first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importera' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., wc are now pre- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on tho Atlantic Slates at 
the best market rates. 

Grangers' Co-operative Business Associa 
tion, of Sacramento Valley. 

Location: K & 10th Sts., Sacramento, Cal 

CERIES, and sale of FRUITS. Desire the cu-opcration 
and trade of farmers in general. Pay the highest market 
rates for all produce, and sell for the smallest profit. Our 
orders are casu on delivery. Goods shipped; marked C. 
O. D. W. H. HEVENER, ManaRer. 


— AND — 

Commission Agent. 

310 Pine Street, Room 31, San Francisco. 

Special attention to Fire, Marine and Life Insurance 

Insurance placed in none but flrst-class Companies. 


Elegantly Furnished, and with Gas and 
Hot and Cold Water in Every Room. 


At 1031 Market St., San Francisco. 

YOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
Ten Cents. STEVENS BROS., Northford, Conn. 






At Prices that Nobody can beat! 


Is one of the leading Pianos, and 
has been before the Public 
For Forty Years. 

We Sell no Bogus Instruments, 



Post street, near Dupont, 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 


which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature^ 


which is placed on eve^y bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ask for LEA PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester ; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
(s'c., dr'c. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throti hout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San Francisco. 

BARLOW J. SMITH, M. D., announces to his friendi 
and former iiatrons that he has resumed hygienic medical 
practice at the Smithsonian Medical and Phrenological 
Institute, 635 California street. The institute provides all 
fonns of Electro-Medical baths and Hygienic boarding. 
Terms reasonable. Phreno-Physiological examinations in 
regard to health free. During the past 30 years Dr. 
Smith has developed a System of Phreiio-Physiology that 
shows the relations that exist between the brain and body 
and claims that the organs of the brain show the strength 
of the spine, heart, lungs, stomach, bowels, liver and kid- 
neys, also the reproductive organs, and the tendency of 
each and all to disease. The most powerful Elcctroized 
Magnet ever used in the treatment of nervous and chronic 
diseases is employed in this Health Institute. Mrs. Dr. 
Smith has charge of the Female Bathing Department 
Plirenological examinations daily. 




COUNiTRIES; trademarks, labels and copy- 
rights registered thruugh DEWEY & CO.'S 
Mining and Soientifio Patent 
AKeacy, Sau Francisco. Send for free circular 

Try one axid you a ill \\ ear no other. 

Spring and Summer Styles, 

— AT — 

336 Kearny St., bet. Busii and Pine, 

— AND — 

910 Market St., above Stockton. 

Send tor Illustrated Spring Style Catalogue. 





Growers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealers In 




Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Hay, Grain and Feed. 

Also, Store and Sell on Commission at 
Reasonable Rates. 

receive i)ronipt attention, and returns forwarded as S'lon 
as sales are mado. For further particulars address as 

1535 Mission St., San Francisco. 

Comprising the Most Complete Stock 

Prices Unusually Low. 
*»*"Guide to tho Vegetable and Flower Garden \ 
ill bo sent freb to all Cu8to.mer8. If contains in- 
structions on the culture of Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental 
Tree Seeds, Alfalfa, etc. 

419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 


Elegant Perfumed Cardii Chromo, Motto, Lily, Etc., 
15c. Gift with each pa^L. II. M. Smith. Clintonvillc, Ct. 




Continually arriving, NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
VERNAL, MEZQUITE and other Grasses. 
Also, a Com.plete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
SEED; together with al kinds of FRUIT, 
and everything in tho Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 


Importer and Dealer in Seeds, 
425 Washinffton Street, - San Franciscc 


Importers, Growers and dealers in Garden, Field and 
Flower Seeds, Dutch Bulboua Roots, Summer Flowering 
Bullts and Garden Ke(iuisite9 of every description. Cata- 
loj^ucs mailed to all applicants. Address 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 34 Barclay Street, N. Y. 


Parties wishinir to experiment in the cultivation of 
rhapparal as an economical and valuable substitute for 
fencinf,^, can obtain the seed in 50 Cts. and Si packages, at 
W. II. STRONG'S, Sacramento. iT^Sent by mail. 


F. A. MILLER & CO., Mission St., 
opposite Woodward's Gardens. Send 
for Catalogue and Price List. 

Blackberry and Cranberry Plants. 

100.000 Plants of new varieties of BLACKBERRY Plants 
—the Early Cluster and Vina Seedling, Missouri Mammoth 
au<l Dec-ring Seedling, the earliest and the most productive 
of all. I will give satisfactory proof that thuse berries have 
i-eaUzed $750 per acre. It paid more than double the 
amount as the old late varieties. Price by mail, $2 per 
dozen, $8 per hundred, and §80 per thousand. Send for 
Catalogue. Cherry Cranberry plants for .^150 per acre, 
lilanted. not less tlian 10 aciea in one order. We will sell to 
responsible parties, large orders on time, part cash. 

H. NYLAND, Bouldin Island. San Joaquin Co.. CaL 


We wish to open correspondence immediately with one 
or more enterprising parties in each township upon tho 
Coast to 

Establish an Agency 

Ot our valuable puhlicatioiis, among which are the "Pic- 
torial History of the World," Stanley's 
Through the Dark Continent," '• Chase's 
Improved Recipes," the Farmer's Account 
Book, and many others. Ministers, teachers, farmers 
and others will find this prnfltahle. Ladies especially are 
successful. Address for full particulars, 


No. 721 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




Tlic New Non-Poisoncins !^he^;p iJip and Dininfectant. 
Price, $2 per gallon For diiectioiis and • tcstinninials, 
apply to FAULKNER, BELL in CO., 

Solo Agents, 4:iO Calilornia Street, S. F 



Incorporated 1876. Capital Stock, .^50,000. 0. P. B*ILBY, 
I'ri niik-nt and Mananer. Manufacture all styles of Gloves, 
Udloes, Mata and Whiplashts. Cash paid for Goat Skins. 

Send for Circular. 


CIIROMO, Gold Border, etc., lOc, no 2 alike, or 20 
Cupid Cards, 10c. J. B. HUSTED, Nassau, N. Y. 



[July 12, 1879. 

Stockton Industry, Etc. 

EDiTOBa PBES9: — With your permission and a space 
In your valmblo columns, I will strive to give y u a 
few items of tlie pro;;rcss of this city and its leading 
manufacturiiit; entablisbiuents. warehouses, Orungers' 
and Co-operativo Unions, etc., which a short sojourn 
and limited acquaintau. e has placed within my roach. 

The corporate limits of the city proper run between 
four and live miles; its streets run at right angles, 
dividing the city into blocks of 300 feet tquare. Stock- 
ton, with its immense warehouse facilltifs makes sue- 
ceBBtuI bids for the farmeri' grain, and stores it at 
smsll percentage. From a town of tents in 181'J, it is 
now placed in the lltth rank as to population (11,000 to 
la.OUO). As a commercial center Stockton has few 
rivals and no peers. She heads the list of the grain 
markets on the Pacific Coast. From tho cl 'se 
proximity of the capacljus warehmses to navigable 
water, its grain can readily be placed board of steam- 
ers and saili g vessels, and iu the bay of San Francisco 
bo transferred to ships for the foreign and domestx 
market, thus saving tlio enormous wharf tax in San 
Francisco. The ditt'erent warehouses have th.; follow- 
ing storage capacity: Farmer's Co-operative Union, 
15,000 tons; Baggs', 1'>,<H)0 tons; Stockton. 20,000 tons; 
Farmers', Itt.OOO tons; Kalisher, 8,000 tons, and many 
other buildings used for storing grain during the sea- 
son. The prople of Stockton look healthy, wealthy 
and prosperous. The farmers as a class co xe to th'' 
city more or less, especially Saturdays, when they bring 
their wives, daughters and chililr' ii and let their hard 
earned twenties take the wing Many of the farmers 
have, by honest and upright industry, earned a compe- 
tent living, and do not allow IhemEelves or their fami- 
lies to want for the real comforts of this world. Their 
money is honestly come by, and they spend it freely 
for anything that will tend to their comfort and solid 
pleasure;neither do they forget or neglect the worthy 
poor. No man, woman or child leaves their door hun- 
gry or thirsty. These citiz'tns of the soil are the ones 
that impart the great progress and prosperity to this, 
"tUe City of Windmills." 

Matteson & Williamson, 
Patentees and manufacturf rs of agricultural imple. 
mentj, corner .Vain and Cilifornia streets. This house 
was establisiied in 1852, at which time Mr: Matteson 
bagan to mauuiHcture in this city. Thirteen years ago 
Mr. Williamson entered the Urni, changing the name 
to Matteson & Williamson. This house manufactures, 
among other implements, Richards' impr.jveJ header 
canal and railroad plows, scrapers, tho famous sulky 
iron gang plow, "American Chief," horse, hay aud grain 
forks, threshing and stacking derricks, two-edged 
pat nt diamond plow, patent chisel cultivator, the base 
sing e or sulky tule plow. This firm is now prepared 
to mauxifactnre any and every article that is necessary 
ia the agricultural implement line. With a force of 1,0 
to 10 (including somt) of the most sliillful mechanics 
on this side of the Rocky Mountains) , leaves this insti- 
tution excelled by none in workmanship aud dura'oility 
of their mauufaciure. During tho past year they have 
erected a ihree-story brick building, where tho black- 
smith and wood work is done; recently they have com 
plated a foundry, fronting on Aurora, bounded tiy 
Main, Market and Grant strect.s; working capacity, ."iO 
siiuare feet. About a week ago their first castings wtre 
turned out, with entire satisfaction to the proprietors. 
Thl.s enterprising firm has established a reputation 
which reaches far and wide; they flil orders from all 
parts of C ilil'ornia, also from Oregon, Nevada, Wash- 
ington Territory, Idaho, Montana, Kebraski, etc. Their 
improved workshops are among the finest on the Pacific 

Marsters' Feeder Works, and Regrulating 

Corner California and Washington streets. Mr. E. J. 
Marsters has been engaged for the last five years in 
manufacturing the "self feeder" o( a pattern invented 
by himself, which has been improved from time to 
time. Four years of practical experience has given it a 
standard reputation, until now it btands acknowl' dgcd 
hesd of tho list for simplii:ity, efl'ectivenesa,- light-run- 
iiing, durability and ease in putting on and taking cCT, 
for which testimonials too numerous to mention In 
these cidumus for want of space, can be furnished on 
applicati-m to ihu above works. Marsters' self.regu- 
lating windmill, "Tempest," the most substantial self- 
reguUtor iu tho county and State. Its mechanism Is 
of tho simplest charsL-ter, no weights, springs or levers 
are u*ed in its construction, the solid or banded wheel 
emplojed so favorably known, renders it at once relia- 
ble aud worthy the attention of our people. Marsters' 
Universal Regulator, especially designed for regulating 
mil s constructed on ditTjrent styles of turn tables. 
This r gulator is easily adjusted to old mills requiring 
the sime. Parties desiilng new mills or liaviug old ones 
to repair and regulate, would do well to caU at the 
above works. 

Globe Iron Works, 
Corner Commerce and Main streets. One of the earli- 
est and most important n,annfacturijig estbblishments 
of this city. Eitablished iu 18)7 by E. J. Keep. Mr. 
John Cain is the present owner. Steam engines, ma- 
chinery and castings.^ f every description are manufac- 
tured in these works. A specialty is made cf Root's 
ro'ary patent force-blast blowers forventila'ing mines, 
and pjrtable forges, Harthbcrger's patent wheat 
scourers (Amut millK), aud all kinds of agricultural 
implements. Connected with tho plobe Iron Works 
and under the same ownership is the 

Stockton Agricultural Warehouse, 
201 and 20a Kl Dorado street, near Main. Mr. John 
Cain is tho luccessor to the "H. C. Shaw Plow Co.,'. 
which was incorporated December, 1S7j. There is on 
hand a largo ai:d full afsorted stock of standard and 
late patents of mowers, headers, wagons, engines, etc.; 
in facttvcryihiugin the line of agricultural implements. 
They also own or control the patent and trade of the 

Stockton gang plow and of the Stockton single-geir 
header, both in use throughout the State. 

Grangers' Union of San Joaquin Valley. 

This Union was incorporated May 11, 1871. Its mem 
bcrs can be numbered among the most substantial men 
of Stockton, San Joaquin county and valley, most of 
whom are practical farmers. In its infai cy th' y occu- 
pied a building on El norado street. Octob r Ist, 187fi, 
they moved into an elegant brick building, specially 
built for their own use. The building frun's on Main 
street, and has a large aud fine entrance on California The flojr contain ; 11. oOUsquaro feet. ThisUninn 
does a largo business and carries a heavy stock of 
goods, a full assorted line of agricultural implements, 
jron, steel mechanical and blacksmiths' tools, wagons, 
hardware, rope, paints, oils, belting, etc., etc.; in fact 
everything that man and mind can imagine is kei t in 
this popular and well managed establishment. Tlie 
Grangers' Union is deservedly popular, well otiiwred, 
ably managed, upright and prompt in all its dealings, 
aud it is certain to bo and ri main a shining landmark 
in the rich and fertile San Joaquin valley. The origin- 
ators of this iLbtitution may justly feel proud ol their 

Pacific Agricultural Works, 
Lafayette, between California aud Sutter streets. The 
above works were established in 1875 by Meser--. Q 
Lisiendon k Co. Both proprietors, Mr. Lisscnden aud 
Mr. II. C. Norris, are practical mechanics and super- 
vise their shops personally. This e.stablishmput turns 
out all kinds 0/ late improved agricultural implements. 
They also repair all kinds of farming machinery as 
well as manufacture the same. A specialty is made of 
the sulky plows "Star of California," the riding gang 
plow "S ar of the West," and McCall's mammoth road 
scrapers. Tho celebrated header, thresher and separa- 
tor is manufactured by Lissendsn & Co. This estab- 
lishment gives employment to 15 or 20 men, and is 
doing a largo and extensive business. Prompt alten- 
tlon, work of durability and fair dealing has given these 
gentleman a far aud wide reputation ii^ their line of 

Davis' Windmills. 

For twenty year.s Mr. J. S. Davis has been engaged in 
manufacturing windmills of a patent invented by him- 
self. He has from time to time made great improve- 
ments on these mills, until now it ranks first on this 
coast. The principal advantage iiossessed by Mr. Davis' 
mill is that the wind acts with equal force upon the 
whole length of the fan at all times. For the eight 
years Mr. D. has made and sold an average of sixty 
mills per year. The celebrated Compound Hay Press 
is also manufactured by Mr. Davis. This press has a 
good reputation .imon^ farmers and gardeners. Prompt 
attention is given to repairing and regulating old as 
well as new windmills, hay presses, etc. Twenty-five 
years of practical experience give Mr. Davis great ad- 
vantage in his line of business. Bis shops are situated 
west side of Commerce, between Main and Leveo Sts. 

There are quite a number of manufactories and 
fictories of note that want of space will not allow 
me to give a detailed account of. Carriage manu- 
fa tory ol Wm. P. Miller, cor. California and Channel 
Sts.; carriage manufactory of M. P. Hender.-on, cor. 
Weber Avenue and California St.; planing mill of White 

Thomas, Hunter, bet. Main and Market Sts.; chair 
factory of A. Wilder, Main St., cor. California; Stockton 
City Mil s (flour), Soerry & Co.; Stockton Paper Mills; 
Stccktou Wo lien Milis; Pioneer Planing Mill; Pioneer 
tannery; City tannery; Lane's Mills (flour) ; Stockton 
furniture manufactory, H. S. Ficketl k Co., proprietors. 
In conclusion, I will say that in view of the existence 
of these fruitful enterprises of progiesslveness in this 
city, it must neces arily follow and bo a guarantee to 
the outsider that to honest toil and staunch persevcr- 
ence alone can this fruitful result be ascribed to. 

Stockton, San Joaquin Co., Cal. J. W. H. 

Books on Agrlcvilture, Etc. 

The following among other books will be sent post-paid on 
receipt of jmblishera' prirt-a, annexed:— Tobacco, its culture, 
manufactuie and use, 500 viat'es, .sJ.SO;— The I'atron«of Hu.s- 
liamiry, 500 jiaires. j'3,75;-The Women of tint Bible, 77 en- 
gravings, !-l;-WellK' Kvery .Man HiaOwn Lawyer, til2 pages, 
tf2.75:— Ainerican Husbandry, 2 x-ol,. !.50; - (;ray's AKricul- 
tiiral Kssays. .^l;-LauKstroth s H.mey Bee, .*1 50; -KandallV 
Sheep Husbandry. ¥l ;iO:~Agricultural Knifiiieeiing, .■"l .'sO- 
New Bee-Keepers' Text liook. sl;-l'acitic Rural Hand 
book. ¥l;~ Komi's i:asy Calculator. Sl;-U. H Laud Law. 
50 Ct».; - Woodward s I Iraperii «. Etc.. Sl;-Suxar fi<iui 
.Melons, 25 <'ts.; .Straw b rry Culture, 50 Cts ; I,ayres' 
Belles Lettres. s!l;-Holt's .Map of California and Ne- 
vada, to Ruhscribers. Si; -Back Volumes Pai-ific Ri ral 
I' (bouudi .-iS; unljound. jsS;- Picturesque Arizona. .«2. 
Address DEWKY & CO., Publishers, 202 Sansome St . S K. 

DlSTAXCKS KRii.M Sa.v Jose.- S. W. Chui-chill, proprietor 
of the Auzerais House, pulvlishes the following table: 
Santa Clara, 3 miles; Sulphur Springs, 7; Ml. Hamilton, 
25: Pacific Congress Springs, 11; Sew Almaden Mines, 12 
Guadalupe .Mines, 10; .Saratoga, 10; Los Gates, 10; Alma 
13; Santa Cruz, 33; Gilroy, 30; Gilroy S|iring», 42; Watson 
ville, 50; Salinas, 68; Solodad, 100; Paso Robles, 1x0; Mis 
sion San Jose, 11; Niles, 18; Stockton, SO; Sacramento 
126; Yosemite, 200. 

Si'.TTLERS and others wishing good farming lands for 
sure crops, are referred to Mr. Edward Frisbie, of Andcr 
son, Shasta County, Cal., who has some 15,000 acres for 
sale ill the Upper Sacramento valley. His advertisement 
ajipears from time to time in this paper. 

in excess of receipts, and the prevailing opinion eeems to 
be that prices will be higher before the new crop comes 
in. Corn, durinir the week, has been fairly active, and 
prices have been belter, but receip'-s liave been good, and 
advances have not lieen maintained, the market closing 
at .'ific for cash and Julv; Oats, quiet at 3Se for July Rye 
51e; Barley, 70c " . . 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

, .Inly s. Wool is quiet, prices are held 




Colorado washed. 

luly «. - Wool quiet , 

■iOirfiSc; unwashed, 15i(ilSe; extra and Merino pulled. 35(^ 
:isc; No. 1 and Super pulled, 34(S3«c; Texas fine and me- 
diuiii, lS«if-28e; coarse, l.'".<i27. 

Receipts of Domestic Produce. 

The follow ing table shows the San Fram-isco receipts 
of Domestic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day 
as compared with the receipts of previous weeks : 

SKsn to the Great Music House of Kohler & Chase for 
anything in the music line. 137 and 1,39 Post street, S. F 

NoTB. — Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, tho date which the paper boars. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Frascisco, July 0th, 1879. 
The ho]i(i:iys of last Friday and Saturday unsettled the 
week's business, and since then transactions have been 
light, although rather more was done yesterday and to 
day. At last Wheat has awaked from its torpor and the 
local price is raised in sympathy with an advance in the 
c;iblc and reports of unfavorable growing weather abroad 

Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Kxcliaiige during the days of last week has been as 
recorded in the following table : 

Cal. Avbraox. I Club. 

Pacific Ri:ral Handbook.— » • • • The little 
work before us could not have been treated of by a more 
competent authority. The book manifests throughout 
the author's ardent love for the beautiful in nature, and is 
well calculated to inilanic and stimulate the same senti- 
ment in Its readers. — Jittral A'eio Yorkft. 

• " " It treats 011 the culture of trees, vegetables 
and flowers, tells all about house plants, ferneries and 
wardian cases, gives some sensible hints how to make the 
home pleasanter, and in fact contains so much valuable 
information that vvc should like to see a copy of it in the 
bands of even,- head of a household on the Paciflc coast. 
— Weyt .^hore, Oregon. 

The "Pacific RcRAL Handbook," written by Chas. H. 
Shinn for the publishers of the Pacific Rdrai. Press, 
will be sent, post-paid, in substantial cloth bindiiigfor $1; 
In full leather, $1.50; In cloth, interleaved with fine ruled 
paper for memoranda, 91-50. Address 

DEWEY & CO., Pl-BLisiiiiRS, 
No. 202 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

Thursday.. . 


.Saturday. . . 
Monday. . . . 
Tuesday . . . 

(idea 9s 
Odiff 93 
Mot 9s 
6(1 (rt Us 
9d(* 9s 
9dc« Os 


->d<a 9s 

2d@ 9s 
2d(« 98 
2d(d 9s 
3dca 9s 
3d(<« Os 

FKRsn attractions are constantly added to Wood- 
ward's Gardens, among which is Prof. Gruber's great 
educator, the Zoograjjhicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Pavilion performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at tliia wonder- 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 

Hovr TO Stop this Paprr. —It is not a herculean task to 
stop this paper. Notify the publishers by letti r. If It 
comes bej ond the time desired, you can depend upon it 
we do not know that the subscriber wants it stopped. So 
he sure and send us notice by letter. 

Samfle Corir.s — Occ%sionally we send copies of this 
pajier to persons who we believe would be be'ieflted by 
subscribing for it, or willing to M»\st us in extending it's 
circulation. We call the attenlion of such to our |iros- 
pectus and terms of subscription, and request that they 
circulate the copy sent. 

Extra Copies can usually be had of each issue of. tbii 
paper, if ordered early. Price, 10 cents, postpaid. 

For information in music matters send 
Kohler & Chase. 

a postal to 

Ladies! Order E. BirrtKRicK & Co.'a celebratwl pat- 
terns. See adv. 

To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with same date in former years as follows : 
Average. Cluh. 

1377 lis lld(,ai2s 2d 12s 3d@12j 8d 

1S78 lOs -laiod (Is 10s 4d(ai0s 8d 

liVi Ss 0d(3 'Js 6J 9e 3d(g Os 9d 

The Foreign Revie'w. 

London. July 8. — The Mark Lane ISxvrefts in its re- 
view of the British Grain trade for the week, says: 
The agricultural prospects cause very grave apprehen- 
sions. Should the rain continue, the Hay crop will be 
useless except as manure. The condition o( Wheat is un- 
improved; liar ley in heavy land is nearly ruined. Noth- 
ing but a spoed,v advent of sunshine can prevent an al- 
most general failure of the principal cr»ps. In conse- 
quence of the weather and Vvj^hl supplies in England, 
Wheat h;i8 improved Is per quarter in a majiirity of the 
country markets; but despite the firmi;ess of holders, it 
has been difficult to establish any advance for home 
grown in London in the face of liberal arrivals, and low 
prices of foreign varieties Previous rates, however, have 
been well sui>|iorted, especially for choice parcels, and the 
tendency is rather toward an advance than a decline. 
Large foreign arrivals have not caused scarcity of granary 
room, as a large proiKirtion has gone direct to the miller, 
who bought freely to arrive, transactions on sjtot having 
lately been confined to the retail wants of small millers. 
.VLiize has varied a little, but is rather against sellers. 
Arrivals at ports (>f call have been small. Off Coast Wheat 
was firm at slightly improving prices, partii-ularly towards 
the close. Maize was steady and unchanged, A good 
business was done in forward Wheat, particularly for Rod 
Winter, July, August and September shipments, and 
prices improved 6d |»er quarter. Maize ni>t freely 
offered, though late cheiip purchases could not be re- 
peated. The demand is still slack Last week's sales of 
English Wheat amounted to 34.905 quarters, at 42s 4d 
[>cr quarter, against IS, 202 quarters, at 4lii per quarter, 
for the same period last year. Imports into the United 
Kirigdom fi>r the week ending June 2Sth amounted to 
1.41.''>,n42 cwts of Wheat, and 214,288 cwts of Flour. At 
XIark Lane to-day (Monilay) the supply o( English Wheat 
Mas again small, and prices advanced l(S2s per quarter. 
The supply of foreign Wheat w,ts fair, and it advanced Is. 
Flour advanced 6d |icr tiariel, and Cats :'. olid per quarter; 
Maize and Barley were steady. 

Freights and Charters. 

The holidays broke up^last week, and little or nothing 
was done in Grain charters. It is reported that 423 6d i'* 
asked for wooden vessels to Liverpool, and 458 for iron 
vessels. Not over 4O3 was offered for wooden. The char- 
tered Wheat fieet in port numbers Ki vessels of 22,398 
tonnage register, of a carrying capacity of .33,000 short 
tons, or 600,000 ctls. Disengaged tonnage in port, 25,000; 
on the way, 165,000. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

New York, July 8. — The general markets, except for 
breadstuffs, are generally quiet, but firm. Flour is active 
for all gndea; 10(9200 higher; Wheat is dull, heavy, 
ojiened at 'Mubc higher; closed at 1 of the real and 1 j of 
the nominal advance lost, as neither shippers nor siwcu- 
lators w ould jiay the prices askerl. The damage reported 
to crops from the other side is only what has been known 
for srmie time, and is now accepted since it appeared in 
oflieial form, while that reported from the northwest is 
simply what mav be, and is not what is. Pork is dull, 
lower; New, 810.50(«f$10.26; Old, $9.50(a*9.75; Lard is 
quiet, 2Jc lower. 

CiilcAOO, July 5. — The Board of Trade having been 
closed yesterday and to-day, we are left without substan- 
tial quotations. A few members congregated on the 
curbstone this morning, and made some trades in Grain 
at iirices slightly in advance of»the closing figures on 
Thursday. Prices for cash anu July Wheat during the 
week have been higher. July has ranged from 96c to 97]c, 
closing at the latter figure. Shipments have been largely 





June 18. 

June '2.5. 

July 1. 

Flour, quarter sacks. . 




Wheat, centals 



50, 7-20 

Barley, centals. 




beans, sacks 




Corn, centals 





















July 9. 


li VGS The trade Is somewhat unsettled, and until 
something definite is decided u|xmi we hold our quotations 
unchanged. There have been sales of (^rain Bags at 
auction, by S. L. Jones & Co., Oakland Jutes, at $8.65 per 
100, equal U> about SS.75 per 100 for Calcutta. Some 
private s.ale3, we are told, have boon made at 83c. Again 
the combiriatio:i in;icliinery is in motion, and the Bag 
ring is being forgeil with the hope of twisting up prices. 
To-day the market is weak at 8.3 nominal for Grain Bags. 

BARLEY— Brewing Barley has improved a little. We 
note sales; 600 ctls choice Brewing for Australia, at Ofljc; 
1,.500 do ilo, 95c; 1,050 sks good Coast Feed, 6S}c; 100 sks 
good Coast Feed at 70c per ctl. 

BEANS - Prices for Bayos, Pinks and Small Whites are 
a trifie lower than last week, but the trade generally is 

CORN'— Corn has been depressed since our la-st, but has 
rallied again, and recovered a part of the ground which it 
lost; prices are, however, a little below the marks of our 
l.-ist report. We note sale of 77 sacks Large Yellow, at 77 jc. 

DAIRY PRODUCE- Dealers consider the Butter mar- 
ket about Ic iwr tb worse than a week ago, but allow that 
the trade may have been affected by the holiday accumu- 
lation. Receipts are re|iorted larger, owing to tho stop- 
ping of packing by the makers. Cheese is in excess- 
"laden down to our guards" is the expression of one mer- 
chant whom we asked about the supply. The situation 
i.'ontinucs to be giavely uniatisfactory to the producer. 

Ef.'GS I'resh California Eggs are now at 22c for the ex- 
treme price, unless it be for small fancy lots, which may 
reach 23((t24<' iu some cases 

KEEK Hay has dropped to ill as the top for choice 
Wheat, and a range down to §5.50 for inferior Stock Hay. 
Grou A Feeds are unchanged, except that some Bran can 
he bought at #13 per ton. 

FRESH MEAT The only change is in Milk Calves, 
which are 2(.a2}c per Ih higher than reported last week. 

fRUIT -Our list shows a farther cheapening of nearly 
all kinds- The market is now riilly supplied with choice 

HOPS— There is no change. 

LIVE STOCK— We note sales in the liiterloras reported 
by a buyer: 140 head of Cattle, fine steers, at S25 each; 
40 Cows at ?20 each; 1,000 Sheep, year's wool on, at $2.50 
each; 200 Hogs at 41c; ISO Hogs at 4ic; 307 Hogs at 4lc; 
34 dressed Hogs, Marin county, at 4^c; 2 do at 4Sc. 

OATS - An improvement has been made In choice lots 
of Milling 0:its: Small lot of Surprise at $1.65; '233 sks 
lioiee Washington Territory at $1.50; 600 do ordinary at 
$1 '25; .500 do common at $1.12J; 100 sks choice Washing- 
ton Territory .Milling at $1,471; 100 do good Humboldt 
Feed at $1.40; and 288 do poor do at $1. 17J per ctl. 

O.VIONS— The best price for choice Onions is now 65c 
per ctl for Whites; Rwls are 15c lower per ctl. 

POT.\TOES — Prices are unchanged. Receipts are 
smaller, but the accumulation is being run into the 

PROVISIONS -There is no change. 

POULTRY AND GAME.— The trade is running along 
luietly Kceeipts just about meet the demand, and rates 
are unchanged. 

\ EGETABLES -Our table shows several fluctuations. 
.Marrowfat Sipiash is now a rarity, and is rated at $40 per 

WHE.'VT— An advance of about 2Jc on the best grades 
is the result of the upward movement thus far. We note 
sales: 40 tons gilt edged milling at $1 75; 100 do New No 
1, and 100 do good Milling, $1.70; 872 do choice Shipping, 
$1,683; 100 do New No. 1, and 80 do good Shipping, fl." 
C71; 100 aks fair Milling, $1.65, and 200 do inferior, $1.40 
psr ctl. 

WOOL -Trade is at standstill: nothing being done but 
closing nut a few odds and ends. Tho choice Wool now In 
is held above quotations, in the hope of realizing more In 
Mie future. 


l.ioniiiNa PRICES.] 

WSIINIBIIAV M., Jul> '.t, 1879. 

Eng Standard Wheat. 9 "i* 9}, Eighths 4 

California .Manufacture. [Hessian. 60 inch 12 @14 

Hand Sewed, 22x36.. 9 @ 91 45 inch 8^9) 

24x36 -@ll; 40 loch 7J(^ 8$ 

22x40 lOK" 10! Wool Sacks, 

23x40 uStalUl Hand Sewed. 3J lb. .44 ®45 

24x40 lijM12)| 4 lb do 47i@62 

Machine Swd,22x3t>. %'<t 'jjl Machine Sewed 45 @- 

Flour Sacks, halves.... 8 @I0( Standard Gunnies. ...13 @U 
Quarters 5 @ CilBeso Bags 7 @ li 


Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro k Co.] 

San Francisoo. July 3 p. H. 

SiLVSR 376@12J. 

Gold Bass, g90@910. Silver Bars, 8@19 9 cent, dls- 

Exchange on New York, 20, on London bankers, 491# 
40i. Commercial, 50; Parla. five Iranoa f dollar; Meilcui 
dollars. '.>2(a')h\. 
London Oouaols, 97 13-16; Bonds (47.1, 1041 
Quioesilvsr In S. T.. by the flaik. V lb, .'^o. 

July 12, 1879.] 





Wednkbday m.. July 9, 1879. 


Uftyo, ctl 1 10 m 15 

Butter 1 75 ^2 09 

Castor 3 00 @3 50 

Pea - @2 00 

Red 1 20 @1 30 

Pink — @1 00 

Sm'l White 2 15 a2 37i 

Lima 6 00 (*6 75 

Field Peas 1 25 @1 50 


Soutliem 2 (a 21 

Northern 3@ 4 


Oallforma 4 (3 4i 

German 6i@ 7 



15 I 


Oal. Fresh Roll, lb 

Fancy Brands — W 

Pickle Roll 19 @ 

Firklu, new 17 @ 

Western 12i@ 

New York — @ 


Oheese,Cal.,old. lb 7@ 

do, new 7 S* 

N. Y. State 12 @ 


Cal. fresh, doz 21 @ 

Duclcs' — ^ 

Oregon — @ 

Eastern 17 (3 

Pickled here — @ — 


Bran, ton 13 00 (5*14 00 

Cora Meai 20 00 irt2l 00 

Hay 5 50 (*U 00 

Middlings ®18 00 

on Cake Meal. . 32 00 @ 

Straw, bale 40 @ 60 


Extra, bbl 5 00 (Bib 50 

Superfine 4 00 62J 

Graham, lb 2i@ 3 

Beef, 1st qual'y, tb 5 @ 

Second 3i@ 

Third 3 @ 

Mutton 2J@ 

Spring Lamb 4 @ 

Pork, undressed... 35(5 

Dressed 5i@ 

Veal 6 @ 

Milk Calves 7 

do choice... 7i@ 
Barley, feed. ctl... 65 @ 80 

Brewing 90 m 00 

Chevalier 1 76 m 90 

Buckwheat 1 25 @1 35 

Com, White 72 J@ 75 

Yellow "... 75 @ 77* 

Small Round.... 85 @ 90 

Oats 1 00 ®1 50 

Milling 1 50 (tfl 65 

Rye 80 (» 85 

Wheat, No. 1 1 67K6'1 72S 

do. No 2 1 60 C*! 65 

do, No. 3 1 35 @i 40 

Choice Milling. . — @1 75 

Hides, dry 16 @ 16J 

Wet salted 75(* 9 


Beeswax, lb 20 @ 25 

Honey in comb. ... 5 @ 10 

do. No 2 7(3 9j 

Dark 5 6 

Strained 41® 8 


Oregon @ 

California 4 @ 8 

Wash. Ter 4 (a 8 

Old Hops 3 (ip 5 


Walnuts. Cal 8 O 9 

do Chile 6J(» 8 

Almonds, hd shl lb 7 (ct 
Soft sh'l 16 ffl 

Pecans 12i@ 14 

Peanuts 4 @ 6 

FUberts 15 @ 16 


Alviso " 

Union City, ctl. . .. — @ — 

San Leaudro — @ — 

Stockton ~ @ 

Sacramento River. — & — 

Salt Lake — @ — 

Oregon — @ — 

Red — @ — 

New Onions 60 65 

Red, sk — (» 50 

White, ctl - (It 65 


Petaluma, ctl — @ — 

Humboldt — g — 

Cuifey Cove — ^ — 

Early Rose, sk 25 u<j 35 

Half M n Bay, new 25 @ 35 

Kidney — @ — 

Sweet — @ — 


Hens, doz 5 OOO 7 00 

Roosters 5 00(* 8 00 

Broilers 2 50@ 4 60 

Ducks, tame, doz.. 4 50@ 6 00 

Geese, pair 1 25® 1 75 

Wild Gray, doz.. -& — 
White do —S 

Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

San Francisco. — Week ending July 8, 1879. 


July 2 

29 961 

July 3 jJuly 4 
29.S4i! 29.9.W 



July 6 


July 7 

23 9(5 

29.772 1 29.876 


July 8 






77.3 I 78.3 I 68.3 | 01. 3 | 80.7 | 81.7 




282 1 287 I 289 | 225 | 309 I 364 


Fair. | Clear. I Clear. | Clear. | Fair. | Cloudy 

I I I I I 

Total rain during the season, from July 1, 1878. 


I 62.5 
I 63 

I 85.3 

I W 

I 189 

I Fair. 

1 .01 

0.01 in- 



Brazil 125® 13 

Turkeys 16 

do. Dressed 16 @— 20 

Snipe. Eng - (9 1 50 

do. Common 59 (g 75 

Quail, doz — ® — 

Rabbits — @— 50 

Hare 1 25 @ 1 50 

Cal. Bacon, H'vy, lb 8J@ 95 

Medium 9 @ 10 

Light 10 @ 11 

Lard S-i® 9 

Cal. Smoked Beef 8 @ 9 
Shoulders, Cover'd 6}@ 7 

Hams, Cal 9J® 104 

Dupee's 13 @ 14 

None Such 13 (» 14 

Boyd's l3i® 14 

WhittaKer 124® 13i 

Royal 134® 14 

Reliable — ® — 

doughs 13 @ 14 


Alfalfa, 5 @ 12 

Canary 45® 5 

Clover, Red 15 @ 16 

White 60 ® 65 

Cotton 6 @ 10 

Flaxseed 2 J® 3 

Hemp 8 @ 

Italian Rye Grass 35 @ — 

Perennial 35 ® — 

Millet 10 @ 12 

Mustard, White... 5 @ 8 

Brown 1J@ 

Rape 3 ® 8 

Ky Blue Grass 17 @ 20 

2d quality 16 @ 18 

Sweet V Grass.... 1 00 @ — 

Orchard 20 @ 25 

Red Top 13 @ 15 

Hungarian 8 @ 10 

Lawn 30 @ 60 

Mesquit — @ 20 

Timothy 7 @ 8 


Crude, lb 5 ® 

Refined 75 @ 8 



San Joaquin and S. Coast. 

Burry 12 ® 135 

Free (dusty) 14 @ 16 

Free (choice) 15 ® 2) 


Free 22 @ 271 

8 1 Burry 18 @ 22 

8 Oregon, Eastern ... 1!) @ 21 

18 , do. Valley 2J @ 26 



Wednesday m., 

July 9, 1879 



do pared . 






Apples, bsk — 15 ®— 30 

do, box - 30 ®- !6 

Apricots, box.... — 50 (&— 75 
Bananas, bnch.. 2 00 ® 6 00 
Blackb''st 2 50 ® 6 00 
Cherries, chst. . . 6 00 (06 9 CO 
Cherry Plums... - 75 cr 1 50 

Citrons, Cal., 100 (rt 

Oocoanuts. 100.. 10 00 ®12 00 

Currauts. chest.. ® 

Figs, hoi - 25 @— 50 

Goosebernes — 4 6 

Limes. Mex 8 00 ®12 00 

do, Cal, box. . . 4 00 ® 5 00 
Lemons, Cal M.IO 00 @15 00 
Sicily, box ... . 7 00 @ 8 00 
Oranges, Cal, M.15 00 C«20 00 
do. small. . 4 00 C» 8 00 
do, Tahiti. 18 00 mO 00 
Peaches, box. .. .— 25 @— 40 
do, bsk....— 25 Id- 40 

Pears, bi - 60 @ 1 00 Egg Plants, lb...- 8 @- 10 

Pineapples, doz. 4 00 ® 6 00 iCiarlic, New. lb..— 2 @— 2i 

Plums, box - 50 @ 1 50 Green Corn — 5 ®— 18 

Quinces — — ® — — [Green Peas, lb . . — — @ — 3 

Raspb'riea, ch'st. 6 00 ® 6 00 I Lettuce, doz 10 @— - 

St'wbHrrie.1. ch'st 5 00 f* 8 00 il'arsnips, tb, 
DRIED FRUIT. Horseradish 

6 ® 8 

7 ® 8 
18 @- 20 

8 ® 10 
3 ® 

125®- 14 
8 ® 9 

Raisins, Cal. bx 1 50 @ 1 75 
do. Halves. .. 2 00 @ 2 25 
do, Quarters, . 2 25 ® 2 50 

Malaga 2 75 @ 3 00 

Zante Currants.. 8 ® 10 

Asparagus, box.. 1 25 @ 1 50 

Beets, ctl — 50 @ 

Beans. String. . .— 2 @— 3 
Cabbage. 100 lbs — ®— 50 
Canteloupes.doz 2 00 @ 3 1 

Carrots, ctl 30 (ce— 40 

Cauliflower, doz — 50 
Chile Peppers, tb.— 3 @— 6 
Cucumbers. b,« , . 1 00 ® 1 25 

Apples, sliced, tb 4 ® 
do, quartered. 2 ® 

Apricots 15 @- 

Blackherries 12*® 

Citron 23 # 

Dates 9 @ 

Figs, Black 3 @ 

1}@- 15 
®— 25 
@- 1 

6 Rhubarb U> 

3 Squash, Marrow 

— fat. tn ®40 00 

15 .Summer, box,. — 50 ®— 75 

24JITomato, box — 25 ®— 40 

10 iTumips, ctl — 40 @— 50 

4 I White @— 60 



Wednesday,, m., July 9, 1879, 

Sole Leather, heavy, lb 22 ® 29 

Light 20 ® 24 

Jodot, 8 Kil,. doz 48 00 @5o 60 

11 to 13 Kil 66 00 ®76 Ou 

14tol9Kll 80 00 @90 00 

Second Choice, 11 to 16 Kil 55 00 @70 00 

Cornellian, 12 to 16 Kil 57 00 ®67 00 

Females, 12 to 13 Kil 63 00 @67 00 

14 to 16 Kil 71 00 ®76 00 

Simon TJlImo, Females, 12 to 13 Kil 58 00 @62 50 

14 to 15 KU 66 00 ®70 00 

16 to 17 Kil 72 00 ®74 00 

Simon, 18 Kil 61 00 ®63 00 

20 Kil 65 00 ®67 00 

24 Kil 72 00 ®74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 36 00 ®40 00 

Kips, French, lb 1 00 ® 1 35 

Cal. doz 40 00 @60 00 

French Sheep, all colors 8 00 ®16 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs, lb 1 00 ® 1 25 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, doz 9 00 ®13 00 

For Linings 5 50 ®10 50 

»l. Russet Sbeep Linings 1 75 ® 4 50 

oot L egs, French Calf, pair 4 00 

BGood Freuch Calf 4 00 @ 4 75 

Best Jodot Calf 6 00 (» 5 25 

[Leather. Harness, lb 15 ( 

iFair Bridle, doz 48 10 1 

^Skirting, lb 33 1 

■Welt, doz 30 00 1 

(Buff, ft 38 I 

VjxSiiJe ffl' 

]k fflecliapiGs' l^air baily. 

By authority of the Board ok Managers of 
THE Mechanics' Institute Fair the publishers 
of the Mining and Scientific Press will issue 
a large edition of the TENTH VOLUME of the 
Mechanics' Fair Daily during the Four 
teenth Industrial Exhibition, which opens 
in San Francisco, Tuesday, August 5th, 1879 

It will be of large size, printed and circulated 
FREE in the Pavilion, and contain the day and 
evening programme, a list of exhibits, and 
official bulletin of the Institute. 

Its columns will embrace a large variety of 
important industrial and scientific information 
illu.strations and well written descriptions of 
the general features and most deserving and 
novel exhibits in the Fair, a record of the Fair 
and incidents of its daily progress — gay, serious 
and comic — as they occur. 

The best of editorial, reportorial and corres 
ponding talent will be employed, with a view to 
make the p,^per of live interest in all its depart 
ments and of standard value as a full record of 
the great exhibition, the wonderful inventions, 
rich resources and rapid progress of our great 
Western community. 

More than One Hindred Thousand differ 
ent individuals will road copies of our paper 
during the Fair. The novel character of the 
journal — the specially attractive features of its 
free issue in the Pavilion, and its absorbing in 
terest to visitors at the Fair, the attention it 
columns command when brought into the shop 
and family circle by those who receive it freely 
at the Fair, make the paper a powerful adver 
tising medium. 

The Managers have granted us the exclusive 
advertising and printing privileges, and ivill re 
ceive no advertising in the official catalogue and 

Our nine previous volumes have met with 
unrivaled success and gratifying results to 
advertisers, nearly all of whom were leading 
and first-class business firms. 

Many thousands of marked copies were sent 
by mail and otherwise to friends near and dis- 
tant, giving the Fair Daily a more broadcast 
and universal circulation than any other news- 
paper published. 

Its columns are more closely examined 
throughout than those of any ordinary pub- 

By past experience, ample facilities, .and a 
fair reputation of doing business in our line, we 
expect, with the reasonable support of all natu- 
rally interested in the success of our enterprise, 
to make the coming volume superior to its pre- 
decessors, and eminently satisfactory to the 
Institute, to our patrons and to the general 
public, who are more or less benefited by such 
an advocate of the substantial advancement of 
the grand and worthy industries of our Coast. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

Office, Mining anu Scientific Press, No. 
202 Sansome street, N. E. corner Pine, San 

Scientific Press 

Commission Merchanu. 


No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

RKyERKNOB, —Tradesmen's National Baint, N, Y, ; EU 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
mento, Cal. : A. Lusk & Co. , San Francisco, CaL 


Commission Mercliants, 



No. 8 Davis St., near Market, San Francisco. 

Charles Nauman. Frank Nauman. 

C. &. F. NAUMAN &. CO., 

Wholesale Commission Merchants 

— and dealers in — 
227 & 229 Washington at., San Francisco. 

iS"Consignments Solicited. "St 


Commission Mercliant, 

Goner.-il Agent for the CALIFORNIA SACK HOLDER. 

306 Davis St., San Francisco. 

Liberal arlvanrcs made on Consi{,nimeuts. 

The Mining and Scientific 
Press Patent Agency was estab- 
lished in i860 — the first west of 
the Rocky Mountains. It has 
kept step with, the rapid march 
of mechanical improvements. 
The records in its archives, its 
constantly increasing library, the 
accumulation of information ol 

special importance to our home| are continually de«i,nin, suburban and Ru- 

inventors and the experience ol l ral Residences to meet the wants and me.ans of all 

its profrietors in an extensive and 
long continued personal practice 
in patent business, affords them 
combined advantages greater 
than any other agents can possi- 
bly offer to Pacific Coast invent- 
ors. Circulars of advice, free. 

A. GALLI & CO., 

General Commission Merchants, 

and wholesale dealers in 
Trojiical, California and Ore;,'on Fruits, Nuts, Produce, 
Butter, Cheese, Poultry, Etsgs, Honey, Hides, 
Potatoes, Grain, Wool, Etc. 
516 and 518 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

eS'Cash can be drawn for immediately upon receipt of 
account of sales. 




202 Sansome St., N. E. Cor. Pine, 
San Francisco. 




SI. 50 

Homoeopathic Medicine Case. 

Containinjr 12 pnncipal remedies, with directions for 
use. Also Veterinary cases and books. Send for cata- 
logue. Address BOERIGKE & TAFEL, 
Homojopatliic Phannacy, San Francisco, 


By E. CONKLIN, Representative 
ot the National Associated Press, 
and artist and correspondent of 
Frank Leslie's publications. Be- 
in" the result of Travels and Observations in Arizona dur- 
iuL' the fall and winter of 1877. Fully illustrated. Sent 
oy mail, post-paid, for *2. Address DEWEY & CO,, 
202 Street, S, F, 

classes of (leople, always endeavoring to secure an effect 
of beauty on the smallest cottage, as well as the most 
costlv residence. 

Our charges for furnishing drawings of the building 
shown in this issue of the Press, all complete, with spec- 
ifications, will Ije $62.50. 

By our economy in the construction of buildings and 
the proper selection of materials, we save tar moi"c money 
to the owner than our fees aino\int to. 

Before choosing a home, a copy of Hobbs' Suburl)an 
!ind Rural Architecture should be obtained, a beautifully 
hound volume of 122 designs, which we mail post-paid, 
for ,si .^0. Those who remit direct to us, will receive in 
addition to the book, 1,^ new designs, 

l'|ic)ii n coipt iif we stud a i-n\iy of our blank forms of 
spcoiticiitii.iis and bills uf qii:\iititk'S, They arc invalua- 
ble to all jiersons about building, and for carpenters and 
builders who build without the aid of an arcliiteet. They 
are especially valuable, as they bring before the mind all 
the different parts used in the erection o' a building, so 
that nothing will be left without consideration. 
Address all letters of inquiry to the architects, 

NO. 520 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

ITow Dusters. 

D E A R B O rTT D U S T E R S , 

Taking the place of all Foatlier and other Dusters. Made 
in six sizes, retailed from 35 Cents to $1. The best, most 
durable Duster now known. Trade supplied. Address 

No, 12 California St , San Francisco. 


Ladies' Outfit Case, 

rontiiiiif- 1 Jtias Cutting Gaii(;o tor ciit- 
tini? Hias TrimminL's, with Trncinff 
Wheel, (trice w) cents; 1 pair Unique 
Hair Crimpers, the hest In the world, 
nnco 2ri cents; i Pocket Pin Cushion, Writlne Tablet and 
Mirror, price 25 cents. The whole packed securely to a 
nice cnfie and mailed to any address, poslage paid» on r** 
[ceipt of fio cents in stamps, 
Llbciol iDducements to ARcnta. 

A. S. SPENCE & CO.; 

24 Geary Street, San FranclscOi 

En^ravw^ done ni ihis office. 



The best Kubbcr Hose in market. Every 
foot guaranteed. 


General Agents. San Prancisco, California. 

cn Fancy Mixed Cards, 10 cents, or 20 Cbromos, four 
OU styles, lOcts. J. B. HUSTED, Nassau, N. Y. 

Chromo, perfumed, Snowtlako & Lace cards.namo on all 
10c, Cianie Authors, 15n, Ijvniau &l'o,. Oluitonville. Ct 





MOST lUCLIAULE INSTRUMENTS. Old Pianos taken as first 
payment for new. All Instruments fully warranted. Tunintf and 
Kepairing. Pianos at Wholesale, 

WALTER S. PIERCE, 30 New Montgomery St., Palace Hotel, S. F. 




(July 12, 1879. 



This Jar is exteusively used in the Eastern States. It is 
the most popular, cheapest, and without doubt the simplesit 
and most e ffective Fruit Jar now in use. It in by tar prefer- 
able to any Patent Self -Sealing Jar, and are as cheap as the 
poisonous tin cans. 



San Francisco and Pacific Glass Works, 





— ASD — 


At the Lowest Rates. 
Corner of Alameda and White Streets, 


Andorsoxi's Springs, 


Nineteen miles from Calisto^'a, five miles from lliddle- 
town, and ten miles from the (ircat Geysers; between 
which and Anderson's Sprin^rs there is a good stajfe road. 


For Rheumatism, Paralysis, etc ; Cold Sulphur for Dys- 
pepsia, Didea,ses of the Stomach and Bowels. Scenery un- 
surpassed. Climate mild and equable. Consumptives 
generally improve in health, and asthmatics are invaria- 
bly relieved. 


Deer Hunting in tlie Immediate Vicinity. 

43"Accomniodati<ins and Cookery good. Board from 
$10 toS12 by the w eek. 




— AND ~ 

Stories of California Life. 


The best delineations of Western character and inciden 
over produced on this coast. For sale by 


PRICE, $2 00. 

A Card to Grangers and Farmers. 


The uinlursigned is now prepared to recL-ivi; and rmU Hay, 
Grain, liorst's and Cattlu that may he consigned to him at 
the Highest Market Ratos. and will open a trade direct with 
the consumer without the inteivention of middlemen. He 
also asks consura'?rs of Hay and Grain and Stock buyers to 
co-opurati; with him. aud thus have but one connnif^sinn be- 
tween product-'r and buyer. Address S. H. BEPUY, Nos. U 
aud 13 Bhixouie St., San Francisco. 

The New Beekeepers' Text Book. 

By N. II. and H. A Ki.vo. Tlie latest work on the 
Apiarj-, embodying accounts of all the newest mothoilB 
a id appliances. Fully illustrated. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, for 81. DEWEY & CO., 202 Sanaome Street, S. F. 

Agricultural Articles. 

The Famous "Enterprise," 

Self Regulating 


Pumps & Fixtures 

These Mills and Pumps are 
reliable and alwa^'S jyive sat- 
isfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all [jarts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double hearing)! for the crank 
to work in, all turned and 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Ponitivelji self regxdating, 
with no coil springor springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
joints, levers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills in use si.\ to nine years in ^ood order now, that 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands in 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infor- 


ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINPORTH, BICE 
& CO., 401 Market Street. 


Adjustable Grain Lifter 



Drapers, and Draper Sticks 

AND '•findings 

Of wood work for all kinds of Farming- Implements fur- 
nished at abort notice. Also, i^a.:k:es 



No. 221 Mission Street, San Francisco, Cal 


The Best Farm Engine ''2i,e World. 


Less Fuel, Less Water, Less Repairs than 

any other Portable Enttlne 
No Comnnssion to .\gents! Bottom Price to Purchasers! 

Engines for all jmrposes, witli and without Wagons. 
You can save monej' by buying direct of us. Order early 
for next season's use. Send for Illustrated Catalogue and 
Price List. 

ARMINGTON & SIMS, Lawrence, Mass. 

AR.MINGTON & SIMS were lately with the J. C. Hoadley Co 


Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Matrh 

in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and itnow what is required 
n the construction of Ganj^ Plows. It is quickly adjusted. 
Sufficient play ia given eo that the tonc^ie will pass over 
cnulle knolls without changint,' the working- position of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of the Plow corrcctli'. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the beat 
and most desirable Gang Plow in the world. Sf-n^ for 
circular to 



£asterday's Improved Cali- 
fornia Planter 

For 1870 is now ready for the Market, 

This is a No. 1 dropper for Com, Beans, Peas, and other 
Seeil that may be planted as the ground is plowed, and by its 
regularity greatly incr^'ases the jield, besidea the seed and 
labor saved. Valuable improvements have >)een made with- 
in tbe past year, and no effort lias l)et-'n si>ared to make this 
Machine just what it should be. A large niunber of these 
Machines liave been sold within the past two years. Our im- 
proved Machines have been constructed in the most durable 
manner, all wearin{i parts b^-iug made of iron. They are 
easily attached to either fiin^'le or CJan;^ I'lows. and can be 
thrown in and out of gear conveniently without leaving the 
(Iriver's seat. When only every second or third furrow is de- 
sired to be planted, the lever for the purpose need only be 
moved backward or forward to stop or start the Maciiine to 
operating. Distance of drop, from one to six feet, and easily 
regulated for amount and distance. Being attached to the 
I*l()W Beam by a bar of spring steel, they pass easily over ob- 
stnictions wilhiiut in the least interfering with ihe working 
of tile I'low. while at the same time the Machine is cauRe<l t^t 
move firndy in the furrow. Price of the improved Machine, 
$20. All parts duplicated. Full instructions with each Ma- 
chine. When ordering call for the Improved Machine. 

We also have on hand some of our last year's style Ma- 
chines, of which the cut liere ahown is an excellent represen- 
tation, which we will sell at reduced rates. These are good 
Machines, and warranted to work perfect. All orders 
promptly attended to. 

Manufacturers, Watsunvilie, Santa f^ruz County, Cal. 

BAKKX'l & IIAMILTOX, Gen'l Agts., San Francisco. 

This patent for sale by State Rights, or if desired the 
whole is offered on reasonable terms. - 

Stock Notices. 





W. D. PARaUiNi, 
1364 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, Cal. 

Also, maker of the "Colorado Wiu<l Engine." Wind Grist 
Mills. Towii Water Works, Irrigatinc and Drainage Pumps. 
A vt-ry heavy and superior pattern of Deep Well and Arte- 
8ia!i Lift Pump Cylinders. Circulars free. 




Over 11,000 in use. 

Xlif- BEST in the market, 

Mftili-' ntirelvof flnlrnni;rii Iron 


Send for Circular. A<Mrc.s3 
CiHcinnati^ Ohio, 


Patcnteii .January 8th, 1878. 


Workc on a cog principle. Smallest size cuts one inch, 
aod largest size two inches in diameter. Has bt-en thor- 
oughly tested, and givun perfect satisfaction. Sold by 

Newcastle, Placer County, California. 



U) ^ I I cuts. Just out. (irtat favorite. 


i.'. (,'erits. Well known. Always fe'Ood. 


^ ' X) Cents Very beautiful songs. 


° -^ \ ■■r'.i Wi, l!est son- eollcetiou. 


^2 .'.O. Capital Piano I'ictis. 


S2 50. Uri'liant Waltzes, ete. 

<s o 


f Lives of liethooren ($2.00), Mozart (81.75), 5r/it(- 
I (iirtHn ($17.')), and others; most interestinjr; also, 
I n tiir'g Ilhtnni ■^I'l"!'^, - ^"'s . >-'i"'' Sl-.W. 
' MiiKirat Ueciini (ii.OO). CiooJ readhi^; onec a 
week, all the news, and fine selection of musie. 
^ O I Descriptive Catalogues (10 Cts.), of almost all 
f> *^ Music books that are published. Very valuable 
1^ ' icjr reference. 1,800 boolis. 

Any lii.ok mailed for retail priie. 


C. H. Ditson & Co., 843 Broattway, N. Y 



Breeder and Importer of the "Crown Prince,' 
"Sambo," and "Bob Lee" families of Berkshires. 
Also, pure Suffolk hoj.'S and pigs. Short Hom and 
Jersey, or Aldemey cattle. Merino and Cotswold 
sheep. Prices always reasonable. All animals sold are 
^arantecd as represented and pedigreod. 
PETER SAXE, Russ House, San Francisco, 


Choice stock of thoroufilibrcd liucks ai d Ewes, guaran- 
teed free from disease. Purchasers are invited to exam- 
ine. About 10 minutes' walk from the Railroad termiuus, 
adjoining State University. 

Berkeley, Alameda County, Cal. 

Th-oroughLbred Mares, 



Some of all the above for sale. For particulars address 
the undersigned, 


San Francisco, Cal. 

%VV- will !,;,> . a 
e^tp^'*^''S, or allow .a Inr; 

hiiy ul .tlou per iiiouUi ana 
ommissicn, to sell our new 
«n'l wcmderful inventions. M'e mem what ire say. Sam- 
^ free. Adilresa SHERMAN & CO., Marshall, Mich. 

Thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep 


Wool Growers and 
.Sheep Breeders de 
siroua of imnrove- 
tnent are invited to 
examine the Btin- 
Hfr and Premium 
flock of the State. 
All 1st Premiums 
taken at .State Fair 
in IS; 8. w ith strong 
competition. "So 
sheep superior iu 
Mie w.Tld. 

100 head yeurlinff 
and 20 head 2-year 
old Kams fur ^le. 
lar^e ><ized carcass 
fre- frcni wiinkl. s. Heavy shearers, long staj.le of white 
glo.sKy wDol. A few young Kwes also f'lr sale, i<j All Sheep 
warranted free from Disease. Semi for circular and price 
list or come and see us at once. Laurel Ranch. Ilaywards, 
Alameda Coimty, Cal. One mile from depot on C. P. R. R. 



The undersigned would announce to those interested in 
ANGORA (JOATS, and the public generally, that he Mill 
have a lot of 

Choice AD^^ora Bucks 

On Exhibition at the State and District 

This fall, .tamely: At the Stote Fair at Sacramento, the 
Golden Gate Fair at Oakland, the Nc^ ada State Fair at 
Reno, and the Oregon State Fair at Salem. 
These Bucks will be sold at fair rates. 


Hollister, San Benito Co., Cal 


My Berkshin s ar;' Thnr..tii;librcd, and selected with 
great care frotn Hie best herds of imported stock in the 
United Stales and Canada, and for individual merit can- 
not be excelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
"American Berkshire Record," where none but pure bred 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs sold at reu.sonable rales. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

ISth wid A Streets, SacramenV) City, Cal 



Corner Market and !>th Sta., San Francisco. 

HORSES and MILCH COWS sold on commission. Also, 
dealers iu HAY aud GRAIX. 

I'arties consiRning Stock or Gram t.) us can rely upon 
prompt sales and fiuick returns 

July 12, 1879.] 


Nos, 107, 109 & 111 Front Street, S. F. 
Lathe Without Saw Attachments. 

•a ^ _ 

S S S p 

3 *•< 2 
- Si? 

(I 3 

5 =■ 

— .Id w u 

c< o 

-=3 1, 

2 ° ¥ = s 

Price of Lathe without Saw Attachments S45. Piice of Laths with Scroll Saw Attachment §55. 

Price of Lathe with botli Scroll and Circular Saws, 470. 

Chuck for drills J and under, 
Price SI. 50 

Chuck, fur drills J and under, 

Price $2.25 

They are made on solid steel 

pluir, centered and readiUi lifted 

to Lritlic or Drill Prrxg. 



mi m mim m mmii mii 


MERRY, FATJLL & CO., Proprietors. 


We are prepared to receive on Consignment, CATTLE, SHEEP aad HOGS, charging mod 
erately for killing, delivery and guarantee, and making advances to shippers on receipt at our 
Yards, which are supplied with every convenience. We assure our customers a 


For their product, and invite their inspection of our facilities, which are the best on the Pacific 
Coast. We shall be pleased to give all information in our power as to Market Prices. 
Please address our 

Principal Office, No. 415 Front Street, Cor. Merchant, San Francisco. 




FruilVegetable and Hop Drier 


The cheapct, quickest and greatest lahor-.^iav injf Drier ever 
introduced. Retains the (luality, color and flavor of the fruit. 

The Cannitifc Apparatus has a capacity of from 500 to 4,000 
cans per day. Machines varying from 500 Ilis. to 10 tons capac- 
ity per day constantly on hajid. For Circulars, prices, ele., 

WM. BUTTS, Patentee, 
S. E. Cor. Spear and Mission Sts., San Francisco. 
I', o. BOX 1,859. 

Individual Rights for Sale. "s« 

Mission Rock Docl( & Grain Warehouses, 

40,000 Tons Capacity. Storage for the Season, $1 per ton. 


Grain received and weighed in free of expense Wheat Cleaned and Graded. Deep Water Berths for the largest shipg. 
Insurance and storage at the lowest rates. Loans effected on wheat stored in Warehouse at iawest rates. Apply to 

CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Superintendent, 

Or to the California Dry Dock Co., Office,-No. 318 California Street. San Francisco 

Winchester Repeating: Rifle 

MODEL 1873. 


The Strength of All Its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharqe, , ^ . 

' » ' Strine meaauring from center of tar- 

get to center of each shot, 32 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, '\-ach shotTg-loo'ln^^^^^^^^ 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting 
Defense, or Target Shooting. 

The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 
Round barrelfl, plain and set, 24 inch— blued. Octa;;on barrel, plain, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel set 
•24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon ban-el, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set 24 
26, 28, 30— extra flnislied, case hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26 28 30 inch- 
extra finished— C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— beautifully finished— 0. H. & C. S. 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Eifies, muskets and carbinep 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the mari(et. 

Sole Agent for Dupont's Mining, Blasting, Cannon, and Celebrated Brands 

of Sporting Powder, 

JOHN SKINKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Francisco, 



THRESHER, with Feeder, Elevator, Derrick, Forks and Water Wagon, 

^2,500 to $3,000, 

Fully Guaranteed to Equal the Best Improved Outfits in the Market. 

Also, one four-sided, six-inch SMITH'S MOLDING MACHINE, and one HOADLEY WOOD-BURNER 12 hor3e 
power, at a bargain. Also, new 3i-inch Thimblc-Skein W;\f,'ons at $75, and 10-foot. WINDMILLS at $80. 

Machine Work and Castings of all Kinds to Order. 


Jackson Agricuitural Works, 

S. E. Corner of Sixth and Bluxome Streets, near S. P. B. R. Depot, San Francisco. 



For Close. Hard Shootmg. the 
Parker Cannot be Excelled. 


S. T. AZiZjSXT, Agent, 


Importer of Muzzle and Breech-Loading Shot Guns and Rifles. 
Sole Agents for linr^'cas Repeating liiflcs -4.^ (tal , 70 grains; Whitney and I'licnix RiHc<. Muskets and Carbines; 
Phenix Single-Barrel Breech-Loading Shot (Ion; Allen Rillo.s, t-l c.U., rim fire, very cheap; Lovell & Sons Revolvers, 
the best and the cheapest. 

Bone-Coal and Fertilizing Material Co. 

Office, No. 515 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Pure Bone Meal, Superphosphate, Animal Fertilizers, 

Bone Meal for Chicken and Stock Feed. 

In order to introduce our fertilizers, and to prove that we are using nothing but pure materials, and being positive 
that when projierly used they will double the yields of most croi)s, and at the same time enrich the soil, we are willii gf 
to furrush small lots, of 100 jiounds and upwards, at ton prices. 

For Circulars giving information concerning the use of the fertilizers on different crops, apply to or address ti e 
Company's oHice, 515 Market Street, San Francisco. 

A. HAAS. Manager. 

CC\ Pertumea, SnowHaks, Cliromo, Motto Cards, name in Crt Per/umefi, gilt edge 4s chromo Carde, ineleeai 
t^Us^oldandjet 10c. G. A. Sprlvo, E. Wallingford, Ct. I in gold. 10c. ATl.^llllo Oakd Co., K. IVa 

,nt case, name 
alllngford, Ct. 

Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing, Electrotyi)inR and Stereotyp- 
_ ing done at the officoof theMiNiNO 

AND SciBNTiKic Prk»», San Francisco, at favorable rates. 
Send stamp for our circular and samples. 


Agricultural Books. 

Orders for Agricultural and Scientific Books in general 
will be suppli> d through this ottico, at published rates. 



[July 12, 1879. 

Pyrethrum Cinerarise Folium— A California 


This womUtrful Insect Ptiwder will extcrminato Flies, 
Weevils, Catoi-pillars, .Mosiiuitoes. Midges. Crickets. Cock- 
roaches, Spiders. Tarautulaa. Scoriiioiis. Ants. Hawk-ljugs, 
Phylloxera. Plant Lice. Moths. Beetles, Grasshoppers, Lo- 
custs, Bed-bu;;K. Fleas, and every s|>ecies of Insects. 

i^'Rvnienitier none is geuunie unless iny Trade-Mark 
is attached to every package. 

Put up in eij^ht-pound cans at .*10 per can, wholesale. Ask 
your di'uggists and grocerymen for it. and take no other to 
rid yourself of Insects. Sold at .il . 50 per pound or 12-1 cents 
per ounce, retail. Slif Agents wanted everywhere. 
SlOO Will be Paid if it F.\ils to Kill any Insect. 

Endorsed by Prof. E. W. Ililgard, of the University of 
California, and by Prof. C. V. Kiley, Chief Entomological 
Commissioner at Washington, D. C , and pronounced supe- 
rior to any imported article, and perfectly harmless to man 
and beast. 

G. N. MlbCO. 

Patentee and Sole Manufacturer, Stockton, Cal. 


— OF THE — 

Grangers' Bank of California 


July 1st, 1879. 

Amount of capital actually paid in V. S. gold coin .SW0,020 OU 

State of California, City and County of San Francisco— 1 i 
W. Colby and X. Montpellier, being duly sworn, severally 
depose and say that they are respectively che President an. I 
Cashier of the Grangers' Rank of California above mentioneil, 
and that the foregoing statentent is tine. 

(Signed) G. W. COLBY, President. 


Subscribed and sworn to before me this, the 2d day of July. 
A D 1879 • 

"(Signed) J. ROBERT REED. Notary Public. 

Statement of the Actual Condition 

— OF THE — 

Grangers' Bank of California 

At the close of business, on June 30th, Ib79. 

Bills Reccivaljle and Overdrafts 8ecure<l by Mort- 
gage and other Collaterals ^398.189 71 

Real Estate ( Bank s interest In Grangers' Building) 77, 200 00 

Other Real Estate 4,208 70 

Due from Banks 1,210 28 

Oflac Furniture. Fixtures and Safe 3,228 30 

Interest accrued 16,570 45 

Expenses, Taxes, Etc 7,120 92 

Cash on hand 46,515 39 

Total $554,241 75 

And that said assets are situated in the following counties, 
to wit: Alameda. Butte, Colusa, Contra Costa, Inyo, Mer- 
ced, Kern, Washoe (Nevada), Solano, Sonoma. Stanislaus, 
San Francisco, Tulare and Tehama. 


Capital Stock paid in gold coin 8400,020 00 

Due Depositors 92,180 81 

Bills Payalilo (Mortgage assumed on Real Estate). 40.000 00 

Dividends left iu Bank 1,283 60 

Interest and Loss and Gain Accounle 20,757 34 

Total $554,241 75 

State of California, City and County of San Francisco— G. 
W. Colby and A. Montpellier, being each duly sworn, sever- 
all" depose and say 1 hat they arc respectively the President 
tnd iJashier of the Grangers' Bank of California, above men- 
tiuued, antl that the foregoing statement is true. 

[Signed] G. W. COLBY, President. 

A. MONTPELLIER, Casliier. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this, the 2d day of 
July, A. D., 1879. 

[Signed] J. ROBERT REED. 

Notary Public. 



Experimental and Fine Special Machinery, Planine, Cutting, Patterns, Models for Inventors, etc. 

Printing: I'ress and General Machine Repairing. 

Punches, Dies, Taps, Reamers, etc., made and repaired. 
I. A. HEALD, Proprietor. 
514 Commercial Street, above Sansome, San Franciaco 



McAFEE BROS., Real EsUte and Loan Brokers 
202 Sansome Street, - San Francisco. 


We will (five the use of 50 acres or more of choice land, 
rent free, for one year, with the privilege of purchasing: 
at a low price thereafter; crops of all kinds may be planted 
nine months of the year. Apply to 

Room 10, No. 320 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 



Celebrated Petrick ' E W" 22x36 Grain Bag. 

OUK No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 SECOND-HAND GRAIN BAGS selected and graded with care! 

rXIT^T TT TVTIC O S, 4 and 5-ply for Grain Ba^, 6 and 8-ply for Potato Gunnies, .S-pIv extra ns% foi Flour 
X W X,lJt JLiijm Bags, made expressly for our trade and liUALlTY GUARANTEED. 

FLOUR BAGS Printed to Order wiTiioiT KXTR.v ciiAROK. POTATO GUNNIES, Wool, Bean, Ore and 
Salt and Seamless Cotton Ba'^. 

Tents, Awnings and Hydraulic Hose. 


119, 121 and 123 Clay St., and 118 and 120 Commercial St., San Francisco. 


^Shasta Co., Cal. 

Good I^and ! 
Sure Crops ! 
Prices Low. Terms Easy. 


Tlic Read in; 
Ranch, iu the r|*> 
per Sacraniriilo 
valley, orij;in;tI!y 
cniliracin;^ over 
2(>,000 acrcn "( 
choice prain, or- 
chard and pasture 
la'id, is no'.v 
offered for 
m\e at Uiw 
prices and on 
f a V o r a I) 1 e 
terms of p:i.\ - 
nient, in bu'h- 
dixisionii to 
suit purclias- 

Tlie mnch 
was selected 
curly day by Major P. 15. 
Reading, one of the larecst pioneer 
land owners in California. It is 
situated on the west side of the 
Sacramento River and cxlcnds 
over 20 miles along its bank. 
The average rainfall is about 30 
inches per annum, and crops have never 
been known to fail from drouth. 

The climate is healthy and desirable. 
The near proximity of high mountain 
peaks give cool nights during the 
" heated term" which occurs iu our Cal- 
ifornia summers. 

Pasturage, wood and good water are 
abundant. The tillage land is mostly 
level, with complete drainage. 

Fi,'S, Grapes, Peaches, Prunes, Al- 
monds, English Walnuts, Oranges and 
other temperate and semi-tropical fruits 
can bo r.^i9eQ wiUi success on of the tract without 
irrigation. Also, Alfalfa, Vegetables, Corn and all other 
cereals ordinarily grown in the State. 

The soil throughout the tilled portions of the ranch 
proves to be of great depth and enduring in its good 
i|UaUties. It is quite free frimi foul growths. The virgin 
soil among the large oak treeson thebottom land is eas- 
ily broken up and cultivated. 

Tlie title is U. S. patent. Prices range principally from 
.■sj to per acre. 

The California and Oregon railroad traverses ncarlj 
the entire length oi the tract. There are several scc- 
tion.s, stations and switches, besides depots at the towns 
of Anderson and |{o.iding, all of which are located 
within the limits of the ranch. 

The Saei-anieuto River borders the whole tract on the 
southeast. Us clear waters are well stocked with fish. 
Good liunting abounds in the surrounding country. 

Producers lia\ e a local market, which enhances the value 
of their produce. The railroad transportation route is level 
throughout to San Francisco. A portion 
of the land is auriferous and located near 
rich mines now being worked. Land 
suitable (or settlers in colonies can be 
obtained on good terms. 

Town lots are offered for sale in Reail- 
ing, situated on the Sacramento river, at 
the present terminus of the railroad. It 
is the converging and distributing point 
for large, pros^>efou9 mining and agricul- districts HI Northern California and 
Southern Oregon. Also, lots in the town 
of Anderson, situated more centrally on 
the ranch. Lots in both these ttiwns arc 
offered at a bargain, for the purpose of 
building up the towns and facilitating 
settlement of the ranch. 

Purchasers are invited to come ainl 
sec the lands before buying here or 
elsewhere. Appl}' on the ranch, to 
ilic ppiprietor, 

Anderson, Shasta Co., Cal. 

P S. —Send postage stamp for illus- 
trated paper containing inionnation 
:.liout Shasta county and these lands, 
and say advertised in this ixijier. 

Location of Shasta County. 

Shasta County lies not far from 
midway between the two most im- 
portant iiorts on the Pacitie sli' rc. 
/. c, S:ui Francisco and Porllaiid, 
Oregon, and directly (ni the overland 
r"Ute, which in the future will be the grand thorouk'l.farc from 
KO'a. .Mexico to British Columbia. The 
■^^Z^^lown of Reading, at present, ui.d 
probably for years to come, the head 
of railroad transportation on the 
California side of the mountains in- 
tervening below Oregon, is distant 
from San Francisco by r.iilr.>;irt (via 
Vallejo) 2.I.'' mile*; from S .craminl') 
t:ity, 1(>9 mile'-, from .Mai>-vi!ic, 117 














This paper Is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 Sotith lOtb 
St., Philadelphia & 59 Gold St., N. Y. 

Jewkllkr. — E. E. Stacy, Reading, repairs all kinds of 
watches and jewelry. Refers by permission to the pub- 
lishers of this pa|)er. 







Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 


Wire Mills, 
Office, No. 6 California St. 



Of every kind on hand or Made to Order. 


A first cln>,- i:.i:iiiu:.^- ,lum l't> '1 I. '.cation unsur- 

passed; methcxU most aitpiovf<l: health prt-BeiTcd ami physi- 
cal dtvi-l.tiinu-nt sccimd tiy (luily gymnaHiic ana brief mili- 
tary drill. I'rcparalory clepartmeiit for hids In Buccessful 
operation. Attention inritL-d to methods and temiB. Ad- 
dress for particulara. 

H. E. JEWETT, A. M.. Principal, 

Oakland, California. 
K. B.— The next school year will commence July 29th, 1879 


with 30 Changes of Position. 
Patented iu the Vuited States and Foreign Countric*. 



.Same Chair in Cane Seating. ver> de..^irab!e for summer. 
Manufactured of th" t>est of wrought Iron and ri»et«. 
t'a.'itor« made puriicKtly for ttic Chair ETcrjthing to an 
ciaet hcience. tr WIl.I. LA.ST A LIKE-TIME 

Hart het;n awarded Medals. Prizes ami Diploinaa for itB 
superiority and merit wli. rever it hiifi liet-n exhii>ited. 

Oiders by mail promjilly attended to. (Joods shipped to 
any address. C. O. D. Send for Illustrated Circular. 
Address the Wii.sos ADjrsTAiii.E Cuaib M'fo Co., 
535 Washington St., Boston. 


Tension Sewing Machines! 

A large number of nearly new eenuine SINGER, 
GROVEH k BAKER, DOMESTIC, etc . will be sold very 
cheap, many a» low as ?10. These Machines were taken 
in exchange from families for tlie "AUTOMATIC" or 

Wilcox & Gibbs' S. M. Co., 


No. 361 Twelfth Street, Oakland, CaL 



Comer of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made td Order, 


tg" Communicatioiu Promptly Attended to. ^Bft 
COOKE & SONS, Suceessora to Cooin & Ouoort. 

Three Young Short Horn Bulls, 

Ready for use. Selected from the old established herd of 
W. L. Overhisor, and got by that beautiful Gwynne bull, 
"Minstrel Duke," whose sire, "Kirklevington Duke, id,' 
and dam, "Oxford Minstrel, 2d," I botiglit in England and 
now own. Pedigrees guaranteed. 

Baden Station, San Mateo County, C»l. 

Volume XVIII.] SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 19, 1879. Number 3. 

The Dairy Industry. 

The dairy industry was the last to be afifected 
by the era of low values which has come upon 
our agricultural production. As cheese and 
butter prices were upheld longer than the prod- 
uce of most other specialties, there was a con- 
tinual and rapid growth of dairy production, as 
it was the industry to which other clouded spe- 
cialties transferred their capital and energies. 
This was true not only in California, where the 
discovery that many districts were adapted to 
dairy production led to a great increase of pro- 
ductive power, but it was also the disposition of 
affairs at the East, where the dairy regions 
spread westward from New York and Ohio 
until the great Northwest rushed forward im- 
mense shipments of cheese and butter; some of 
it of peculiar excellence, as shown by the pre- 
miums captured by the West at the Centennial 
and at the great dairy fair last year in New 
York city. The result of this rapid growth of 
the interest now tends to depress the value of 
its products even lower perhaps than the gen- 
eral decliue in produce prices. East and west 
dairymen are now down to bedrock and even 
boring into it, because it is doubtful whether 
much of the produce sold brings its actual pro- 
ductive cost. At the East, in spite of the 
splendid outlet which was found in the English 
consumption of cheese, there is now a range of 
rates which is depressing to contemplate. We 
notice that the choicest central New York fac- 
tory cheese is now sold by the carload at five 
and six cents a pound — prices which the most 
degraded, leathery "skims" would have recoiled 
from four years ago when we were connected 
with the dairy interest of New York. It is lit- 
tle wonder that such values are exerting an in- 
fluence toward reducing the dairies and lessen- 
ing zeal, and the result will be a flight from 
dairying on the part of those who perceive a 
chance for better compensation in other lines of 
production. Nothing but the severest cheapen- 
ing of the cost of production and the elimina- 
tion of all wastes will enable producers to sur- 
vive the financial drouth which must be felt 
when the best cheese nets producers but about 
four cents per gallon of milk and leaves him to 
discover how he can produce it at that price. 

In California the situation is relatively simi- 
lar, except that rates have not dropped quite so 
low on the average. Still, they are altogether 
too low for comfort, both in cheese and butter, 
and there are large amounts of each held in the 
hope of improvement. With these visib'e sup- 
plies it is difiicult to see chances for large and 
immediate improvement, unless there should 
follow a year which would curtail production. 
It is reasonable to expect a gradual strengthen- 
ing of the market during the coming months, 
because the season of reduced yield has set in. 
But whatever clearance of supplies is accom- 
plished must be done by straightforward eating 
on the part of consumers, and whenever the 
price reaches a certain amount, the cheap East- 
ern dairy goods will surely flow this way and 
prevent any notable improvement. 

It is not easy to prescribe a way by which 
dairymen may get rich at present prices. It 
would be like telling them how to make some- 
thing from nothing, which is a creative ability 
not entrusted to mortals. The only advice 
would be for those whose lands are particularly 
adapted to dairying, and to nothing else, to 
stand by the ship, to clear the decks of every 
thing which can be dispensed with so as to 
lighten the craft for shallow water. Wherever 
a reduction can be made in cost of production it 
must not be overlooked. Labor must make con- 
cessions because of the reduced value of its prod- 
ucts, and if men should double their exertions it 
would only be a fair contribution from them to 
the safety of the ship they sail in. Unusual 
inquiry and test should be made to determine 
the quality of the cows, for take the dairies 
through there is many a cow which does not 
pay her way, and thus occupies the place of a 
better one which would make a small contribu- 
tion to the general fund. A poor cow is like a. 
poor tool, always a hindrance, and in an emer- 
gency is both a detriment and a danger. There 
must be the greatest eflFort made to reach the 

highest quality in the product either of butter 
or cheese, for the best brings little enough and 
the poorest is sacrificed and its producer 
perishes with it. Everything must be done in 
every way to hold the property, and the invest- 
ment in appliances, above water until the turn 
comes, for a turn in affairs will come, because 
the present experience will drive from the in- 
dustry those whose abilities or properties do not 
enable them to creep along at present prices. 

Cultivation and Absorption of Water. — 
It seems from correspondence from East India 
that agriculturists there are noticing the effect 
of water absorption by deeply cultivated land, 
and its consequent ability to maintain vegeta- 
tion, while shallow worked soil became parched 
and barren. Thus, in India as here, the question 
of substituting cul- 
tivation for irriga- 
tion is engaging the 
attention of the peo- 
ple. A writer in the 
London Agricultural 
Gazette maintains the 
affirmative of the 
proposition. It seems 
a cyclone visited the 
Madras country in 
May, and in a short 
time about four and 
one-half inches of 
rain fell. The obser- 
ver writes: "I have 
rarely seen so marked 
a result of the after 
effects of the rough 
cultivation as this 
storm afi'orded. Al- 
though iu most places 
the land hereabouts 
was broken up about 
a month or six weeks 
ago, after some un- 
usual showers which 
fell then, the river 
which flows past my 
house rose rapidly, 
showing that evi- 
dently a very con- 
siderable portion of 
the rain which fell 
over the country in 
general ran off the 
surface. On some 
land, which has been 
under, compara- 
tively speaking, deep 
cultivation for sev- 
eral years, the sur- 
face drains scarcely 
showed that there 
had been any flow of 
water in most places. 
The significance of 
this fact can be well 
understood; for, if 
we can, by the simple 
process of deepening 
our arable soils, 
retain in them a 
great proportion of 
the rain which falls 
on them, we shall, of course, be better able 
to withstand drouths, by making use of the 
rains which do fall, and which fall so frequently 
in heavy falls at widely distant periods. 

Salmon Disease. — The salmon disease afllict- 
ing the fish of Scotland is causing considerable 
anxiety, and it is feared that it will extend to 
all the rivers of the country. Sir Kobert 
Christison, Bart., describes the disease as "a 
branching fungus which attaches itself in the 
first instance to those parts of the fish which 
are destitute of scales." The irritation thus 
produced causes the fish to rub its scales off 
against the sand and gravel, in doing which 
great cuts and gashes are inflicted, leading to 
death by exhaustion. Carefully conducted in- 
quiry has failed to reveal the cause of this epi- 
demic, which last year killed multitudes of sal- 
mon and seems no less destructive this year. 
There is no longer any disposition to attribute 
it to town sewage, as experts agree that the in- 
fluence of all the refuse that goes into the riv- 
ers is inadequate to account for it. 


Agricultural Indians in Arizona. 

We take from Mr. Conklin's "Picturesque 
Arizona, " published by the Continent Stereoscopic 
Company, of New York, a portrait of a Navajo 
Indian youth, which certainly shows an aborig- 
inal inhabitant in a much better condition of 
dress and with a face more generously endowed 
with signs of intellect than are generally seen 
either in person or in picture, since the Indian 
has fallen from the grasp of Fennimore Cooper. 
This young red skin is of the Apache nation, 
though of a tribe which seems of more human 
mold than its congeners. It is the testimony 
of ex-Gov. Sta8"ord, of Arizona that since the 
subjugation of the Apaches they have shown a 
decided disposition 
to abandon their 
barbaric arts and to 
settle down into self- 
sup porting and 
peaceable tillers of 
the soil. It is also 
stated by Col. Hin- 
ton in his "Hand- 
book of Arizona" 
that the Navajos 
have exhibited no 
little high-minded- 
ness and are execu- 
ting manufacturing 
and productive 
works which certain- 
ly do them great 

As the Navajos 
have thus enrolled 
themselves in the 
rank of industrial 
ists, it is but fair 
that we should give 
them the recognition 
implied by giving 
this young man the 
place of honor on our 
pages. Col. Hintoti 
states that the Na 
vajo reservation, by 
treaty of June 1st, 
1 868, is located in the 
northeast corner ot 
Arizona and adjacent 
portions of New 
Mexico; it comprises 
an area of 5,200 
square miles, or .3,- 
.328,000 acres, about 
half of which is pas- 
toral land, but little 
adapted for cereals 
or vegetables. An 
addition of six miles 
in width at the south 
end would greatly 
increase the culli 
vatable portion. On 
this strip they have 
for several years 
raised corn and 
wheat. Although of 
the main branch of 
differ in their tribal 
of superb 

the Apache people, they 
organization, in the manufacture 
blankets, and their agricultural and pastoral 
habits. Their stock consists of about 15,000 
horses, 200 mules, and 1,000 cattle. They raise 
annually about 3,000,000 pounds of corn, and 
succeed well with pumpkins and melons. 
Peaches of good size and flavor are raised by 
them in the Canyon de Chelly. Their blankets 
are a perfect protection against rain, wonder- 
fully warm, and sometimes command as high as 
.|125 each. These, with sashes, leggings, etc., 
they sell to the amount of $20,000 annually. 
The wool for white yarn they obtain from their 
own sheep, estimated to number 400,000; and 
in addition to the wool used in the manufacture 
of blankets, they .sold 200,000 pounds in 187C. 
The men are as expert with the needle as the 
women, and have often been seen, on getting 
the goods from the agent, to make their own 
shirts and pants, and to appear in less than half 
a day with an entire new suit. They number 
r-, 852 males, and 6, lOfi Temales. Of the whole 
number, 3,500 are of mixed blood. 

California Porcine Interests. 

We know of no country where the hog is 
grown in a way better calculated to promote its 
bodily health, and consequently insure whole- 
someness in its flesh, as an article of human 
food, than in California. The animal generally 
has the run of the ranch. The breeze fans his 
cheek, the sun warms his swarthy hide, and 
free field for exercise makes his blood active 
and pure. In its season he has abundance of 
natural green forage, and most growers take 
measures to insure a longer supply by irriga- 
tion and alfalfa or some other green crop. In 
some parts of the State he has generous fruit 
lunches during the dry months, and even the 
grateful grape has sometimes fi;^ured iu his 
menu. Everywhere he has light, air and freedom. 
As a result of this syetem of growth the Cali- 
fornia hog, as a rule, does not assume the 
weight of fat taken up by his confined and corn- 
fed Eastern cousin, for here he is not put upon 
his grain diet until just as he enters the shadow 
of the butchet's knife, and then he is coininonly 
forced to harvest his own grain, and even in 
fatting has exercise enough to keep him healthy. 
Although this system of feeding is not so con- 
ducive to laying on of adipose as a life of greedy 
gormandizing in close quarters, it can be fairly 
claimed to produce a healthier flesh, which is 
certainly a point to be regarded by consumers. 

Upon another page of this issue of the Press 
will be found some facts about the healthful- 
ness of California hogs in an article contributed 
by a Santa Barbara physician to our leading 
medical journal. The jjosition taken by the 
writer is eminently true, and is borne out by 
our own observation and by the rtports which 
we have received from butchers and pork 
packers. Not only are our swine freer from 
liver disease, but other diseases even more 
dangerous in their effects upon eaters of pork 
are noticeable by their rarity or absence. We 
have occasionally submitted to us for exaraina- 
don a piece of "measly" pork, but we have 
never yet found in California pork that other 
parasite, the trichince, which are far too preva- 
lent in Eastern swine flesh. It has been dis- 
covered by the European official food examiners 
that ma"y of the American hams which are 
imported into European countries contain the 
encysted trichina;, and we only lately read a 
report of a large nunjber of these hams which 
were condemhed after microscopic investigation. 
It cannot be doubted that the trichinte is much 
more common in Eastern pork than the occa- 
sional cases of trichinosis in human subjects 
would indicate, for the American habit of 
thoroughly cooking meat kills the parasites, 
and yet if the danger exists it is quite sure to 
break out now and then through indulgence in 
partially cooked or raw smoked pork. We do 
not desire to bo alarmists nor to take share in 
the cry of "trichinosis," which is often raised 
for sensational purposes, but while the disease 
is known to exist in Eastern pork and has never 
yet been found in Califori.iau, it is quite fair to 
turn the attention of California pork eaters to- 
ward home-grown, produce in preference to the 

Pork packing and curing in this State is each 
year making commendable progress, but there 
should be still greater efi"i>rts put forth to sub- 
stitute California for Eastern meat products in 
our markets. Some time ago we announctd 
that the United States Government had so far 
overcome its prejudice in favor of Eastern jiro- 
visions that our local producers are permitted 
to enter bids for their own goods for army and 
navy supplies. This is but just, for theie is no 
reason why California taxes should bd expended 
for the enriching of other agricultural interests. 
There are also springing up local curing establish- 
ments at dift'erent points in the interior by which 
the local demand for smoked meats is supplied. 
All these will have an influence toward making 
us self-dependent in the matter of hog products 
and will bring greater prosperity to meat pro- 
ducers. We would urge upon all consumers the 
advisability of patronizing California curing 
establishments as far as their interests permit. 




[July 19, 1879. 


We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents. —Eds 

Lumber, Mining and Tourists in Fresno 

Editors Press:— Though crops in Fresno 
county are generally light, except on the few 
lands well wet by irrigation or mountain rains, 
other interests are giving considerable life to 
Madera, Bsrenda and Borden. Madera is not 
only the railroad terminus of the great lumber 
flume 52 miles long, which winds along Fresno 
river, and has brought millions of feet of timber 
from the sawmill seven miles northeast of Fresno 
Flats, but is the point of departure for Wash- 
burn's stages, which carry a large part of the 
Yosemite tourists, to visit that beautiful •valley, 
some 400 having passed over this popular route 
from May 4th to July 4th. Again, large 
amounts of supplies are shipped from below to 
Madera and Borden for the 

Lake Mining District, of Mono County 
And intermediate mines of more or less recent 
development, around Fresno Flats as a center; 
also for the new mining districts along the up- 
per San Joaquin, in the eastern edges of Fresno 
county, on the western slope of the highest 
ridges of the Sierras, and only from 10 to 15 
miles east and northeast of Mammoth City. 
These supplies are hauled by freight teams to 
Fresno Flats and to still higher points, and are 
thence carried to their various destinations by 
pack trains, Mammoth City, the extreme point, 
being from 50 to Co miles from Fresno Flats, 
accordint; to various rough trails. To enable 

Eassengers to reach the Lake district and Bodie, 
y a quick route, a coach is run from Berenda 
twice a week (Tuesdays and Fridays) and these 
connect with 

French's Saddle Train at Fresno Flats, 
The horseback ride being made to Mammoth 
City in a day and a half. By this route it is 
possible by hard riding, to make the trip from 
Mammoth City to San Francisco in 32 hours. 
The usual time from San Francisco to Mammoth 
City this way, is 22 hours to Fresno Flats, and 
26 thence to Mammoth, or 48 hours, spend 
one night on cars and in Berenda, a second 
night at Beasore Meadows, some 20 miles east 
of Fresno Flats and .38 miles west of Mam- 
moth. Fare by this route is S14 to Berenda 
from San Francisco and return, and .§10 by stage 
to Fresno Flats and return, thence .S25 to Mam- 
moth City and return, or about S25 for the trip 
each way. The saddle train usually passes the 
only sawmill that is supplying lumber from 

The Great Timber Belt 
On the south side of the San Joaquin in Fresno 
county. This mill was erected in '73 and 74 
at a cost, with the necessary roads, of about 
SoO,000. Sawing and the building of their 
flume commenced in June, '74, and the flume 
was completed in August, '76, requiring about 
7,000,000 feet of lumber, costing between $225,- 
000 and .*!250,000, according to tlie Secretary's 
books. It is the longest flume in the world, 
making a descent to Madera of over 4,400 feet, 
about one-third of this being made in the first 
five miles from the mill. The original company 
was known as tlie California Lumber Company. 
But the property changed hands last August, 
the present company, which is vigorously push- 
ing the work ahead, being known as 

The Madera Plume and Trading Co. 
Juan Malarin is I'resident, E. McLaughlin, 
Manager; remaining stockholders, C. T. Ryland 
and Return Roberts, all of San Jose. Wm. H. 
Thurman and James Dickinson, stockholders in 
the original company, now have a contract to 
cut, saw aud pile the lumber at the mill. This 
mill runs by steam two five-feet circular saws 
and one gang edger, easily averaging 40,000 
feet per day. They have turned out in the last 
five years, over 20,000,000 feet of lumber, and 
will saw from 5,000,000 to 6,000,000 feet in the 
next five months. From November to May 
they are obliged to stop operations on account 
of the heavy rains and snow, the latter falling 
sometimes to a doptli of 10 feet there and on 
their timber claim, at altitudes varying from 
4,800 to 6,000 feet. 

The great timber belt of the Sierras is about 
10 miles wide hero, extending in all 

Over 400 Miles, 
From Kern river on the south into Oregon on 
the north, its general width varying from five 
to ten miles ; altitude, from 4,000 to 6,000 feet. 
The sugar pines and firs here reach diameters 
from six to nine feet, and produce excellent 
lumber when carefully selected. The fencing 
and scantling made from the best firs is estab- 
lishing a reputation equal to Oregon pine, Henry 
Miller having used 400,000 feet of fencing sawn 
from firs. He strongly endorses it as equal to 
Oregon pine, as Mr. Thurman informs ine. 
Redwood posts are also shipped in large quan- 
tities by the flume. They are cut from the 
smaller members of the big-tree family ( Sequoia 
gigantea J. They are quite as lasting as those 
from the small redwood ( St'iuoia sempcrvirenn ). 
In the North and South grove of big trees, ex- 
tending from two to three and one-half miles 
north of the Company's mill, are about 500 of 
these trees, varying in diameter from 4 to 30 
feet, to say nothing of numerous small ones. 

The Three Sisters 
Are large, handsome trees in a straight line, the 
outer ones not being more than 100 feet apart. 

The girth of the largest is nearly 100 feet. 
Their hight varies from 250 to 350 feet. Fresno 
Flats is becoming an important station as the 
center of the gold mines ot this county and a 
stopping point for teams, stages, pack trains 
and saddle trains. Its hight above the sea is 
3,150 feet, its climate is healthy and a fine type 
of the best mountain climate of California. It 
is surrounded by a number of very line moun- 
tain ranches, where plenty of hay, potatoes, 
vegetables and fruit are produced. Some of 
them are provided with water for irrigation, 
which is very valuable in a season like this. 
This is especially true of the fine ranch of Wm. 
H. Crooks, settled by him in 1853, about six 
miles down the Fresno river from this point. His 
ditch and flume cost him about .^'1,200, and his 
ditch now supplies water for the arastras of the 
valuable ICnterprise mine, a mile from him. A 
future letter will give your readers some facts 
about mining interests of Fresno county. 

J. W. A. AV. 

Fresno Flats, July 4th. 

Notes In Napa and Sonoma Valleys. 

Editoh.s — Two weeks of rest and 
quiet have we enjoyed moving about through 
the beautiful valleys of Napa and Sonoma. In 
and about St. Helena business seems active, 
judging from the number and variety of stages 
and private conveyances full always of pleasure 
and health seekers. The vineyards covering the 
greater portion of this valley promise a bountiful 
harvest. We were informed that the shipment of 
wines and other products has doubled in two 
years at this point. 

Calistoga puts on its usual amount of activity 
upon the arrival of trains, especially in and 
about the Magnolia hotel, the starting point of 
all stages for the interior. From this point we 
enjoyed a pleasant drive of less than an hour 
through Knight's valley to Kellogg, where all 
nature in her freshness and quiet seemed to ex- 
tend a glad welcome. There were grassy lawns 
flooded with most golden sunlight, trees laden 
with promise of profuse ingathering of fruit, aud 
water cool aud clear added a delightfully re- 
freshing murmur everywhere. Fragrant flow- 
ering vines cover the low porches, surrounding 
the main hotel building, providing a cool shady 
retreat at all hours. The neatness, order and 
refinement pervading all ordering of affairs at 
this place, coupled with the courtesy of Mr. 
Hastings and Mr. and Mrs. Steele, created the 
desire for an unlimited stay in this care-free 
oasis of peace and beauty; but pressure of busi- 
ness forced us onward, so over the mountains 
we journeyed toward the (Jeysers. 

The grandeur of the scenery along this route 
is too familiar either by eye-witness or through 
the pen of others to need comment from us. 
After a night's rest at this place of nature's 
great wonders, partaking of the hospitalities of 
the Geyser hotel, the popularity of whose 
proprietor is well earned by his unwearying ef- 
forts for the comfort and enjoyment of his 
guests, we took our way led into Sonoma valley 
along the banks of Sulphur creek, to Clover- 
dale and Geyserville and to Skagg's Springs, 
where we enjoyed an entertainment by amateurs 
on the evening of the Fourth. 

The waters of these springs are said to pos- 
sess wonderful medicinal properties which will 
yet make them the resort of thousands in search 
of health. Here ended our vacation, and once 
more relentless business claims us. J. 

The Blue Side. , 

Editors Press: — One of your Los Angeles 
correspondents writes a very discouraging, dis- 
heartening, sickening account of farming in his 
section of country. Only a smal) proportion of 
the grain is harvested, the remainder goes for 
sheep ranch, and that is all the land is fitted for. 
Only here and there in that semi-desert can any- 
thing much be raised, and many thousands of 
hard cash have been thrown away by planting 
where nature's laws are against man, although 
as fine crops as he ever saw have grown there. 
Half his bees are dead, and the prospect is flat- 
tering for the other half to go the same road. 

I sincerely sympathize witl\this correspondent 
in his ill-luck and misfortunes, but the fact is 
he is a little blue. He, and others as well, 
must not be so easily discouraged. He must 
pick his flint and try again. Farming, as all 
other pursuits, has its ups and downs, and no 
section of country is free from occasional mis- 
fortunes and losses of crops. I hope this corre- 
spondent will see better times next year. I 
lived in Kansas in 1874. It was a year of 
drouth. No corn was raised ; a little wheat 
here and there was spared by the millions of 
chinch bugs and army worms ; a few grapes 
were saved from the swarms of rose-bugs by 
constantly going over the vines with brooms ; a 
very few cabbages and potatoes were rescued 
from the armies of grasshoppers that darkened 
the air like a thick falling snowstorm, taking 
every green thing; while the borers were de- 
stroying our fruit trees like a raging fire. The 
ague shook the last breath of life out of some 
of us, and the cerebro- spinal meningitis threat- 
ened to decimate the entire population. Every- 
body was in debt, every farm was mortgac;ed 
for three times its selling value. Thanks to 
kind aid sent in from other States, even distant, 
generous California, we lived through it all ; 
and now Kansas is one of the most prosperous 
States in the Union. So it is ever and every- 

where. The better way to meet these inevitable 
reverses is to pursue a more diversified system of 
farming. No two seasons are exactly alike, and 
no two crops are exactly alike successful every 
year. There are always seasons favorable to 
some crops and unfavorable to others. With a 
diversity of crops, some are sure to succeed 
every year, and the farmer is not left entirely 
destitute. It is a good rule — far too seldom 
adhered to in California — for the farmer never 
to buy anything that he can raise on his farm. 
And the longer I live in California, the more I 
find that he can raise many more things than he 
is accustomed to suppose. When he learns to 
raise all his own fruit, all his own vegetables, 
his own pork, and beef, and mutton, as well as 
all his necessary wheat, corn, barley, beans and 
sorghum molasses, he will find that, although 
some of these will fail some seasons, j'et most 
of them will succeed most seasons, and all na- 
ture will not present so cerulean a hue as to 
make him sick unto death. And when, as will 
sometimes happen, the worst comes to the 
worst, let him search diligently for the brightest 
side and keep his eye unwaveringly upon that. 

S. P. S.vow. 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 

California Grown Insect Powder. 

Editors Prkss; — In answer to your inquiries 
concerning the plant which I introduced from 
Dalmatia, for the manufacture of insect powder, 
I reply as follows: In regard to the article in 
the Canadian Entomoloiji-st, on "insect pow- 
ders," I have not seen it, but I have seen an ar- 
ticle in the New York Weekly Tribune, of May 
14th, quoted from the Entomoloijisl, giving my 
powder the credit of being fresher, stronger, 
etc., than the imported powders, and the editor 
of the EnlomolotjiHt, Mr. Sanders, gives it as his 
opinion that the Pyrethrum Cineraric folium 
powder was far superior to the Pyrethrum car' 
neiim and Pyrelhruni roseiim powders. He 
sjieaks of the Pyrethrum (.'inerariir folium, as 
being a Dalmatian plant. Now the New York 
Tribune, in its remarks, credits me with raising 
the Pyrethrum carneum and Pyrethrum roseuin. 
You will oblige me very much by stating 
through your worthy paper that my plant is of 
Dalmatian origin, and is nothing more nor less 
than Pyri thrum Cineraria- folium. 

I am of full belief that there is no such dift'er- 
ence in the material known in commerce of the 
world as insect powders, no matter whether 
they are sold as " Persian Insect Powders," or 
as "Dalmatian |nsect Powder." I claim that 
there is no diflerence between the Persian or 
Dalmatian, or mine; the true active principle is 
alike in all the powders offered to the world. 
There is the same smell and the same color. 
The only difference that I can find between my 
powder and all the powders that are imported 
to this country is this, that the so-called " Per- 
sian," and the so-called "" powders, 
are heavily adulterated before they reach the 
hands of the consumers. 1 will here prove that 
this must be the fact. The price of the im- 
ported powders from Dalmatia at preteut 
is 70 cents per pound in San Francisco; 
this being the wholesale rate, while the 
same powder is quoted in New York from 75 
to 90 cents per pound. The whole of this is im- 
ported from Trieste. The price of the blossoms 
on the plantations in Dalmatia, in the vicinity 
of the City of Ragusa, was SO cents American 
coin per pound for the same crop that sells at 70 
cents per pound in San Francisco by our whole- 
sale druggists. Now then, the speculators that 
are purchasing the blossoms in Dalmatia ship 
them to Trieste, a distance of over 300 miles, by 
steamers. The freight is considerable to Trieste, 
and there is a loss of about 4% in grinding the 
blossoms to insect powder, which is done ex- 
clusively in Trieste. The man who purchases 
the blossoms at 80 cents on the plantations in 
Dalmatia sells them in Trieste at a round profit 
aboveall expensesof at least five cents per pound. 
The merchant at Trieste that grinds it loses 4% 
in mi'ling, as above stated, and he packs the 
powder into suitable packages for exportation to 
New York, and makes from 3 to 10 cents 
per pound on the New York merchant. The 
New York merchant pays the freight and makes 
a handsome profit by selling to his customers ; 
besides he pays the Custom-house duty. Now 
then, how is it and why is it that all of the 
druggists are making so much profit on the 
Ijowder they sell from foreign countries at a less 
price than the blossoms bring on the planta- 
tions ? 

I have submitted my powder to scientific men 
in America and Europe .ind they pronounced it, 
long ago, a superior article, as the climate and 
soil of California are particularly favorable to 
the plant after it is once acclimated. 

Prof. C. V. Riley calls my attention, in sev- 
eral of his letters, of his trials on different in- 
sects, and of several articles publishi d in the 
New York Tribune, wherein he records his own 
experiments. I have sent him a large supply of 
my powder of this year's growth at his request, 
with which he will go South to experiment on 
cotton worms. Prof. Gamgee, at Prof. Riley's 
instance, has decided to try its effects as an 
anti-yellow fever remedy and upon other lower 
forms of life that are invisible. 

Distribution of Pyrethrum in Europe. 

I will here again state upon the subject of 
the plant, and I wish this to go before the 
world, that I find in my experience as a native 
of Dalmatia that the plant which is named by 

scientific men Pyrethrum Cinerariir. folium, now 
extensively cultivated in the southern part of 
D.ilmatia, a portion of Herzegovina, and Monte- 
negro, has been known to exist in a wild state 
in the same country, but it was not cultivated 
until about 16 years ago. I claim that the plant 
was originally brought in seed from Persia by 
the historical and beautiful little European 
quail. The migratory quail has its young in 
I'ersia and remains in Persia from early spring 
unl;il the 25th of August of each year and then 
emigrates from Persia to Africa, beginning on 
the 25th of August and continuing until about 
the Ist of November of each year. They remain 
in Africa during the winter, and in the spring 
they go back to make their nests in Persia. 
These fjuails start from Persia in the evening 
and the next morning they are generally in 
Africa before daylight. But if the wind is 
blowing during the night from the northeast, 
you can find millions of quail in the very terri- 
tory where the celebrated Pyrethrum Cineraria; 
folium is found to grow wild, and I am sure that 
the quails have deposited the seed of this valu- 
able plant and this seems to me to decide the 
identity of Persian and Dalmatian insect pow- 
ders. You cannot find any quail in any con- 
tiguous country where this plant does not grow. 
The same quails remain only one day in Dal- 
matia, Herzegovina and Montenegro, and the 
next evening they start for Africa. If the wind 
is favoraWe to them they get there; if not they 
are scattered all over Italy, France and Ger- 
many, and even England. Oa many occasions 
millions have perished in the Mediterranean sea, 
on account of two winds meeting each other 
while they are flying, and at times ships have 
been covered with many dead quails where the 
tempest would overtake them. 

I have endeavored to give you a history of 
this plant, as I have made it my study for a good 
many years, and I am of the opinion that in less 
than five years, if I am encouraged, that we 
shall produce a very superior article of insect 
powder in California to supply the world. 

G. N. MiLco. 

Stockton, Cal. 

The Santa Clara Cheese Factory. 

A reader sends us a copy of an account of 
this establishment from the Echo, with request 
for its publication in the Pre!»s. As our corre- 
spondent, G. W. M. , made the factory the subject 
of a letter in our issue of May 3d last, we shall 
take from this later article only such points as 
were not mentioned in the letterjof G. W. M. 
Following this guide, we quote as follows: 

It is required that the milkings of night and 
morning be kept in separate cans, and great care 
is taken not to receive any milk which contains 
any impurities or has been skimmed or adulter- 
ated. Any person delivering impure, skimmed 
or adulterated milk, is subject to a heavy fine. 

For those who desire to feed the whey to 
calves, a portion is kept in a separate tank and 
boiled, by which process it is kept sweet for at 
least 24 hours. For feeding hogs only sour 
whey is desired. 

In pressing the curd or cheese an invention of 
Mr. Cole, of Gilroy, is used, called the telescope 
hoop, which is a great improvement over the 
old method, and enables the pressing of four or 
more cheeses under one screw, where only one 
cheese could be turned out at a time by the old- 
fashioned manner. The factory has facilities 
for pressing !(00 or more pounds of cheese at 
once by the present improvement. 

At present the factory is turning out about 
500 pounds a day, with facilities for about 
double that amount, and an abundance of room 
to increase the facilities as the business may 
require. About eight pounds of milk, or a 
pound less than a gallon, is required for a pound 
of cheese, so that the present quantity of milk 
used is from 4-50 to 560 gallons a day. The 
yield of cheese from curd is 75%, 40 pounds of 
curd making a 30-pound cheese. Milk is hauled 
to the factory by parties living eight miles off, 
Messrs. Spence and Weller, two of the principal 
patrons, living in the vicinity of Milpitas. Thus 
it will be seen the factory furnishes farmers 
within a radius of 16 miles square a profitable 
market for their milk. 

The demand for the company's cheese has 
steadily increased from the day the factory 
started, and now they have more orders than 
they arc able to fill. The cheese is of a superior 
quality, and wherever it has been introduced it 
iias given universal satisfaction. The company 
now supplies almost the entire home market, 
San Jose and Santa Clara consuming about 2,400 
pounds a week, the surrounding towns 750 to 
1,000 pounds more, while agencies are estab- 
lished in San Francisco, Oakland, Stockton and 
other points for the sale of this cheese. 

r. O'Brian the superintendent of the factory, 
came here from (iilroy, where he still retains a 
cheese dairy of considerable dimensions, at 
present in charge of a relative. Mr. O'Brian is 
a live and energetic worker who thoroughly 
understands his business, and has the interest of 
the establishment as much at heart as though 
he was one of its heaviest stockholders. The 
company was exceedingly fortunate in securing 
his services. Mr. S. I. Jamison is President, 
Mr. E. A. Braly, Treasurer; and Mr. A. B. 
Hunter, Secretary, who with a board of directors 
have exclusive control of the corporation, and 
the success which is attending it shows that it 
couldn't well have fallen into abler hands. 

July 19, 1879.] 




Camellias and Camellia Culture. 

A writer in the London Oardeners' Chronicle 
has devoted no little time to investigations into 
the history of the Camellia japonica in Eng- 
land and gives some very interesting points con. 
cerning varieties and methods of culture and 
propagation. As this plant is being grown with 
varying degrees of success by many in this 
State, facts about its career and culture else- 
where will be interesting. We quote from the 
London writer the following statements : 

The Camellia derives its name from George 
Joseph Kamel, or Camellus, a Moravian Jesuit. 
In the "Vegetable Kingdom," by Dr. Lindley, 
the plant is placed in the natural order Tern 
stromiweip. (Threads), between the genera Py 
renaria, Blume, and Tliea, Linn. It is there 
remarked: "The different species and varie 
ties of Camellia japonica are the glory of gar 
deners. " In the Lionaean system it belongs to 
the class and order Monad elplda Polyandria. 

The Cam,cllici. japonica or Japan rose, the 
species from which nearlyall of our more valued 
garden varieties are descended, is, as we have 
already s<ien, said to have been introduced in 
1739; but it is not mentioned in the sixth edi 
tion of Miller's Gardeners' Dictionari/, published 
in 1771. Notwithstanding this I Hnd it thus 
described in A Histori/ of Plants, by John Hill, 
M. D., published in 1751 :—" Camellia. — The 
calyx is imbricated, and composed of several 
leaves, the interior of which are the larger. It 
is an oriental, described by Kiempfer in his 
Japan, 850." 

It is interesting to trace the progress of the 
camellia. It is more than a century ago (1739) 
that the species C. japonica, or single red, was 
introduced, but it was not till early in the pres- 
ent century that the other species, with several 
improved varieties, were imported. The beauty 
of the plants naturally attracted the attention 
of the cultivator, and awakened in his mind the 
desire to increase the number and variety of 
sorts. Probably the first step was to sow the 
seeds indiscriminately, and to preserve such 
kinds only as were considered different or more 
beautiful than their prototypes. Artificial fer- 
tilization was next resorted to, and as the seed- 
lings increased in number and variety no doubt 
a standard of beauty was set up, to the attain- 
ment of which artificial fertilization was di- 

In our judgment the floriculture of the 
camellia admits of at least three types, which 
we shall describe, with the view of guiding the 
cultivator in the improvement of varieties : 

1. The Imbricateil Form of Flower. — Example, Double 
While. The flowers here should be full, and the petals, 
whether pointed or round, rejfularly arranged, thick, 
Bmooth, and clear in color. 

2. The Anemone-Flowered.— Example, Press' Eclipse. 
The outer petals here should be large, thick, smooth, and 
well rounded; the center being made up of a series of 
small thickly-set petals, leaving a broad margin of the 
outer petals. 

3. The Long- Petalled Kinds.-- Example, Conspicua. The 
petalh here should be few, but large, tliick, and smooth. 

This is our idea of the three distinct tj'pes or 
strains of flower that are open to development 
at the hands of the florist. They all belong to 
C. japonica; but if he choose to extend the area 
for improvement, he may set up separate ideals 
for the other species, especially C. reticulata and 
C. Sasanqua; but these do not at present seem 
to present so fair a Held for the exercise of his 
ingenuity and skill, or to promise so remunera- 
tive a return for hi 3 labor. 

There are also already in existence some 
single and semi-double varieties of C. japonica 
which are characterized by the prodigious quan- 
tity of flowers they produce, and there is room 
for improvement here by extending the range 
and introducing intermediate tints of color. 
The cultivator who stands by hard and fast lines 
might probablv look coldly on such kinds, but 
they have their admirers, and they certainly are 
gorgeous objects from the wonderful profusion 
of bloom they produce. The old corallina with 
its blood-red flowers, and tricolor, white flaked 
with crimson, are examples of these, and few of 
the more exact flowers produce anything like 
the effect of these, whether grown in pots or 
tubs, or planted out in the conservatory. 

In writing on the improvement of the camellia 
by raising seedlings from artificially fertilized 
flowers, while paying first and due regard to 
the shape, substance, and colors of the flowers, 
it would be a great mistake to overlook the con- 
stitution and habit of the plant. This is un- 
questionably a point of vital importance, and 
the improver who does not pay due regard to 
it only half does his work. However beautiful 
a flower may be, if the habit of the plant is in- 
elegant or the constitution feeble, the pleasure 
derived from its cultivation is considerably les- 

When fertilizing artificially with the object 
of raising improved varieties no flowers should 
be used except such as are the most perfect of 
their kind, and on one side or the other the 
habit should be comely and the constitution 

Proceeding upon these grounds there opens 
before us almost an unbounded field for the va- 
riation and amelioration of the camellia. 
Former laborers have but broken up the 
ground, and the rich harvest they have- 
obtained augurs well for the results of 
higher and more extended cultivation; To 
particularize, there is tne variety known as 

mathotiana, perhaps the finest in flower of 
all the crimsons, but the habit is unquestion- 
ably bad. Lady Hume's Blush, although 
one of the oldest varieties, is still of unsur- 
passed loveliness, but is generally, although 
not always, met with in an unsatisfactory con- 
dition ; and even the old double white, which 
everybody grows, is open to improvement on 
this ground — it is a long way behind elegans, 
for example, in constitution. Those who may 
engage in raising seedlings should seek to ob- 
tain a cross between such kinds, and others of 
good habit and better constitution. In the 
present state of the camellia we may conceive 
increase of size and substance, higher models of 
form, an extension of the range of color, as well 
as improvement of habit and constitution, and 
work for the realization of our conceptions. 
And in this labor Nature, though abounding in 
varieties, is on the whole working with us, or 
to put the matter more correctly, we are work- 
ing with her, and she often encourages us with 
unlooked-for results, which at once help for- 
ward our aims, and surprise and delight us. 

What florist call branch-sports are of frequent 
occurrence among camellias, and this is a means 
of improvement which should not be over- 
looked. It is not yet made clear how these 
sports are produced, that is to say, it is not 
within the gardener's power to produce them at 
will. It would seem, however, that anything 
which leads the plant out of its natural course 
especially an excessively vigorous growth — is 
favorable to their production. When sports oc- 
cur they should be scrupulously preserved by 
inarching or grafting. 

The exactness of form of many varieties of 
camellias appeals strongly to the sympathies 
and taste of the educated florist, and those who 
take more delight in color than in form will find 
here the most varying and delicate shades of 
white, rose, crimson, etc., and the great sub 
stance of the petals presents the eye with a 
charming solidity of color scarcely met with in 
any other group of cultivated plants. 

\\\EEf \m Wool. 

Origin of the Merino Sheep. 

We learn from the American Cultivator that 
Mr. George Wm. Bond, of Boston, so widely 
and favorably known by his life-long studies of 
wools, which has justly given him the position 
of the highest authority on this subject, has 
treated the origin of the Merino sheep with the 
greatest care, the results of his investigation 
liaving been given from time to time in special 
reports prepared for our Government, through 
the authority of the treasury department. So 
far, however, as the classification of the Old 
World breeds is concerned, Mr. Bond makes his 
acknowledgements to Dr. L. T. Fitzinger, of the 
Imperial Academy of Sciences of Vienna, whose 
system, though in some respects at fault, is fol- 
lowed because it has not been improved upon or 
modified in any particular by any succeeding 
writer, though it was first made public in 1859 — 
20 years ago. The studies of Mr. Bond upon 
this general subject, and especially on the origin 
of the Merino breed, possess deep interest, 
more especially as the latter question has lately 
been the subject of a noticeable treatise from 
the pen of Mr. Ernest Oldendorff, lately chief 
f the Department of Agriculture of the Argen- 
tine Republic, and not long ago published in 
this country. 

It is not at all satisfactory to people who like 
fact to admit that the origin of the Merino 
breed of sheep — a breed or race most highly 
prized the world over — is unknown, or, in other 
words, is lost in the obscurity of remoteness. 
Such, however, seems to be the case, and in the 
absence of positive knowledge, several theories 
have been set up by both ancient and modern 
writers. The more general belief is that it is 
the result of a cross made by the Moors of 
Spain, with sheep imported by them from Af- 
rica, in the eighth century, and from time to 
time afterwards, with the native sheep which 
they found in Spain. Others believe that it 
was created by crossing the black and colored 
sheep of Spain, so widely known when the 
Roman Empire was in its glory, with the white 
rams imported by tlie Saracens from the East, 
in order that they might have the material re- 
quired for their white garments. Again, some 
writers affirm that it is a peculiar race indigenous 
to Spain. Now, any one of these theories is as 
good as any other, provided all rest upon the 
same class of testimony ; but that must finally 
be accepted as nearest correct or true which is 
supported by the greatest show of reason. 
After a long analysis of the subject, Mr. Bond 
concludes there is no evidence to support the 
theory that the Merino is a race indigenous to 
Spain. Next comes the theory of origin based 
upon the character of the wool alone. A long 
line of highly learned names subscribe to the 
belief that the Merino was introduced by the 
Moors, by importing rams from Africa; yet it is 
generally admitted that no sheep of Africa have 
been known which had wool resembling that of 
the Merino. Mr. Oldendorff, in his treatise, to 
which we have alluded, thinks the belief of 
African origin to be erroneous, the many dis- 
tinguished advocates of it to the contrary not- 

There can be little doubt that the original 
coat of our domesticated sheep was hair, with 
an underlayer of wool, or a sort of down. 
Wool is the product of care and climate, and 

the character of the wool depends upon the 
kind of food, the care, as exposure, etc., and 
the particular climate of the country. In the 
pre-historic ages the people soon found out that 
wool was of greater service to them than hair, 
and hence they came to bestow great care upon 
their flocks, for the purpose of reducing the 
hair and increasing the amount and improving 
the quality of the wool. It is also well known 
that wool, with neglect, exposure and hard pas- 
ture, will revert to hair; and it is true also that 
hairy lambs are frequently dropped in the purest 
Merino flocks. This is not a freak of nature, 
an accident, but is undoubtedly governed by 
the natural law of reversion, that law by which 
any peculiarity of form, olor or habits may 
make its appearance in tlic offspring without 
having been observed in the parents. With so 
many evidences of the effects of this law as ap- 
pear in works on breeding, who can limit it? 
How far back may it not extend ? May it not 
go back to the original ewe, however remote ? 
M. Lefour, a French writer quoted by Mr. Bond, 
gives his testimony to the frequent occurrence 
of hairy lambs in flocks of the Mauchamp 
Merinoes of France. This breed is regarded by 
Mr. Oldendorff as one not very fixed or positive 
in its characteristics — one lacking the p ower to 
transmit their peculiar qualities. He also says 
that in pure bred Rambouillet and Negrete 
flocks he has frequently seen the folds of the 
neck and hip bones covered with bunches of 
hair, a sign that the wool fleece has a tendency 
to turn back on the more exposed parts of the 
body to the original coat of the sheep, hair, 
This writer brings numerous instances to his 
aid in assuming that the original Merino ewe 
was dark colored, or even black, and that we 
must look for the improvement of the Merino 
race to the dark-colored ewe of Spain, and the 
white-wooled rams of Syria. 

Growing Sugar Beets at Alvarado. 

Mr. E. T. Gennert, the expert in charge of 
the new endeavor at Alvarado, who is contrib- 
uting a series of articles to the on the 
beet-sugar industry, is also enlightening East- 
ern people upon the growth of beets in this 
State. The same information will be appre- 
ciated by our readers in parts of the State 
where beet sugar is talked of but not yet at- 
tempted. We take some extracts from Mr. 
Gennert's letter to the American Cidtivator : 

Of late I have watched the beet fields in this 
vicinity with the greatest interest, as on them 
depends the wjiole success of the newly formed 
Beet Sugar Company. At this date, June lofch, 
most fields are laid by; they have been culti- 
vated, weeded and thinned out, and as the 
leaves cover the ground completely, nothing 
more can be done till harvest time. The largest 
contract made in this section by one farmer was 
for 115 acres actual measurement, excluding 
roads. Of course I have been anxious to see 
how this contractor would get along, but he is 
one of those men who can not only take care of 
themselves, but also of their farms, and do it 
in the most thorough style. He performed the 
whole planting in about a week and a half in a 
most excellent manner. I met him the otiier 
day and asked him if he had a good stand of 
beets. He smilingly replied: "Good stand, 
why they stand as even as the hair on a dog's 
skin, and almost as thick." I have at last 
made it a point to find a man who would com- 
plain, but have been unsuccessful. Three or 
four farmers who would not wait for the horse 
planters did the planting by hand drills, but 
these planted too deep and the seed did not 
germinate. As we could not furnish them with 
seed again, they had their contracts canceled, j 
which are in all 20 acres. 

But notwithstanding this we have over 1,100 
acres now growing, and promising a heavy crop. 
Most farmers who have cultivated field beets 
before, estimate the whole crop at between 
20,000 and 25,000 tons; some think it will ex- 
ceed the higher figure. 

The principal weeding or weed killing is done 
with the plow. I have seen land as foul as any 
I have seen around Fryeburg in Maine, but in 
turning it under in a shallow furrow and giving 
the beets the start of the weeds, it works well. 
There is no such thing as witnessing a comliat 
between the weeds and beets on any field here, 
as was the order of the day in Maine last year. 
All the beets have been planted in rows 15 
inches apart, and the seed drills were set at 
that distance, and people had neither time nor 
disposition to change them. All the weeding is 
done with the shove hoe, which is a flat knife 
in goose-foot shape, with a pair of thin mold 
boards on the sides. These mold boards not 
only protect the young beets, that no earth can 
fall on the leaves, but they also serve as guides 
for the hoe. A man in working these hoes 
pushes them in front of him, walking at a slow, 
even pace, and in an erect and easy position. 
Seeing the operation at a distance it almost 
looks as if the man was walking for exercise. 
The regular hoe is used after thinning, so as to 
kill any weeds in the row. 

All the beet fields here look fully as clean, 
and more level, than those in the sugar districts 
of Germany. The system of cultivating the 
beet on shares appears to work very well, and 
gives general satisfaction, 

anxious to do the cultivating, weeding, 
ning and harvesting at §1.50 per ton. They u./ 
it well, and it does pay them well; while the 
farmer who receives for ground rent, plowing 
and hauling in $50 per acre, has certainly no 
reason to comiilain. Hence the general opinion 
that sugar beets delivered at the factory, at $4 
per ton, pay better than any crop the farmer 
can raise at present prices. 

Healthfulness of California Swine. 

Dr. L. N. Dimmick, ofSanta Barbara, writes 
to the Paeijlc Medical and Surgical Journal an 
an article on the greater healthfuluess of Cali- 
fornia hogs as compared with Eastern, which 
has direct bearings upon the industry of hog 
growers and pork packers and curers on this 
coast. We quote from Dr. Dimmick as fol- 
lows : 

It is a fact well known to butchers and others 
throughout the Mississippi valley, that the 
livers of domestic animals, more especially of 
the hogs slaughtered for meat, are extensively 
diseased. The livers have, on the outside, a 
spotted or mottled appearance, and on cutting 
off a section, are found to be studded with gray- 
ish white indurated spots, from the size of pess 
up to the size of walnuts. The larger ones are 
often ulcerated and filled with purulent matter. 
They resemble somewhat tubercular cavities. 

During a residence of more than thirty years 
in the Mississippi valley, this unpleasant fact 
was constantly to be witnessed, and rarely have 
I seen a hog over one year old slaughtered, that, 
upon examination, did not exhibit this disease. 

Since making my home upon this coast, it 
occurred to me to ascertain the facts in regard 
t ) its existence or not upon the Pacific coast. 
To my surprise I learn, as far as I have prose- 
cuted my inquiries, that it is almost, if not en- 
tirely, unknown on this coast. Colonel Hollia- 
ter informs me that the livers of 9!)% of the 
hogs that are killed are perfectly healthy. I 
have made inquiries of various persons who 
have been engaged in slaughtering hogs and 
other domestic animals at various places on this 
coast, from Humboldt to San Diego, and all 
agree in saying that it is extremely rare to find 
a diseased liver. 

Omitting speculations as to the difference in 
climates, or other causes producing the result, 
a practical question presents itself — Is it wise, 
in a sanitary point of view, to neglect the grow- 
ing of hogs on this coast, and the production of 
a healthy article of pork, and to import from 
the east an inferior article, made from animals 
that, while living, were afflicted with extensive 
disease of an organ whose slightest derange- 
ments disturb the digestion and assimilation of 
food, and this disease often so far advanced as 
to suggest the danger of the direct absorption 
f the pus into the blood of the animal while 

It seems to me that this is a strong argument 
for our farmers to make an effort to supply the 
people of this coast with an article of pork of 
which there is no question about its freedom 
from disease. At the present time, so popular 
is an article produced away from home, that 
Eastern pork, lard and hams will sell here for 
higher prices than are paid for home productions; 
that is to say, higher prices for the meat of an 
animal that may have suffered from blood poi- 
soning, instead of low prices for healthy meat 
grown on the Pacific coast. 

May not the low vitality produced by this 
disease of the liver in the animals, afford a par- 
tial explanation of the very extensive mortality 
among the swine in the Eastern States, from 
what is known by the name of hog cholera ? 

Lighter Bacon. — A short time ago it was 
deemed essential by breeders of both cattle and 
hogs to get as much weight and fat as possible, 
to the almost utter neglect of symmetry and 
style. A notable fact, and one worthy the 
special attention of breeders and raisers of 
hogs, is that light, evenly fatted and fine-boned 
swine, averaging a little over 200 pounds in 
weight, is the onlj' grade of our liogs that has 
proved satisfactory to our British cousins; and 
heavier weights do not stand the lona journey 
and confinement on shipboard as well as stock 
of lighter weight and less fat. There are sev- 
eral English houses here, as most of our read- 
ers well know, that are almost exclusiv(;ly en- 
gaged in the curing and shipping of English 
cuts; and, as is generally a well-known fact, to 
meet the requirements of this trade, hogs must 
not be too fat, but compact and well bred. — 
Drover's Journal, Cliicayo, 111. 

Bekkshihk Bollktin. — The American Bcrk« 
shire Association has begun the publication of a 
Bulletin in the form of a neat pamphlet, which 
will be issued monthly. It will bo devoted to 
the interests of Berkshire breeders, disseminat- 
ing information of the value of the breed, and it 
will contain advance sheets of the pedigrees ac- 
cepted for entry in the "Record. " Ti e edit< r 
is Phil. M. Springer, Springfield. Illinois. It 
is a publication which will, wc think, bo found 
valauble to all Berkshire breeders. 

Any number of men can be had here who are ' square feet. 

Every adult man has 1,400 square feet of 
lungs; rather, the mucous membrane lining the 
air cells of his lungs, if spread upon a smooth, 
plain surface, would cover an extent of 1,400 



[July 19, 1879. 

Oorreepondence cordially invited from »U Patrons lor this 

Grange Notes and Suggestions. 

The Orange don't seek nor pretend to make 
money for the farmer. It presents for his con- 
sideration and acceptance the maxims of ■n orldly 
wisdom tried and approved by successful men. 
It invites for discussion and adoption the ways 
and means that shall make the farm pay. It 
asks his thorough knowledge of modes of busi- 
ness; the cost and value of his own products 
and the commodities he buys. It establishes 
agencies on whose fair dealing he may rely. 
And with it all it inculcates the necessity of co- 
ODeration as the one essential element of suc- 

The complete and perfectly rounded Grange 
never loses sight of the three great cardinal 
principles of the Order: First, to stop the leaks 
of the farm; second, to promote a higher in- 
tellectual and agricultural education; and third, 
to give an added dignity and character to the 
farmer and farming. The three, in a measure, 
are mutually dependent. The prosperous Grange 
keeps them all alive, and makes each one tribu- 
tary to the others. 

Not only those who never saw the interior of 
a working Grange, but many who ought to be 
familiar with all that relates to the organization, 
seem to be ignorant of the principles that under- 
lie the Order. We would suggest that the 
Master or Lecturer or some one specially 
appointed read consecutively with comment and 
illustration, a portion of the "Declaration of 
Purposes" as part of each evening's work. A 
half-hour may be very profitably employed by 
a Grange in discussing the portion read. 

Farmers and farmers' families are apt to say 
they have no time to read — too busy or too 
tired, or too expensive to buy books. Has it 
never occurred to those who make these excuses 
that in a Grange of any literary taste — and 
every Grange ought to encourage and cultivate 
these — tiiree or more choice literary selections 
read at a weekly session, would in the course of 
a year give to the members from 100 to 200 of 
the choicest passages in the language. Mul- 
tiply these by live or ten years, and we have a 
wide range of literature. Give to the members 
generally an appreciation of this with the powtfr 
of critical analysis, and we are not only doing 
what is possible, but contemplated in all intellec- 
tual culture, by our high schools and colleges. 
— OraiKje. Bullttin. 

The Material Advantages of Co-opera- 

It is specially important that Patrons know- 
ing the many benefits and advantages arising 
from our Order should keep before the minds of 
their co-laborers on the farm who do not belong 
to the Order all the facts necessary to inform 
them of its principles, purposes and intentions ; 
for we hold that no farmer who once becomes 
thoroughly conversant with its fundamental 
principles and purposes can hesitate for a 
moment about joining the Order. It is our duty 
to elevate our fellow-workers; and in no better 
or more simple way can this bo accomplished 
than by increasing the boundaries of the Grange, 
and instilling into the minds of farmers the per- 
sonal interest each has in the Order and its co- 
operative movements. We feel that we cannot 
too strongly or too frequently present this sub- 
ject to Patrons. The co-operative business 
feature of the Order is the great lever that must 
move agriculturists. Self-interest is the ruling 
passion in humanity, and the farmers as a class 
are but human in this respect. They must see 
that the Grange will pay in dollars and cents 
before they will come in. Members of the Order 
have it in their power to convince their neigh- 
bors of the pecuniary benefits of our co-opera- 
tive system. It is not necessary that any of our 
confidential arrangements be unlawfully re- 
vealed, but we can show our neighbors that the 
material advantages which result from the co- 
operation of many people are very considerable 
and not to be lightly regarded; that to sell to 
the best advantage, and to buy as cheaply as 
possible, is to increase the protit of farming, and 
consequently any plan which is likely to enable 
farmers to do these two things must be con- 
sidered worthy of serious thought and attention. 
That the Grange organization is capable of do- 
ing this for its members is so well known and 
accepted a fact that no true Patron thinks of 
denying it. Mistakes may occur, of course, but 
that is the fault of individuals and not of the 
system, which is calculated to insure satisfac- 
tion if but carefully carried o^xt.— Fanners' 

Camforsia Farmers' Insura.nce Co.— In 
answer to inquiries from readers we would state 
that we are informed by Mr. Kellogg, attorney 
for plaintiflf in the case of G. W. F. Carter, vs. 
the California Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company, that in a few days a motion for an 
injunction against the Insurance Company will 
be heard by the Court. An injunction 'is prayed 
for to restrain the Insurance Company from col- 
lecting all and any assessments levied upon the 
mutual policy holders. We may be able to give 
the result of the bearing in our next issue. 


FKOM JA.\VART, IHTO, TO JtLY, 1879. * 

The following valuable table showing the fluctuation in price of Wheat Bags in this market during the last 10 
years, has been compiled by A. Montpellier, Manager of the Grangers' Bank: 


January . 
March . . . 





Auerust . 





























11 7-16 










12 11-16 




12 1 

12i j 

13 I 

12 9-lfl 









17 X3-16 





14 15-16 
















































































































10 7-16 











11 3-16 






11 5-16 












July 12 















Keeping Silver Accounts. 

The (irangers' Bank gives notice that it will 
keep silver accounts, although the leading com- 
mercial banks of the city have closed their deal- 
ings in silver. The cashier and manager has 
issued the following circular to tlie banks of 
the interior, which we print, that our readers 
may know what is going on in financial circles: 

The city banks, here, which make their exchanges 
thriui^h the Clearing House, ha\ ing closed up all silver 
accounts since the Isl of July, both with their city and 
country customers and corres|X)ndeiit9, it will cause a 
serious annoyance and embarrassment in silver exchange 
with the country, where, outside of wheat and wool, most 
of the balance of the produce of the soil, the dairy, etc., 
is sold for and payable in silver, amounting to large sums 
of money annually. This bank, in compliance with the re- 
quest of its customers, farmers, etc, throughout the State, 
will continue to keep silver accounts as f»nnerly, for the 
convenience of its patrons exclusively. Lately we have 
opened a number of new silver accounts w ith commission 
houses in this cit.v, who And it to he quite convenient for 
their but^iness, and the number promises to increase 
every day. Should 3'ou deem it advisable to keep a silver 
bank account in San Francisco, for the convenience of 
your customers and residents of your vicinity, we will he 
pleased to keep it for you. We will collect all sliver bills 
free of charge, place amount to your credit, and wo feel 
confident that our business relations would be mutually 

Boiler Explosiros— No. 4. 

(Written for the Prkss by H. W. Rice. J 
The explosion of Mr. Anway's boiler, at Rio 
Vista, a few days ago, adds further proof of the 
want of skill that is found in the management 
of these useful servants,' threshing engines. 
The engineer, a man about 50 years of age, on 
whose countenance is stamped all the appear- 
ances of candor and sincerity, swears before a 
jury that he had one and one-half inches of 
water in his gauge glass at the time the boiler 
exploded. If five hundred engineers and ex- 
perts had sworn to the same thing, the boiler 
plates will just as positively contradict the 
statement. It is as plain as daylight that the 
water was low at the time, and nothing is easier 
than to see that the plates over the grates — the 
hottest place in theboiler — were the first to start 
downward, and the twisted and torn sheets of 
iron show the water line, and most positively tell 
that over 1,400 inches of the crown sheet was 
bare and hot. The engineer also swore that 
two days before the explosion he had a pressure, 
indicated by the gauge, of 105 pounds, and that 
the gauge at the time of the explosion indicated 
85 pounds. The engineer at the time was re- 
pairing the lower valve of his pump, which 
had broken the day previous, and he had drilled 
a hole through its seat aitd mended it with a 
wooden plug and had been trying to work it, 
and to keep sufficient water in the boiler, which 
he had failed to do. When the engineer found 
that his pump was not doing its duty he stopped 
with his water low, and the steam gauge showed 
80 pounds pressure. The fireman closed his 
damper and waited, but when it w as thought to 
be nearly time to start he put in just two small 
feeds of straw, the steam quickly arose to 85 
pounds, and the explosion occurred. The en- 
gine was not moved an inch, and nothing about 
it or the running gears was in the least injured. 
Had the boiler been double-riveted and stayed, 
like the Hoadley's, not a person of those near it 
would have been left alive to testify. Mr. An- 

way has owned this engine since 1874. He is 
not an engineer himself and relies upon the 
men he employs. During the time he has 
owned the engine it has always done good ser- 
vice, except, at times, when he has had un- 
skilled or incompetent men. He says that one 
engineer tested his boiler with live steam at 
over 160 pounds, and also says that he had not 
seen water in the gauge glass for four days pre- 
vious to the explosion. When he asked the 
engineer the cause, was told by him that the 
pipes were stopped up. 

A close investigation, however, does not show 
any stopp.age in the pipes or the glass. Many 
cases have come to my knowledge where engi- 
neers have deceived their employers by reck- 
lessness or perhaps foolishness, In this last- 
named case the intelligent reader may judge for 
himself what name to call it, when ho stops to 
think, that a man, claiming to have knowledge 
sufiicient to take care of and operate a steam 
boiler and engine, does not know better than to 
try to force water against a pressure of 80 or 90 
pounds to the square inch, with a brass valve 
with its seat made partly of wood, 

There are many men, to-day, who are ope- 
rating engines, who, if their glass was broken 
or disabled, would not know how to try the 
water with the common water gauges, and 
would not know if the water was low, or the 
plates bare. Lastseason an old engineer in Contra 
Costa county broke his glass, and his boiler was 
■o hot that the felting was on fire between the 
boiler shell and the wood lagging. He bored 
holes through the wood and had water poured 
in to put out the fire. He then told the fire- 
man to fire up slowly, and as he started the en- 
gine it blew up, He then saw what he might 
easily have seen before, that his water was at 
least eight inches low, and that the hot plates 
were marked with a line which could not be 

Although it was the cause of serious bodily 
injury to his fireman and to his reputation as 
an engineer, yet he did not try to deceive him- 
self or others, but told the plain truth and ex- 
plained the true cause of the explosion, that it 
might be a warning and assistance to others. 

Washington College. — The announcement 
is made in our advertising columns that the 
next year at Washington college will begin on 
Thursday, July .SIst. This institution is situ- 
ated in one of the most beautiful and healthful 
valleys of our .State. The buildings are of re- 
cent construction, commodious and well fur- 
nished with appliances for instruction and com- 
fort. The principals. Rev. and Mrs. Harmon, 
are among our best known and most highly es- 
teemed educators, and the large family of stu- 
dents which they gather together enjoys their 
most enthusiastic efiforts, most thorough cul- 
ture and kindliest care. Washington college 
draws its students from all parts of the coast, 
and thus exerts a wide influence toward good 
scholarship, and the inculcation of true man- 
hood and womanhood. The college faculty is 
comprised of instructors peculiarly qualified in 
their several specialties of instruction. 

SlNTS NOT iSiNEW.s. — One of our compositors 
made "tough work" of it when he set up 
" einems " for .shims, as Mr. Rixford wrote the 
word in his article on seedling lemons, in last 
week's Pbes.s. Let readers who preserve the 
Pkes.1 make the correction in their files. 



The Wheat CttOT. — l'imea, .July 12: Tak- 
ing in the lone, Buckeye, Dry creek, Jackson 
and .\lokelumne valleys, we have taken pains 
to make diligent inquiries, and we feel quite 
safe in saying that while there is a largely in- 
creased acreage over that of last year, the yield 
and quality, on an average, will be better than 
for some time past The cool spring has had a 
good effect in preventing shrinkage, and the 
rust which it was feared would be caused by the 
late rains, proves to have been trifling in ex- 
tent and unimportant in its bearing upon the 
general results. We know of only one bad case 
of rust and that is on low land, where the crop 
was laid flat by the rain, and the moisture of 
the soil made bad work with it. Barley prom- 
ises well, although the acreage is less than usual, 
owing probably to the larger amount of wheat 
and corn. The latter has been planted far in 
excess of former years, and its appearance is 
very promising. 


Good Wheat. — fiun, July 12: Most of the 
wheat of Colusa county will be of excellent 
quality. Where there was a failure it was 
generally total. 


Antioch Wheat. — Lrdgfr, July 12: Farmers 
lukve gathered most of the grain into stacks 
and a considerable portion has been threshed. 
A number of schooner loads have been shipped 
from Antioch and the various landings on the 
Robinson ranch. The kernel is plump and there 
has been no oomplaint of rust or mildew. 

EDITOR.S — Harvesting in Contra Costa 
oounty from San Pablo to Point of Timber is 
well under way. Hay presses, headers and 
threshing machines are in full operation. Grain 
is not turning out as well as was expected, 
though some fields are very fine. In the south- 
east I saw large fields heailed where the heads 
only were reaped, the stalk being about seven 
inches high. Such may bring three sacks to 
the acre. The summer-fallow is turning out 
well. One or two threshers will be sufiicient 
to thresh all the grain raised on the plains. 
The rust in the .San Ramon and adjacent val- 
leys has not materially injured the grain, the 
rnst bein^ on the blade, not on the stalk. The 
hay crop in the San Ramon is immense; from 
two to four tons to the acre. I have never seen 
hay in greater abundance. One-third of the 
grain west of the Diablo valley has been cut for 
hay, owing to the wild oats. The potato crop 
is first-class in quantity and quality, but a fail- 
ure in price, 25 cents a sack being the price in 
the tules southeast of Antioch. 'This will not 
pay expenses. A sloop load sent from Babbe's 
landing to the city, when sold brought eight 
dollars less than the expenses, consequently 
potatoss remain in the ground. I hear of grain 
shrinking in some places, but I have examined 
heads in different parts of our county and find 
the grain well matured and exceptionally good. 
The drawback of the season, north and west of 
the "divide" overlooking Marsh creek, is wild 
oats and foulness. The absolute necessity for 
thorough cultivation, and a more generous 
treatment of the soil, is being forced upon our 
fxrmers in a way they cannot misinterpret. 
Men are growing poor on some of the finest 
farms in the State, while others with less land 
and poorer soil are growing rich. — W. H. T., 
Martinez, July 15th. 


DisFRiBrTED MoiSTrRB. — ExpotitoT, July 9: 
As an illustration of how irrigation changes the 
condition of a country where it is applied, a 
person has only Ui go to the Washington or 
Nevada colonies and take a shovel and tnrn up 
the soil, and it will be found that it is moist 
clear to the surface, and that water can be ob- 
tained by digging down a few inches. Three 
years ago this same soil was as dry as a sand 
heap, and to obtain water a well full forty feet 
deep would have to be sunk. In a few years, it 
seems probable from the vast amount of water 
that is being poured out on the surface, the 
water level will be raised all over the plains, 
then, seasons when the rainfall is light, will not 
be so severely felt as now. 

RivEKDALE Ditch.— C. D. Davis informs us 
that the survey for the ditch from Cold slough to 
Riverdale settlement has been completed, and 
the work of excavation will be commenced at 
once. The ditch will be about 36 feet on the 
bottom and will have a capacity of over 100 
cubic feet of water per second — the grade of the 
ditch being about one foot to the mile. The 
main canal will be seven miles in length, and it 
is proposed to have it completed by the 1st of 
December. The stock, divided into 100 shares, 
representing a foot of water each, has all been 
taken. The ditch will have i> capacity to irri- 
gate about 20,000 acres of land. 

Wheit.— A Kingsburg correspondent says; 
The new wheat crop is now beginning to arrive 
at the depot in Kingsburg. Many persons 
whose means of information are good, express 
the opinion that there will be more grain shipped 
from Kingsburg than last year. The grasshop- 
pers are taking great privileges in some localities. 
Sand-storms liave somewhat discouraged the 
people, but the "old prophets" say a good season 
is coming. 


Crops.— iBec, July 12: The grain crop of 

July 19, 1879.1 



Lake county is now being harvested and is a 
most abundant one — perhaps the largest ever 
raised here. This is the information received 
from every portion of the county. 

Lemon Sale. — Santa Ana Herald: D. 0. 
Haywood, of Orange, shipped a box of lemons 
as samples to the San Francisco market, which 
were sold at the rate of f ;W per thousand. This 
week he shipped 15 boxes more of the same 

Items. — Downey Courier, July 12: Thirty-six 
thousand acres of wheat were sown in San Fer- 
nando valley this season, which will average a 
yield of from 10 to 12 sacks to the acre, and 
weighing from 130 to 136 pounds to the sack. 
The peach crop in this valley is immense. Dur- 
ing a somewhat extended ride we did not see a 
single tree that was not weighed down heavily 
with fruit. Within the limits of the moist and 
irrigable lands, the corn is excellent. Every 
stalk looks green and fresh. Here and there 
one can see bare spots, upon which the wire- 
worm destroyed the corn early in the season. 
The farmers are utilizing these spots by planting 
pumpkins on them. A valuable flowing well 
has been recently completed on the mesa about 
half a mile beyond Fulton's Wells. The bore 
is about 250 feet, and the water is strongly im- 
pregnated with sulphur. As a large reservoir 
18 formed near the well, it is a favorite resort 
for cattle. A herder, who was watering his 
cattle at the time of our visit, says that the 
stock are exceedingly fond of the water, and it 
is good for them. It now appears as if artesian 
water can be obtained anywhere on the mesa in 
that section. If this should prove true, that 
will be a most delightful section for homes. 

Sheep on Wheat. — Ukiah Press, July 11: 
The finest wheat we have seen anywhere this 
season, from Sacramento into Potter valley and 
up the Russian River valley, is on the ranch of 
David Streeter in Potter. It was sown early, 
fed down twice by sheep and now stands four 
feet high, thick and even, and not a stalk of 
anything but wheat to be seen in it. 

The Season. — Editors Press: In conse- 
quence of the lateness and uncertainty of the 
rain, the ranchers generally around here com- 
menced an early summer-fallow, consequently 
an immense section is now in fallow. Some has 
been plowed twice. Some few, as Messrs. Huff- 
man, Aikins, and others, have some hundreds 
of acres of fair wheat grown on the more sandy 
land. There is a large artesian belt around 
here, where wells have been easily and success- 
fully sunk, and on this land vegetables are 
raised and command a fair price. There are 
two colonies started here, the "Merced Colony" 
and "Fowler's Eagle Colony," on land where 
artesian wells are successfully found ; there is 
also irrigating canal water on both. Land and 
terms are most moderate and every encourage- 
ment given to settlers to locate. Both colonies 
are about 10 miles from the thriving city of 
Merced, which boasts of two large grain ware- 
houses, the Grangers' and Huffman s. A fine 
level, rich wheat and agricultural country sur- 
rounds Merced, with the beautiful snow-capped 
hills in the distance. Two rivers, the Merced 
and San Joaquin, are not far away. The former 
furnishes irrigating water here, the latter also, 
but to a lesser extent, but is useful commercially 
as a navigable river. It should be cleaned out, 
but small steamers run out as it is. — M. J. 
O'Byrnk, Meraed, Cal. 


Yrvit. —Btporter, July 11: The early fruit 
crop in the immediate vicinity of Napa has 
fairly commenced coming in. In conversation 
with several of our fruit growers we learn that 
the yield will not be a large one— not up even 
to the average. This is due to the injury done 
by frosts. The late crop will be nearly up to 
the average. 

Hops.— St. Helena Star, July 11: Mr. Clock 
informs us that his hops are looking about as 
usual for this time of year. The prospect is 
fair for a fair crop. He has 12 acres in this 
year. Storey Bros, have 30 acres; R. T. Mont- 
gomery, 6; James Dowdle, 15; and C. Hartson, 
ID Clock's old Lodi ranch, about 20. Altogether 
83 acres wichin three miles of St. Helena. 
This is about the same acreage as last year. 

Wild Oats in Wheat. — Mr. Leonard Tully, 
who has a large ranch in Chiles valley, informs 
us that his wheat crop is troubled with an un- 
usual quantity of wild oats. He thinks that in 
many places from 10 to 12 bushels of oats could 
be cut to the acre. And his is not an excep- 
tional case. The same prevails through many 
parts of Napa valley. Chiles, Pope and Berry- 
essa. We noted lately the cutting by Chris. 
Adamson of about 100 acres of wheat for hay, 
because of the wild oats. This was a case in 
^int, and Mr. Tully says that many in Pope 
valley are doing the same. Wild oats have 
always appeared to a limited extent in the 
wheat here, being a natural production of the 
country, but why they should be so much worse 
this year than heretofore is the question. Mr. 
Tully thinks that perhaps a circumstance of 
seeding may account for it. There was an un- 
usual crop of wild oats last year, and seeding 
being done at a wet time, the oats were in good 
condition to come up just at the time the wheat 
planting was done. Then being harrowed in 
altogether they naturally come up first and got 
a start in growth. The season, too, was par- 
ticularly adapted to the growth of oats rather 
than wheat, even distinctive oat fields doing 
unusually weU, 


Fruit. —Folsom Telegraph, July 12: The 
Natoma Water & Mining Co.'s vineyard and 
orchard below town promises a fine yield and 
their fruit-drying house is being made ready for 
the drying of this and other fruit. 


Editoks Press:— Crops of nearly all kinds 
are fair to good. My corn, pumpkins and beans 
the best I have raised in the State; my cab- 
bages, turnips, beets, rutabagas, onions the 
poorest, and yet I am entirely unable to account 
for the difference. An immense amount of hoe- 
iog and weeding was required this year, but 
that leaves the surface in good condition to 
withstand the winds. I think a few hot, 
windy days we had in blossoming time, de- 
stroyed some of our apricots, althougli we have 
plenty in places. Peaches and apples are usu- 
ally plenty, as also blackberries. Grapes good 
iu places. Bees scarcely making enough honey 
for breeding purposes, and our bee men doubling 
up their bees, and talking of feeding. — S. P. S. 
July 7th. 


Bees.— A^e«w, July 10: From a conversation 
we had yesterday with Mr. Campbell, who has 
an apiary on the Atkinson grade, we were glad 
to learn that, within a short time back, th^bees 
have been doing a little better in honey making, 
owing to an improved condition of the moisture. 
Mr. Campbell says that his bees will make a 
little more than a living. Mr. Mel. Sargent 
who dropped in to see us, from the San Vicente, 
gives us the most cheering statement that we 
have heard, viz., that his bees will enable him 
to sell some honey; they are doing so much bet- 
ter of late. 

Good Gp.ain.— Redwood Times, July 12: The 
barley and wheat crop in this county is turning 
out splendidly. Nearly all the grain in this 
valley is already cut, and the threshers will be- 
gin operations next week. 

The HoRTicuLTaRAL Society. — The regular 
quarterly meeting of the Horticultural Society 
of San Mateo county was held at the Tremont 
house on Tuesday evening, James Burns, the 
President, in the chair, and a goodly number of 
members in attendance. A very attractive dis- 
play of rare fruits and vegetables were exposed 
on the tables and fully discussed. Among 
these were several specimens of a variety of 
melon wholly new in this latitude. They are a 
small fruit, seemingly a cross between a canta- 
loupe and the ordinary muskmelon, though 
much richer in flavor tlian either. They have 
a bright orange-colored rind, and have been 
denominated the golden melon. . Some exceed- 
ingly large cucumbers were also shown. The 
paper on lawn culture appointed to be read at 
this meeting was deferred, though the subject 
was elaborately discussed. At the next meet- 
ing the subjects of sub-tropical bedding, lawn 
culture and fern growing will be considered. 

Good Crops.— Mill ville Record, July IS* 
Harvesting has commenced in earnest and head- 
ers are cutting the golden grain in all the adja- 
cent valleys. The crops this year are splendid, 
more land has been seeded than ever before, 
and should the present rise in wheat continue 
till the farmers can dispose of their grain, the 
hard times that have been complained of so long 
will give way and prosperity and plenty take 
their place. 


Unfavorable Results.— Vallejo Chronicle, 
July 12: The crops between Elmira and Vaca- 
ville are almost a total failure. On many of the 
ranches the grain has been so badly affected 
with the rust that it will not pay for harvesting. 
Some of the farmers will raise about half a crop, 
and others will not harvest at all but turn their 
stock in the fields to feed. Owners of headers 
are heading on shares instead of by the acre on 
several of the ranches, and from indications will 
barely make enough to pay their gang by the 
time the grain is threshed. On one ranch the 
threshers were at work last week, in the vicinity 
of Ehiiira, and after running all day were only 
able to count about 140 sacks, whereas if the 
grain had been good they could have threshed 
from 800 to 1,000 sacks in the same time. We 
were shown Wednesday by Mr. J. Frank, of 
Suisun, two samples of Oregon club wheat, one 
from Suisun valley, and the other from Suisun 
creek. The former is shriveled and dried up, 
and the ranch from which it came will not be 
harvested at all, while the latter is considerably 
better looking, and will yield about half an 
average crop. 

Dixon. — Tribune, July 12: Grain is very 
spotty, and luck h^ts as much as anything else 
to do with it. It has been frequently said that 
the adobe land would produce the best crops 
this year, but there seems to be no foundation 
for the report. J. F. Brown has turned hogs 
on a part of his fields. 

Peaches.— Solano Republican: The peach 
crop is reported to be light in Suisun valley. 

Bodega.— Editors Press: Although times 
are hard, they would seem harder to be deprived 
of the weekly visits of your valuable journal. 
I have taken it so long, it has become a family 
necessity. The crops of grain in this vicinity 
are a full average. More potatoes are planted 
this season than usual, and unless some calamity 
overtakes the crop it will be good. I learn that 
the blight has made its appearance up the coast 
and in a few fields in this vicinity. It is too 
early to predict the amount of damage, but fears 

are entertained that it will be considerable. 
Dairying is on the wane. Cows are drying up 
fast. All farm products are so low that after 
paying expenses there is little or nothing left, 
and farmers are reduced to the necessity of 
learning the art of lessening their wants by re- 
trenching their appetites.— E. H. Cheney. 

Russian River Cv.0f9,.~Enterprise, July 10: 
Harvesting is now under full headway. Near 
town the reaper has been preferred to the 
header; at Geyserville headers are now busy, 
and in a short time all the grain will be ready 
for the threshers. Most of the wheat ripened 
and filled well. In many fields some of the 
grain dried off, and the berry shrunk, but this 
will not materially affect the yield of grain be- 
ing over the average. Corn is doing extraor- 
dinarily well. Many of the farmers say the 
prospects never were better. The corn on the 
river below Healdsburg and at Geyserville is 
now tasseling; has a good color, and could not 
have a much better stand. The change in the 
weather at this particular season of the year is 
very favorable to corn. 

Grain. — Petaluma Argus, July 11: Harvest 
has commenced in earnest. So far, nothing but 
reapers have been used in wheat fields, and the 
grain is being bound. The wheat now ripe is 
good and will yield well; much of the wheat 
which is still green will not do as well as the 
early sown. There are several fields of wheat 
on Dry creek and on the river that will turn 
out better than for many years past. Barley is 
not so heavy as last year. 


Large Potatoes. — Banner, July 11: We re- 
ceived from Meridian during the week a box of 
large potatoes, of the varieties known as the 
"Oregon Biscuit" and "Russet," raised by J. 
B. Fuller, of that place. We measured one, its 
size being 16 inches in circumference one way 
by 12 inches the other. 

Grain. — Harley's Corners Cor. Banner: 
Much of the wheat is badly shrunken, partly 
on account of rust, but we believe more from 
the effect of the hot north wind that prevailed 
during the past month. Mr. Littlejohn's grain 
is so badly down as to require lifters on the 
header, and several other pieces are in the same 
fix. Some of the best summer-fallow wheat 
has been threshed, which only yielded 24 bush- 
els to the acre, and a great deal of it will not go 
over 20, and winter sowing must be corre- 
spondingly light. 


Items. — Delta, July 10: Around Lemoore 
the crops are turning out better than was 
anticipated. Harvesting is about over, and 
farmers are talking of threshing. Hanford 
for the past few days has been enlivened 
by the arrival and unloading of grain wag- 
ons. About 1,.500 sacks come in daily at the 
two warehouses. Mayer & Schoenfeld's com- 
modious warehouse begins to display a formid- 
able breast work of stored grain, besides mak- 
ing frequent shipments. Compared with last 
year, more than half a crop of grain will be re- 
alized — in some localities a larger crop. At 
present the ruling price is from $1.20 to |1.30 
per cental, according to quality. There is prob- 
ably no county in the State in which fruit ma- 
tures earlier than in Tulare. Early fruit was 
shipped this season from Visalia to Los Angeles, 
and other fruit producing counties, and the 
Delta was among the ripening of the various 
kinds of fruit as they came in season. 


Crop.s. — Free Press, Jjjly 12: The barley crop 
just threshed is above the average in point of 
quality, being very bright and heavy. One crop 
that we hear of weighs 140 pounds to the sack. 
The wheat crop, alsouowsafely harvested, is alto- 
gether the finest crop ever raised in the county, 
both in quantity and quality. From Mr. 
Blanchard and other gentlemen whose business 
makes them familiar with this matter, we learn 
that besides what is needed for home consump- 
tion and seed, the county will have in the 
neighborhood of 23,000 sacks for export. Con- 
sidering the limited area sown, this is an aston- 
ishing yield. The bean and corn crop promise to 
yield fairly this year. The flax crop, we regret 
to learn, will be light — perhaps not over five 
sacks to the acre. In fruit, we learn that the 
peach, apple, apricot, fig, and plum crops 
will be very fine — perhaps better than ever be- 
fore. Of course there is not demand here for 
the amount raised, and we learn that Mr. James 
Day, with the enterprise which characterizes 
him, has contracted for some thousands of tin 
cans in which to put up preserved fruits, and 
will besides dry a large quantity with a ma- 
chine for that purpose of his own getting up. 

Editors — The long looked for fogs 
have come at last, in time to save most of tl • 
heavy corn crop and beans. The wheat crop is 
good, not so heavy to the aero as could be 
wished, but what there is, is fine. I visited 
1,800 acres on the Sime grant last week, and 
should judge from 16 to 25 bushels to the acre 
would be an average. The most of this belongs 
to Mr. Barnett who estimates his crop at 10,- 
000 sacks, and by some enclosed you will see the 
average quality. The barley is good all over the 
county, though light. We are having cool 
breezy days and damp nights. There is nothing 
doing in the bees this season; it is all they 
can do to live. There will be no new honey 
this year from this county^ — R. W. K., Spring- 
ville, June 22d. 

[Tiie new wheat headsare quite creditable, and 
are evidence of a fair yield. Our correspondent's 
favor was very tardj m reaching us in the 
mail. — Eds. Press.] 

News in Brief. 

The corn crop in Iowa is said to be the best 
in years. 

There is not a single Russian soldier left in 

Half a dozen sunstrokes occurred in St. Louis 
last Saturday. 

Bullion in the Bank of England decreased 
.€38,000 the past week. 

An earthquake agitated the people of Vic- 
toria, B. C, July 12th. 

The Bank of Bengal has reduced its rate of 
discount from 6% to 5%. 

The funeral of the Prince Imperial was an 
imposing demon.stration. 

Part of the striking colliers at Shamokin, Pa., 
resumed work yesterday. 

A severe earthquake was experienced at 
Alexandria, Egypt, .July 11th. 

Specie in the Imperial Bank of Germany last 
week decreased 7,860,000 marks. 

Fourteen fires occurred in San Francisco 
from July ,Sd to the 6th, inclusive. 

During the past week specie in the Bank of 
France decreased 30,000,000 francs. 

Gen. Von Manteufel is to become Gov- 
ernor of ALsace-Lorraine in August. 

A party of 650 Mormons, en route to Salt 
Lake, have arrived at Council Bluffs. 

The German Reichstag has finally passed the 
protective customs tariff — 217 to 117. 

There is 25 feet of snow in Emigrant Gap, 
neir the summit of the Sierra Nevada. 

Quite a considerable emigration is taking 
place from New England to Tennessee. 

The recent heavy rains in British Columbia 
have had a disastrous effect on the crops. 

The exports of British Columbia for the 
quarter ending June 30th reached |145, 155. 

The Orange procession at Toronto last Satur- 
day was the largest seen there for many years. 

Chinese-American war rages in the shoe 
shops at North Adams, Mass. Chinamen whip. 

Prince .Jerome Bonaparte has virtually 
assumed the attitude of chief of the Imperialists. 

Gen. Sir Garnet Woolsey arrived at Cape 
Town July 1,'jth, and immediately left for Natal. 

The Louisiana State Board of Health report 
that New Orleans was never healthier than now. 

The French Chamber of Deputies passed the 
Educational bill yesterday by a vote of 352- to 

Servia claims .3,000,000 francs fromthePorte, 
on account of Albanian raids into Servian ter- 

There are over 67,000 Sunday-schools in the 
country, with an average attendance of 3,000,000 

Cardinal Manning preached the funeral 
sermon of the Prince Imperial at Ohiselhurst 
July 13th. 

The total value of stamps, stamped envelopes 
and postal cards issued during the last year is 

According to the new directory of New York, 
that city has increased 43,000 in population 
within the past year. 

Peru has got a crystallized woman. She or it 
has been sent to England for exhibition in the 
Westminster aquarium. 

It is reported that Grant has decided not to 
return until after the Republican nominali( a 
for the Presidency is made. 

Operations against the Achinese have been 
resumed by the Dutch, four strongholds of the 
former having been captured. 

The Spanish Minister of Marine declares that 
his government has no intention of sending a 
man-of-war to Chilean waters. 

The cost to Russia of the war with Turkey 
amounted to £150,000,000, and the deaths in the 
Russian army numbered 200,000. 

The dissenters from the orthodox church in 
Russia, hitherto unrecognized by the State, are 
to have entire liberty of worship. 

An Arizona dry goods man has, by proclama- 
tion, cut that Territory loose from San Francis- 
co. Snipped the apron-string, as it were. 

Portable gas is sold and delivered in England 
like milk. People in the country and villages 
receive it in copper vessels from large cities. 

A Mexican at El Paso recently routed the 
American army at that place. Loss, all the 
Americans killed but one, and he was taken 

Mr. Burch, the Secretary of tlie U. S. Sen- 
ate, has refused to pay Senator Sharon his sen- 
atorial salary — on the ground that ho has not 
earned it. 

A "Pacific Ladies' Escort Company'' is about 
to be organized in San Francisco with branch 
agencies all over the coast. A prospectus will 
soon bo issued. 

Great Britatn is not the wealthiest country 
on earth as has been supposed. Lato estimates 
show that France is worth $2,08.5,600,000 more 
than Great Britain. 

TiiK Central I'acific railroad uses a hand car 
with tiiree wheels for one person. Weight of 
car 100 pounds, propelled by hand or foot. 
Speed about 18 miles per hour. 

The Anaheim Gazette, says that two young 
ladies became intoxicated from the odor of 
eucalyptus trees in a grove near that place. 
The eucalyptus has been slandered enough. 

The railroad vacuum left at San Diego by 
Tom Scott, will be filled by Mr. Swan's "Oli- 
via" lemon and "Asher's Best" orange. — Newg. 
[A small vacuum or a big orange?] 

The N6w Jersey Supreme Court has affirmed 
the death sentence pronounced against Mrs. 
Smith and Cove Bennett for the murder of the 
former's husband at Jersey City. [What be- 
came of the money raised to procure a reversal ?] 


The Old Barn's Tenantry. 

The roostar stalks on the maii(;er'8 kdffc. 
He has a tail like a scimitar's edge, 

A marshal's plume on his afffhan neck, 
An admiral's stride on his quarter deck; 

He rules the roost and walks the bay 
With a dreadful cold and a Turkish way, 

Two broadsides fires with his rapid wings 
This sultan proud, of a line of kings- 
One guttral laugh, four blasts of horn. 
Five rusty syllables rouse the morn! 

The Saxon Iambs in their woolen tabs 
Are playing school with the a, b, abs; 

A, e! 1, 0? All the cattle spell 

Till they make the blatant vowels tell, 

And a half-laugh whinny fills the stalls 
When down in the rack the clover falls. 

A dove is waltzing around his mate. 
Two chevrons black on his wings of slate, 

And showing off with a wooing note 
The satin shine of his golden throat— 

It is Ovid's "Art of Love" retold 
In a binding fine of blue and gold! 

Ah, the buxom girls that helped the boys. 
The noble Helens of humbler Troys— 

As they stripped the busks with rustling fold 
From eight-rowed corn as yellow as gold, 

By the candle-light in pumpkin bowla. 
And the gleam that showed fantastic holes 

In the quaint old lantern's tattooed tin. 
From the hermit glim set up within; 

By the rarer light in girlish eyes 
As dark as wells or as blue as skies. 

I hear the laugh when the ear is red, 
I see the blush with the forfeit paid, 

The cedar cakes with the ancient twist. 
The cider cups that the girls have kissed, 

And I see the fiddler through the dusk 
As he twangs the ghost of "Money Musk!" 

The bovs and girls in a double row 
Wait face to face till the magic bow • 

Shall whip the tune from the violin, 
And the merry pulse of the feet begin. 

-B. F. Taylor. 

The Mule. 

Nor north, nor south, nor west, nor east 
Can fortune find another beast 
Cut out by such a cross-grained rule 
As marked the making of the mule. 
Two ears like hairy windmill sails; 
The must absurd of curious tails; 
A hoof to ni.qrk each lightning paw, 
A voice like filing of a saw; 
An eye that seenieth culm and kind. 
That sees for half a mile behind, 
And never fails— with glances quick— 
To guide the well-directed kick 
That lays the luckless driver low 
And wh-ilms him with its weight of woe. 
He lives on thistles, weeds and sticks. 
With stubborn spells and tireless tricks 
Caught up in nature's slvest school. 
Where mischief fills the faithful mule 
With DSU that mock at human rule. 
They say that mules can never die — \ 
Are never hungry never dry - 
Can live on sin and simi)le song 
And spend their time the whcle day long 
Contriving tricks, or skillful plan 
To grind wiih grief the S'lul of man. 
Nor do I hey Uiind how ill they fare 
Ko ihev but cheat hi* watihful care, 
And knock him over anj where. 

—New York WorM. 

Mountain-Top Letters.— No. 3. 

(Written for the Rurai. Press by Jewell.] 
Oa the warpath! Yes, this farm life seems to 
be a constant battle with squirrels, gophers, 
cutworms, borers and bugs of all sorts, until 
I, a peace woman, feel at war with all ver- 
min kind. My days are spent with pail of 
poison and hoe (for the weeds, too, are enemies 
we must tight continually), cautiously searching 
every squirrel track and hole; and my nights 
are haunted by imaginary enemies of our young 
trees and growing crops 1 Even my quiet medi- 
tations take the form of inventing some wonder- 
ful manner of wholesale slaugliter of the pests. 

I do not like this phase of farm life. If one 
could plant and harvest in a peaceful way, I 
would not'mind the hard, hot, daily care of corn, 
beaus, potatoes, etc., and if it be true, as your 
correspondent m a late paper gays, "that squir- 
rels follow civihzition," then, indeed, am I 
ready to give up in despair! But an old valley 
farmer assures me that after a continual struggle 
with squirrels and gophers for eight years or 
more, they have routed the enemy, by com- 
bined effort, and so I take fresh courage. But 
it is very hard to see the big squash yines eaten, 
root and leaf, and the young, thrifty fruit trees, 
stripped of leaf and branch, and row after row 
of shiny green peas disappear as if by magic! 

Then there is the old white cow! Bless me, 
even she is an enemy of our turnip and cabbage 


beds! Five times in one day waa she driven 
out of our garden, and my "gude mon" had to 
stop planting, and go to fence making, which 
was quite discouraging; but as our cow was not 
the only one on our mountain top, it was quite 
necessary they were kept ignorant of our new 
shiny rows of green corn just beginning to 
wave in the breeze. I begin to understand the 
cow nature; which is to starve, trying to get a 
sly mouthful of garden stufi', rather than to eat 
the rich, sweet, tall grasses that surround them 

Now what a charming peaceful time we would 
have on our mountain-top farm, if the squirrels 
and gophers would only contine themselves to 
such things as we don't value, ferns, wild sun- 
flowers and the like, thus helping us to clear the 
land of them ; the bugs and cut worms did the 
same, birds ditto, instead of tasting of our corn 
now, and fruit in the good days coming ; if the 
cattle stayed just where the grass was the best 
and shade most charming, and did not require 
a fence to be kept in place. In short, if the 
seed planted grew and one felt sure that wliat 
their eyes saw growing would mature and repay 
a hundred fold, ah ! that would be too good, 
and everybody would turn farmer perhaps. 
What would become of the cities, with their 
idle rich and poor folks, their theaters, libraries, 
banks, lawyers and doctors, and the saloons and 
all the whisky and fermented drinks. Good- 
ness ! it is awful to contemplate the change to 
the future generation, if all humanity should 
go into farming and raise all they couhl eat; or, 
in other words, if we had no non-producers to 
support, save children, old people, and the sick ! 

If all lived in the sunsliine and took sufficient 
exercise they would be out of the doctor's reach; 
and if all lived within their means and did not 
mortgage their farms, the lawyers would soon 
forget their lore, and peace, plenty, and health 
would be the consequence. The small farmers 
would join hands and help to kill obnoxious ro- 
dents aud weeds, build roads with overhanging 
trees for shade, erect water fountains for man 
and beast (without a saloon attached) every two 
or three miles, and do very many things for 
man's benefit instead of his detriment, because, 
as a rule, the farmer is a better, purer, more 
honest, and a healthier man than any other, 
consequently his thoughts are better and nearer 

Looking at life from any point it is a battle. 
In the cities one's enemies are men, who crowd 
and push and endeavor to live off the labor of 
others; and they who attempt to act from prin- 
ciple must bear the snubs and jeers of the 
masses, which is less easy to endure than to do 
battle with insect life and rodents here on the 
mountains. The one is but living its best life, 
eating that which it likes, while the other 
enemy not only lives his worst nature, but by 
his example tends to lead others astray. So, 
friends, we may not be doing our best duty by 
trying to live peacefully without the effort of 
waging war with vice, intemperance, dishonesty, 
etc., in the cities, or doing our utmost to destroy 
all the pests of our farm life, remembering 
always never to be weary of well-doing. 

Deer Kidge Farm, July Cth, 1879. 

A Country Toilet. — A country toilet may 
be of navy-blue linen, trimmed with embroi- 
deries in light blue. The front of the skirt is 
trimmed with a plaited flounce, bordered with 
a light blue cording. A trimming is made in 
the shape of an apron, with two embroidered 
flounces and linen plaitings. Two straight 
pieces of goods fall down the sides of the apron, 
which are trimmed ^ith an embroidered rutlie 
and cordiugs. These pieces are draped over the 
hips and then fastened under the front seam. 
The back of the skirt is made of straight seams. 
The top part of these seams is raised in puffs, 
and the lower part plaited in large hollow plaits 
fastened down on the wrong side by means of 
ribbons. The puff is trimmed with sky-blue 
ribbons. The waist, with a plastron, is of 
navy-blue linen. The back is cut "tailleur" 
shaped, and is open on the lower part of the 
seam; below this are ribbon loops. Near this 
opening are two tongues embroidered with 
light blue. The waist is hooked in the middle, 
over the plastron, which buttons on either side, 
and is separate from the waist. Around the 
waist is a light blue cording. The collar is 
shawl-shape, and terminates in revers. The 
sleeves reach to the elbow, and are trimmed 
with an embroidered rufHe and a ribbon bow. 
The hat is of white rice straw, trimmed with a 
light blue Amazon feather. The bows aud 
draperies around the hat are of navy-blue 
satin. — N. Y. Times. 

Location of the Garden of Eden. — Of the 
four rivers which encircled the Garden of Eden 
in Genesis, the Phrat and Chiddekel have long 
ago been identified as the Euphrates and Tigris. 
A cuneiform monument in the British museum 
has a series of geographical names, and among 
them occur Pisan and Ouchan, both canals of 
the Euphrates. Pisan was a canal running 
south of the Euphrates, and in the epoch of 
Alexander the Great, went under the name of 
PuUakopas canal ; it is the Pisan or Pischon of 
the Bible, and Guchan is the Gihon. The He- 
brew people had therefore placed the cradle of 
the human race in the vicinity of Babylon. 

The tramp's last dodge is to ask your advice 
about going to the next town, and when you 
warmly advise him to go, he says he has much 
confidence in your good judgment, and will emi- 
grate further on at once. "But," he adds, 
"wouldn't you advise me to borrow ten cents 
before I start?" 


Cultivation of Character. 

[Written for the Kiral Press by S. C. B.) 

This is only to those who seek in your pages 
a suggestion as to what will "pay" most largely 
for the cultivating; to thtm. is the confident an- 
nouncement that there is nothing upon which 
time and labor can be expended that will yield 
so large a return as work in that garden the 
dear Father has given each one, our own char- 
acter : They need to be weeded of the little 
vices; the giant tree of selfishness which grows 
80 fast and shades and dwarfs so many fairer 
plants needs to be lopped off, branch by branch, 
and its final uprooting Christ himself wiU di- 
rect and assist. Then in the heart of the gar- 
den "charity and good- will" must have a place, 
that under its shade we may remember judg- 
ment does not belong to us, and reflect upon 
the wisdom that reserved it for the only One 
who can see the temptation and the paliating 
circumstances. Carefully must we plant and 
nourish those virtues aiul qualities of mind and 
heart which command our best regard, aud if 
they do not take root easily, and reward our ef- 
forts with rapid growth, we may draw encour- 
agement from the fact they have never failed to 
flourish in time where they were prayerfully 
and perseveringly cultured. There must be a 
spot allotted to those which bear the fragrance 
of good deeds, and we must seek carefully for 
all which exhale the influences that make us 
wiser, purer and better. 

Our garden will need the sunshine of patient 
and faithful endeavor, aud the streams of divine 
love and mercy (which can be had for the ask- 
ing) to water their roots, and bring forth the 
fairest of earthly flowers. It needs, also, to be 
fenced by integrity; the posts, our honest and 
upright purposes; the pickets, our faithfulness 
in small things. Then must we be careful 
to lose none, leaving an unsightly gap where 
small enemies may enter and work mis- 
chief. Then if Truth be chosen watchman, 
our garden will be saved from a multitude 
of foes, and be one in which we may dwell 
with happiness, peace and contentment, hav- 
ing the respect and confidence of those we 
care to please; and what more do we seek, 
in seeking wealth ''. Has the experience of the 
world demonstrated the proposition that gold 
alone can give as much ? At least it is not the 
"one thing needful " in these gardens of ours, 
which all may have who are willing to be earn- 
estly watchful and patient. 

As beautiful results in the gardens of the 
world can not be had by wishing for them, so 
shall we find that in realizing how susceptible 
our own are of improvement, and giving them 
little by little, and day by day earnest thought 
aud care, we shall make them worthy of the 
One who gave them, and an example to those 
who have found how utterly unprofitable and 
unsatisfactory is the service of "The world, the 
flesh and the devil." It will yield us the "fruits 
of good living, " and its apples will never turn 
to ashes between our teeth. All the effort that 
can be expended upon it, so far from interfering 
with the practical business of life, will greatly 
assist it; be to it always as the " power behind 
the throne" and prove the best of investments. 

Kiverside, Cal. 

A Kus.srAN Baby. — Russian babies are al- 
ways swaddled and rolled up in bandages, so 
that they may conveniently )>e put aw.ty with- 
out risk of getting themselves into mischief. 
On entering one of their homes, an enthusiastic 
traveler thinks he has come upon some pagan 
tribe, having their idols and penates with the 
heads well carved out, and the rest of the body 
left in block. He looks curiously at one laid 
upon a shelf, another hung on the wall on a 
peg, a third slung over one of the main beams 
of the roof, and rocked by the mother, who has 
the cord looped over her foot. "Why, that is 
a child ! " cries the traveler, with a feeling 
similar to that experienced on treading upon a 
toad which was supposed to bo a stone. 
"Why, what else should it be'/" answers the 
mother. Having learnt so much in so short a 
time, the inquisitive traveler wishes to inform 
himself about the h.abitsof the creature; but his 
curiosity being somewhat dampened by the ex- 
treme dirt of the little figure, he inquires of 
the parent when it was washed. "Washed ! " 
shrieks the horrified mother; "washed ! what, 
wash a child ! You'd kill it." — N. Y. World. 

Frozen Kindnes.s. — This world is full of 
kindness that never was spoken, and that is not 
much better than no kindness at all. The fuel 
in the stove makes the room warm, but there 
are great piles of fallen trees lying on the hills 
where nobody can get them; these do not make 
anybody warm. You might freeze to death for 
want of wood in plain sight of all these fallen 
trees if you had no means of getting the wood 
home and making a fire with it. .Tust so in a 
family; love is just what makes parents and 
children and brothers and sisters happy. But 
if they take care to never say a word about it — 
if they keep it a profouml secret; as if it were a 
crime — they will not be much happier than if 
there was not any love among them; the house 
will seem cold even in the summer, and if you 
live there you envy the poor dog when anybody 
calls him "poor fellow." 

When an Oswego clergyman in a sermon Sun- 
day, said "the bloom of youth is upon many of 
you," the ladies got frightened and covered 
their faces with their handkerchiefs. 

[July 19, 1879. 

Having a Home. 

When little Mrs. ^Veston had been married 
three months, I went to Beverly to spend the 
day with her. She was living in a convenient, 
pleasant little house into which she moved after 
boarding a month at a small hotel, during which 
time she furnished her prospective abode, and 
got everything in readiness for housekeeping. 

"How glad I am to see you; come right into 
the parlor," was her greeting, and I followed 
her into her "best room." Actually, I felt a 
chill steal into the very marrow of my bones. 
The blinds were all down, and it was .is dark as 
Egypt at first, but that was soon remedied, and 
I had a chance too look around while divesting 
myself of shawl, hat and gloves. 

What a stift" looking parlor! every chair stood 
at just such an angle; the blue and gold books 
of poetry on the center table were laid with the 
greatest precision one on the other; not a speck 
of dust, not a scrap of lint to relieve the terrible 
newness of everything. There were two spotless 
Parian marble vases on the mantle, and between 
them stood a bust of Dickens, but there were 
no autumn leaves, no ferns or fancy work, no 
flowers in the vases, actually nothing which in 
the least could relieve the room of its homeltts 
appearance. No one would suppose that it had 
ever been used by anybody. I wondered if I 
was the first guest who had stepped across the 

Nellie Weston seemed uncomfortable. She 
sat bolt upright on the sofa, and I sat in an easy- 
chair which belied its name, and neither of us 
seemed to know what to say, though we were 
intimate friends. 

"Don't let's sit in here, " said N ellie, at length. 
"I never feel at home in the parlor, I suppose 
it is a sign of plebeian blood, but I prefer the 
kitchen. Would you mind if I took you 

"Not at all," I answered, "I would like it of 
all things. The newness of this parlor strikes a 
chill through me." 

"That is just what John says," cried Nellie. 
"We decided when we first went to housekeep- 
ing to sit in the parlor every evening, so that if 
company came we should be all ready to receive 
them. But we soon grew tired of it. John said 
he felt as if he was on his best behavior as soon 
as he crossed the threshold, and was stiffened 
whenever he sat in one of the chairs. I am 
sure I can't imagine what is the matter with the 
room, the furniture is nice, and the carpet real 
Brussels; but since he liked the kitchen we 
always sit in there." 

Ah, this was something like home! this sunny, 
pleasant kitchen with its warm looking rag 
carpet, the big Maltese cat in the window seat, 
the bird singing in its cage, the dozen or more 
blooming plants in the sunniest window, the 
open sewing machine with its piled-up work 
basket, the singing kettle in the range — no 
wonder John preferred this room to the parlor. 
Who could blame him? 

"How comfortable it is in here," I said, tak- 
ing a seat in a mammoth wooden rocking chair 
in which was a big feather cushion, "Now I feel 
at my ease." 

"And now I can talk," said Nellie. "I feel 
as if my tongue was tied when I sit in the 
parlor; but of course I can't ask casual visitors 
into the kitchen; they would feel insulted. 
Now please tell me, if you can, what is the 
matter with that parlor?" 

"The whole of the matter is that you don't 
live in it," I answered. "If you had your bird, 
your cat, your sewing machine and your flowers 
in there, you would soon feel at home in the 
room, and find it plea.sant; but six chairs, a sofa, 
a carpet and a small table with half a dozen 
nicely bound volumes of poetry lying on it, 
don't make a home habitable. Then you keep 
the outside blinds closed, and the shades down, 
making it like a dungeon all the time. The sun 
never penetrates there, and consequently it is 
always chilly." 

"I think it would be just as well, if not bet- 
ter, if we housekeepers dispensed with parlors 
altogether, " said Nellie. "What is the use of 
furnishing a room which is to be kept nice for 
the sake of a few acquaintances for whom you 
care nothing, and who call perhaps once a 
month, and stay about ten minutes ? My 
friends can always be in^-ited into my kitchen 
or small dining-room, where we can be merry 
and at ease. I don't believe I have ever 
laughed in that parlor. I believe a laugh would 
sound out of place. And what shall wo do 
when it grows too warm to sit in the kitchen ? 
The fire will make it uncomfortable here in 

"Take my advice and move your flowers, 
machine and bird into the parlor," 1 answered. 
"You are naturally orderly, and the room will 
always be neat enough to receive visitors. 
Don't keep an expensively furnished room for 
the sake of a few acquaintances whose opinion, 
good or bad, will not affect you at all. Your 
first duty is to make a home for your husband, 
and every part of the house should be a home 
to him. In no room should he feel ill at ease." 

"I believe you are right," said Nellie, who 
is never hard to convince, having a very amiable 
disposition. "And I will try your plan, and 
will certainly let you know how it works." — 
Florence II. Birney, in American Cultirator. 

"Did you see Baron Y. 's horse fall on his 
jockey over that hurdle?" "Oh, yes! The 
jockey's killed, but the horse is all right" 
"Yes, I know. It don't amount to anything, 
but the Baron must have been fearfully 

July 19, 1879.1 




Mrs. O'Bralaohan: "Shure, an' it's the 
truth oi've been tellin' yer, Mrs. Muggins; you 
never catched a lie a-comiu' out of my mouth." 
Mrs. Muggins: "No, indeed, Mrs. O'Brala- 
ghan; they comes out so fast nobody could't 
catch 'em." 

Little Billy was told, ' 'Never ask for any- 
thing at the table.. Little boys should wait 
until they are served." The other day little 
Billy was forgotten in the distribution, and was 
not served at all. What could he do? Pres- 
ently, after reflecting seriously, he asked: 
"Mamma, when little boys starve to death, do 
they go to heaven?" 

"What made you quit the East?" said a man 
in Nevada to a new-comer. "I got into trouble 
by marrying two wives," was the response. 
"Well," said the other, "I came out here be- 
cause I got into trouble by marrying only one 
wife." "And I," added a bystander, "came 
liere because I got into trouble simply by prom- 
ising to marry one. " 

A RURAL bride of considerable beauty went 
to Indianapolis on the houey-moou tour. Her 
husband was manifestly proud of her good looks. 
While they were going about the city, she was 
struck in the face by a falling sign-board and 
her nose broken. The attending surgeon said 
that she was badly disfigured for life. "Just 
my darned luck," the husband exclaimed; 
"property always goes to ruin in my hands." 

There is a man in Illinois who scoffs at the 
comforts of a patent spring mattress, with the 
accompanying pillows, bolsters, sheets, and 
snowy coverlids, and even deems the Indian 
luxury of a blanket and fire eflfeminate and un- 
worthy of man. In his back yard there is a 
shallow trench, in which he lays himself every 
night at bedtime, and a faithful man servant 
shovels earth over him till nothing but his head 
is left uncovered. He has no fear of fire or 
burglars, but sleeps serene and happy in his 
couch of earth. Nothing so truly rural has been 
recorded in regard to beds and bedding since 
Nebuchadnezzar went to grass. If he should 
wake up and find himself dead, some morning, 
he would be both dead and buried. 

A SHAET-LOOKiNu youth Walked up quickly 
to the counter of the post office in a town not a 
hundred miles from Newcastle, and emptying 
a bag of coppers thereon, asked the clerk, who 
was attending to other customers, for five shil- 
lings' worth of penny stamps. "Oh, you be 
bothered!" was the answer. "That's not a 
legal-tender; it is all copper." "What is a le- 
gal-tender then?" asked the boy. "Why, one 
penny is a legal-tender for a penny stamp." 
"Oh," exclaimed the youth, "is it? Come on 
then" — passing a coin from the heap — "a penny 
stamp, please." The clerk gave him one. 
"Another, please." A second was given him. 
"Ano — — . " "Here, stop that," the clerk said; 
"give me the money. It will be the shortest 
way to get rid of you." After counting the 
money, he gave the value thereof in stamps to 
the lad, who was heard to mutter: "Aa thowt 
aa would tire him oot!" 

The World in Wax. — Mr. Grubs, a maker 
of wax images in New York city, has constructed 
what is claimed to be the largest globe of the 
world, showing the ranges of mountains and 
other peculiarities of the surface of the earth, in 
relief, now in existence. Its diameter is four 
feet and about one inch, the scale being one in 
10,000,000. The range of even the Himalayas 
would not be visible upon this globe if the scale 
were adopted for tlie elevations as for the map, 
and accordingly the relief is made upon a scale 
which exaggerates bights twenty times. The 
oceans, seas and rivers are colored blue; the 
continents are yellow; the glaciers, icebergs 
and floating cakes of ice white. Plains and 
mountain ranges are clearly shown, and every 
part of the world is exhibited in its true char- 
acter. Red, black and white lines cross the 
globe to indicate the isothermal belts, the varia- 
tions of the magnetic needle, the date line 
where ships correct their logs by skipping from 
Saturday to Monday, and vice versa, and other 
facts of like character. The map has been 
corrected in the light of the latest discoveries 
down to two months ago. The northern coast 
of Siberia has been much altered in the atlases 
by the Nordenskjold expedition, the ships sail- 
ing in deep water over places marked as .500 miles 
inland, and being compelled to go hundreds of 
miles around promontories, etc., which are oc- 
cupied on the maps by bodies of water. The 
globe is made of wood. The relief is formed by 
wax. Mr. Grube has been two years in perfect- 
ing his globe, and Chief Justice Daly and other 
geographers have lately been giving attention 
to it. 

Position of the Planets for July. — Mer- 
cury can be seen after sunset all through the 
month of July. Early in the month it keeps 
nearly the path of the sun; later it moves south 
of the point of sunset. On July ■20th, it may bo 
seen east of the crescent moon. Venus, on July 
8th, passes near to the planet Uranus, but 
moves rapidly toward the east. It will be near 
the crescent moon July 22d. Mars, Saturn and 
Jupiter can all be seen at a late hour in the 
evenings of July, about midnight. Jupiter will 
be known by its size and brilliancy, Saturn by 
its white light, and Mars by its ruddy glow. 
Uranus may be found with an ordinary glass by 
its nearness to Venus. On July 8th, UraniTs is 
a little south of Venus, after that it will be 
found west of Venus and a little north. 

Y©ilH*^ F©Lks' Qql4^u. 

The ChUd-Dike. 

Holland is a beautiful country, full of green 
fields, with cattle and sheep grazing in the pas- 
tures, but there are few trees and no hills to be 
seen. The ground is so flat and low that two 
or three times the sea has rushed in over parts 
of it and destroyed whole towns. In one of 
these floods, about 200 years ago, more than 
20,000 people were drowned. In some of the 
towns that were flooded not a creature of any 
kind was left alive. 

A large part of the water that came in at the 
time of that flood still remains. It is known as 
"the Maas, " and in one part of it an old dike 
or dam — which is called the "kinder-dike," or 
child-dike, and it got its name this way: 

The waters rushed in over one of the little 
Friesland villages,^and no one had any warning. 
In one of the houses there lay a child asleep in 
its cradle — an old-fashioned cradle, made tight 
and strong of good stout wood. 

By the side of the cradle lay the old cat, 
baby's friend, probably purring away as com- 
fortably as possible. In came the water with a 
fearful roar. The old cat, in her fright, jumped 
into the cradle with the baby, who slept through 
all the turmoil as quietly as ever. The people 
were drowned in their beds. The house 
was torn from its foundations and broken into 
pieces. But the little cradle floated out on the 
angry sea in that dark night, bearing safely its 
precious burden. 

When morning came there was nothing to be 
seen of the villages and green meadows. All 
was water. Hundreds of people were out in 
boats trying to save as many lives as possible ; 
and on this little bit of an island that I have 
spoken of what do you think they found '! Why, 
that same old cradle, with the baby asleep in it 
and the old cat curled up at her feet, all safe 
and sound. 

Where the little voyagers came from, .and to 
whom they belonged, no one could tell. But in 
memory of them this little island was called 
"kinder-dike" — the child-dike — and it goes by 
that name to this day ; and this story is told to 
thousands of little people all over Holland as a 
remarkable instance of God's providence. — -Nw- 

A Smart Dog. 

Wonderful stories are told of the wisdom of 
dogs and our young folks doubtless enjoy them. 
We find in a scientific paper, which certainly 
should tell the truth, the following about a dog 
named "Mori." He used to go into the dining- 
room at meal times. One day a minister was 
visiting Mori's master and Mori went into the 
diniug-ioom with them, and kept quietly under 
the table till the end of lunch, when he begged 
for a little food, and he was given a small shred 
of beef. They returned to the drawiug-room, 
while the servant cleared away, and the beef 
was taken into the pantry. The dog did not 
think he had his fair share. Now, he had been 
taught to stand on his hind legs, put his paw on 
a lady's waist, and hand her into the dining- 
room. He adopted the same tactics with the 
minister, but the sagacious dog, instead of steer- 
ing for the dining-room, led him in the direc- 
tion of the pantry, along a passage, down steps, 
etc. , and did not'halt until he brought him to the 
pantry, and close to the shelf where the beef 
had been put. After giving him a piece of beef, 
the minister went up stairs and refused again to 
be led down as before. Finding he could not 
prevail on the visitor to make a second excursion 
to the pantry, he went out into the hall, took in 
his teeth the minister's hat from off thehall table, 
and carriedit under the shelf in the pantry, where 
the coveted beef lay out of his reach. There he 
was found with the hat, waiting for its owner, 
and expecting another savory bit when he should 
come for his hat. The story does not say 
whether the minister gave him anotlier piece of 
meat or not, but we suppose he did, for who 
could refuse such a smart dog. 

Niu's "Thank You." — Papa was drawing 
hay to the barn, and he saw Nig jump off the 
mow. He climbed up, and found in one corner 
of the barn, almost covered up with hay, three 
little kittens. He brought them to the hous^ 
in a basket. My little brother and I made 
them a house with two rooms — a dining-room 
and a bed-room. We took tlie kittens out of 
the basket and put them in the bed-room. Nig 
would put her nose to each one, then mew, run 
to the barn, jump upon the mow and try to get 
her old nest; but papa had covered it up with 
hay, so she came back to her kittens again; 
then back to the barn she went. This time she 
stopped at the corner of the barn, gave a jump 
and climbed right up the side. She hung there 
a minute, then fell down, but did not hurt her- 
self very much, for she climbed up again and 
mewed and mewed. Just then papa came with 
another load of hay, and he said he thought he 
heard a little kitten cry. Pretty soon he heard 
it again. Then papa got the ax and pried a 
board oflF, climbed up the ladder and got it. 
Nig was so pleased to get her kitten that she lay 
down and rolled and rubbed her head against 
papa's foot. Then she took the pussy in her 
mouth and carried it to the house and put it in 
the bed-room with the others. Now don't you 
think my pussy cat knows how to say "Thank 
you?" — Bertha Kin<j, in N. Y. Tribune, Jr. 

Sight and Reading. 

M. Javel, in a recent lecture, tries to answer 
the question, "Why is reading a specially fa- 
tiguing exercise?" and also suggests some reme- 
dies for this fatigue. First, M. Javel saj's read- 
ing requires an absolutely permanent applica- 
tion of the eyesight, resulting in a permanent 
tension of the organ, which may be measured by 
the amount of fatigue or by the production of 
permanent myopy; secondly, books are printed 
in black on a white ground. The eye is thus 
in presence of the most absolute contrast which 
can be imagined. The third peculiarity lies in 
the arrangement of the characters in horizontal 
lines, over which run our eyes. 

If we maintain, during reading, a perfect im- 
mobility of the book and the head, the printed 
lines are applied successively to the same parts 
of the retina, while the interspaces, more 
bright, also affect certain regions of the retina, 
always the same. There must result from this a 
fatigue analogous to that which we experience 
when we make experiments in "accidental 
images," and physicists will admit that there is 
nothing more disastrous for the sight than the 
prolonged contemplation of these images. 
Lastly, and most important of all, in M. .Javel's 
estimation, is the continual variation of the dis- 
tance of the eye from the point of fixation on 
the book. A simple calculation demonstrates 
that the accommodation of the eye to the page 
undergoes a distinct variation in proportion as 
the eye passes from the beginning to the end of 
each line, and that this variation is all the 
greater in proportion to the nearness of the book 
to the eye and the length of the line. 

As to the rule which M. .Javel inculcates in 
order that the injurious effects of reading may 
be avoided, with reference to the permanent ap- 
plication of the eyes, he counsels to avoid ex- 
cess, to take notes in reading, to stop in order 
to reflect, or even roll a cigarette; but not to go 
on reading for hours on end without stopping. 
As to the contrast between the white of the 
paper and the black characters, various experi- 
ments have been made in the introduction of 
colored papers. M. Javel advises the adoption 
of a slightly-yellow tint. But the nature of the 
yellow to be used is not a matter of indifference; 
he would desire a yellow resulting from the ab- 
sence of the blue rays, analogous to that of 
paper made from a wood paste, and which is 
often mistakenly corrected by the addition of an 
ultra-marine blue, which produces gray, and 
not white. M. Javel has been led to this con- 
clusion both from practical observation and also 
theoretically from the relation which must exist 
between the two eyes and the colors of the spec- 

His third advice is to give preference to small 
volumes which can be held in the hand, which 
obviates the necessity of the book being kept 
fixed in one place, and the fatigue resulting 
from accidental images. Lastly, M. Javel ad- 
vises the avoidance of too long lines, and, there- 
fore, he prefers small volumes, and for the same 
reason those journals which are printed in nar- 
row columns. Of course every one knows that 
it is exceedingly injurious to read with insuffi- 
cient light, or to read too small print, and other 
common rules. 

Hearing and how to Keep It. — Lindsay & 
Blakiston, 25 South Sixth street, Philadelphia, 
have published a valuable work under the above 
title. The book is Vol. I. of a series of Am- 
erican Health Primers edited by W. W. Keen, 
M. D. From the mass of information contained 
in it we learn that the ear should not be tam- 
pered with, sweet oil and other greasy substances 
should never be dropped into the ear ; they 
make it heavy, sticky and cloggy. The oil soon 
becomes rancid and affords a fit soil for the 
growth of a fungus which may entirely destroy 
the hearing. Poultices should be avoided both 
in eye and ear, for they are apt to induce proud 
flesh. Care should be taken of the bodily com- 
fort, warmth, etc., and the ears protected 
against cold drafts and other changes. Great 
care also should be taken not to pull the ears of 
children, or "box" their ears, a practice which 
may endanger the hearing in after life. If the 
ear should become affected through any cause a 
simple treatment should be adopted. If the 
ear runs, it should not be stopped up with 
cotton or any other substance. The matter 
must be allowed free egress, and the syringe 
should be gently used with lukewarm water. 
The great delicacy of the ear requires the gen- 
tlest manipulation, and all the nostrums adver- 
tised to drop in it, or sponges to scrub it out, 
must be avoided. As to the eye bright colors 
and pleasant objects are grateful, so to the ear 
sweet music, pleasant company, etc., are bene- 
ficial. Brightness of nature and cheerfulness 
of character have more to do with the preserva- 
tion of health than is dreamed of. The above 
book may be. found at A. L. Bancroft's. 

Eucalyptus in a Cold of the Head. — Prof. 
Strambio, in a note in an Italian medical 
journal, says that notwithstanding the failure of 
all remedies hitherto recommended for the im- 
mediate cure of a cold, he wishes to communi- 
cate to the profession the great success he has 
found attending a new one in his own person, 
and to ask them to test its efficacy. He found 
prolonged mastication and swallowing of a dried 
leaf or two of the Eucalyptus c/lolulus almost 
immediately liberate-l him from all the effects 
of a severe cold. 

D©l«iESYic Ec©[4©^. 

Good Recipes for the Cook. 

Stewed Beef. — Take a piece of fresh sliver of 
beef (seven or eight pounds) and with a sharp 
knife make five or six incisions through it. Cut 
as many square pieces of bacon, fat and lean, 
long enough to go right through from one side 
of the piece of meat to the other. Eoll each 
piece of bacon in a mixture of powdered pepper, 
spices and sweet herbs, and insert one into each 
incision; tie up the meat carefully, line the bot- 
tom of a stewpan with slices of fat bacon, put 
the meat on this with some onions and carrots 
cut in slices, some sweet herbs, a couple of 
bay leaves, parsley, whole pepper and salt to 
taste; add a pint of common claret, and half 
that quantity of stock; set the whole to stew 
gently for some hours, turning the meat occa- 
sionally. At the time of serving strain off the 
gravy, skim it well of fat, remove the string 
from the meat, pour the gravy over it, and gar- 
nish with Brussels sprouts. 

Fried Chicken. — After neatly dressing and 
carving in pieces of proper size, parboil a half 
hour or longer, until tender; take out with a 
fork and place in a frying-pan of melted butter; 
fry brown by frequent turning to keep from 
burning. A nice gravy is made by pouring the 
broth in which it was boiled into the frying-pan, 
with a thickening of flour and any seasoning 
preferred. Curled parsley arranged as a gar- 
nish adds to the general effect. 

Minced Veal and Eggs. — Take some remnants 
of roast or braised veal, trim off all brown parts, 
and mince it very finely; fry an onion, chopped 
small, in plenty of butter; when it is a light 
straw color, add a large pinch of flour and a lit- 
tle gravy, then to the minced meat, 
with chopped parsley, pepper, salt and 
a nutmeg to taste; mix well, add more if 
necessary, and let the mince gradually get hot 
by the side of the fire; lastly, add a few drops 
of lemon juice. Serve with sippets of bread 
fried in butter, round and the poached eggs on 
the top. 

Fish Cakes. — Fish cakes are useful for turn- 
ing the remains of salt fish to account. It is 
pulled apart when cold and thoroughly mashed 
and mingled with butter, mashed potato and a 
little pepper. This is made into cakes and 
lightly browned in a frying-pan v/ith a little but- 
ter or fat. It is a useful breakfast dish. An- 
other tasty dish is to put the flakes of a cooked 
fish into a stewpan with some butter and finely- 
minced parsley, then shake it over the fire and 
stir in the juice of a lemon. 

Fried Bread Cakes. — Take any bits of bread 
you may have left after meals, soak them in 
milk, or milk and water, until perfectly soft; 
mash fine; add two eggs, pinch of soda, salt to 
taste, and enough flour to make them fry nicely; 
drop the spoonsful into hot butter or lard. These 
are inexpensive and good, and a better way to 
use dry bread than in puddings. 

Recipe for Ginger Beer. — One pound of lump 
sugar, ounce of bruised ginger, three-fourths 
ounce cream-of-tartar, two lemons sliced, boil- 
ing water one gallon. Macerate in a covered 
vessel, stirring frequently, when lukewarm add 
two ounces of yeast, the next day rack the li- 
quor, let it work one or two days more accord- 
ing to the weather, then skim, or strain again, 
put into bottles and wire down the corks. 

A Good Muffin. — One quart of milk, two eggs, 
one tablespoonful of butter, warmed with the 
milk, flour enough to make a batter that will 
drop rather thickly from a spoon, a teaspoonful 
of salt, a penny-worth of baker's, or a teacupful 
of home-made yeast. When very light bake 
in rings on a griddle. — An Englishwoman, in 
Oermantoivn Telegraph. 

Beignets Souffles. — Put about one pint of 
water into a saucepan with a few grains of salt, 
a piece of butter the size of an egg and as much 
sugar, with plenty of grated lemon peel. When 
the water boils throw gradually into it sufficient 
flour to form a thick paste; then take it off 
the fire, let it remain tenj minutes, and work 
into it three or four eggs, reserving the whites 
of one or two, wliich you whisk to a froth and 
mix into the paste. Let it rest a couple of 
hours, then proceed to fry by dropping into hot 
lard pieces of it the size of a walnut. Serve 
piled on a dish with powdered sugar over, and 
a lemon cut into quarters, or make an incision 
in each beignet, and insert a small piece of jam 
or jelly. 

Silver Cake. — One-half cup of butter, one 
and one-ha-lf cups of sugar. Beat well together; 
add whites of eight eggs beaten to a froth, two 
and a half cups of Hour, dissolve one-half tea- 
spoonful of soda in one teaspoonful of water. 
One teaspoonful of cream-tartar. Forgold cake 
take the yolk of the eggs and mix the same as 

Baked Hams. — Most persons boil hams. Aham 
is better baked if baked as follows: So.ak it 
for an hour in clean water and wipe it dry; next 
spread all over with thin batter, and then put 
it into a deep dish with sticks under it to keep 
it out of the gravy. When it is fully done take 
off the skin and batter crusted upon the upper 
side, and set it away to cool. 

Corn Muffins. — Three cupfuls of corn-meal, 
one cupful of flour, one egg, one-half cupful of 
sugar, two teaspoonfuls of cream tartar and one 
of soda; add a piece of butter the size of an 
English walnut, and enough milk to moisten. 
Bake quickly. 



[July 19. 1879. 

DEWEY {Si CO., Publishers. 

Ofice, HUH Samome St., N. E. Corner Pint. St. 

Axsu.iL SuBscKipTioxs, 84; six months, 82; throe 
months, $1.25. When («id full.v one year in advance, 
P'VTV CKSTa will be deducted. No nbw nameu will be 
tabun without cash in advance. Remittances by reifis- 
tereJ letters or 1'. C. ordci-s at our rislt 
AvKHTisiNa RuTna. 1 week. 1 month. 

Per line 25 

Half inch (1 s<|uare). .gl.eo 
One inch 2.00 


S mos. 



12 mos 


The Scientific Press Patent Agency 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 


W. B. SWKR. 



Saturday, July ig, 1879. 


EDITORIALS —The Dairy Industry; Cultivation and 
Ab«orpiion oi Water; Salmon Disease; Agriculiural 
Indims in Arizona; California Porcine InterestM, 33 
Trie Week; Tlie Bankers Get an Idei;Good Seed and 
Thorourh Ciiliivation; Plants Irrijratin^' for Themselves 
40 American Ilonev in En^lund; risting the Gcr 
miintionof riecds; \ Paciflc Coast Harbor of Kefnt,'e.41 

ILLUSTRATIONS -A Youth of the Navajo Tribe 

33. Triniil.m Uuy, Calif. irjiia - ishowinjf Lines of Pro- 
posal Bnakwattr for Harbor of Kcfuiie, 41 

QUERIES AND REPLIES. -L'lilizatioD of Bones 
Alialf 1 by I'ri^'ution; Lanysban Fowls, 41. 

COKKESPONDENCE Lumber, Mniinc and Tour- 
ists in Ficsm* Ci-unt}-; Note.s in Napa and Sonoma Val 
leys; T.ic Blue Side; California Grown Insect Powder, 

34. Boiler K.xplosiona —No. 4. 36. 

THE DAIRY. - I he Santa Cl.ira Cheese Factory, 34. 
B'LORICULTURE — Camellias and Camellia Cul- 
ture, b5. 

SHfJEP AND WOOL. — Origin of the Merino 

.^h^■L■p, 35. 

THE H'lELD —Growing Su^ar Beets at Alvarado, 35. 
lan SWINE YARD — Healtlifulness of California 
Swine, 35. 

PATRON 5> OF HUSBANDRY. — Orange Notes 
and .sn/irefltions; The Material Adviintages of Co.opera 
ti »'■; Kiiepinu .silver Accouiils, ij6 

AGRIUITLpTURAL NOTE6 from the various coun- 
t c- of C.iliforhi i. .S6-37. 

NEW6 IN HRIEf" on page 37 and other pag.>8. 

HO:>lE CIRCLE— The i»ld lUrn's Tenantry; The 
Mule (pot try); .\Iountajn-Top Letters; A Country Toilet 
Lr'ica ion ot me Garden of Eden; Cultivation of Charac. 
ter; A Russian B.iby; Frozen Kindness; Having a Home, 
38. Chaff; The World in Wax; PosliiOn of tlie Planets 
for.Inlv 39. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. -The Child-Dike; 

A Smart Doj;; ,\ii:'a "Thank Y'ou," 39 
GOO D HEALTH. - >^iv.h\. and Reading; Hearing and 

Hoiy to Keep it; Kuc^ilypius in , Cold of the Head, 39. 
DOVIESTIC ECONOMY.-0..od Recipes for the 

Cook; U i'.'iicts Souffles; Silver Cake; Baked Hams; Corn 

Miinihs 39. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL. - Progress of the Coddling 
Moiii War- hncalyptus Wood and Insects, 40. 

THE FLOUR "mill.— The Austrian System of 
Mlllins:; How to (let Rid of Klour Mill Dust. 42 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Prices of Wheat in the 
Sui FraiK.'isco .Ma'ket from January, 1S70 to July, 1879, 
38- Slate Fair Pieiniums for Mechanical Products and 
Iiivcnti iiis, 42. They Inaugurate the Game in New 
York; The Eclipse of 1S80; Professor Nordenskjold; 
Sheep Supply of the United Sta es; The Cow Tree; 
Alio Same Gopher; Lighting the Capitol by Electri- 
city, 44. 

Business Announcements, 

Washington College, Washington, Alameda Co., Oal. 
Rams for Sale, Mrs. E. McCjonell- Wilson, Elk Orore, Cal. 

The Week, 

Wheat is evidently doing its best to raise it- 
self from trie odious slough of depression into 
which nearly all farm produce has fallen. Wool 
took the lead, and brought cheer to the persis- 
tent shepherds who held on amid the most un- 
toward circumstances, and now that another 
clip is growing the Eistern manufacturers are 
pushing card and loom with a zeal which has 
not baen known for years. The wool industry 
is evidently entering another area of high barom- 
eter. Wine-makers are also gratified with the 
upward turn their industry has taken and are 
jolly, not with the juice, for they say doctors 
never take their own physic, but jolly at the 
distant jingle of the approaching dollars. Thus 
we have the tide of expectation running high in 
the double-yous, for wheat, wool and wine are 
all favoring producers. It is to be hoped that 
the gold which will be saved from exports 
by the new life in these products will go 
f ar to strangle the demon of hard timea and thus 
lilt tlie cloud from despouiling sister products of 
th« soil. 

The days are full of excitement in political 
circles and, even in the haste of the harvest, 
peoole find time to respond to rallying cries and 
rush to the saving of the State by the upholding 
of policies which seem to each to be the ulti- 
mate condensations of vital truths. Strange it 
is that methods proposed for State saving are 
80 opposed to each other that one must think 
that ruin certainly lies in one of them, but who 
shall say in which ? It is, however, a comfort- 
ing assurance that the State has in itself some 
inherent preservative power which will main- 
tain its integrity whichever way the tide of suf- 
fraije turns. L^t this thought bring strength 
and couHdunce to industry in the midst of dis- 
traction which excitement spreads abroad. I 

The Bankers Get an Idea. 

Believing as we do that agricultural credit, 
wisely placed, is one of the surest investments 
which the capitalist can make with his accumu- 
lated funds, we are pleased to learn that the 
idea is gaining ground. It would seem to us to 
need no argument to show that money loaned 
on staple products, in safe proportion to their 
value and the security properly guarded, is a 
risk not to be compared with the flimsy and fic- 
titious collaterals which have been freely ac- 
cepted by city bankers. And yet hitherto the 
farmer who has applied for loans has been sub- 
jected either to refusal or to a grant with con- 
ditions which seemed to approach the confines 
of robbery. A city shadow has been considered 
more enduring than rural substance ; a city 
promise has been rated higher than a country 
pledge. This is wrong in theory and oppressive 
in fact. It has crippled honorable productive 
enterprises and fed a myriad of hollow, swin- 
dling, city-born schemes which have s.apped the 
strength of industry. In this way capital has 
often checked the prosperity of the State instead 
of promoting it. 

The reason we conclude that wiser policies are 
beginning to prevail in the counsels of capital- 
ists is because a report comes to us that certain 
of the rich private bankers of the .State are 
showing considerable anxiety to place their ac- 
cumulated coin in the hands of farmers, taking 
as securitj' grain 8tor»<.l in the country ware- 
houses in different parts of the State. This is 
quite a concession to the grower. For the most 
part hitherto an advance could only be obtained 
for grain shipped to the city and altogether gone 
from the owner's sight. This city-stored grain 
was often sold at one date and price and returns 
made at another date and price, and various 
smart things were done at the producer's ex- 
pense and to his detriment. The new ware- 
house law has fostered the erection of ware- 
houses near the grain fields and the capitalist is 
)eginniiig to consider the property worth his 
respect and attention, and to advance the 
grower money for his immediate neeils, the same 
to be repaid when he sees fit te sell the grain. 
Thus producers are spared the loss often oc- 
casioned by forced sales. Thus capitalists gain 
full r.ites of interest, with ample security, and 
whatever advantage there may be at any time 
in delaying sale is enjoyed by him to whom the 
property belongs — the producer. 

It is much to the advantage of our agriculture 
that such accommodations should be accorded, 
and the fact that such grain is being highly re- 
garded by the private bankers is a peculiar il 
lustration of the triumph of truth. For these 
private bankers, in great measure, are seeking 
investment for their own funds and may be ex 
pected naturally to look more carefully into the 
safety of the investment than bank managers 
generally who may lack the spur of proprietor 
ship in the funds they control. These private 
bankers are generally extremely conservative in 
their ideas and close in their scrutinies, and 
that they have perceived the advantage of re- 
forming their ideas of credit to agriculturists is 
testimony which all capitalists should consider. 

It may be truly said in this connection that 
there is some reason for the view of danger in 
agricultural credit which is generally taken, and 
this has resulted from at least two causes. First, 
the grievous discrimination which has been 
in.T,de against loans on farm enterprises, led cap- 
italists to impose a rate of interest and heavy 
charges and bonuses besides, which have them- 
selves impaired the security accepted, because 
they have placed such a heavy load upon the 
nterprise that it could not possibly succeed. 
Thus these greedy money lenders have invoked 
fear and made it the agent of ruin. They said 
to the farmer : "We are afraid to let you have 
this money, therefore we must charge you twice 
as much for it," at the same time by the act 
making it almost certain that the farmer must 
faiL Then the banks have had farming lands 
thrown upon their hands — lands which needed 
the best work of skillful farmers, and which, in 
the hands of bankers' incompetent agents, have 
fallen into unproductiveness and depreciated 
alue, sometimes so that the original loan could 
not be recovered from them. Thus greed has 
ften over-reached itself, the golden-egged bird 
has been strangled, and the event seems the fit? 
ting result of a most deplorable policy. 

Again, there is another reason why agricul- 
tural credit has fallen into disrepute. Many 
times money has been obtained too easily for 
the purposes of carrying out some theory of ag- 
ricultural improvement or production which 
vents proved impracticable. Failure has fol- 
owed, and those who advanced the money have 
ever since hugged the delusion that all agricul- 
tural investment was a snare. The failure and 
loss resulting from finely-drawn schemes should 
not be charged against the sure and safe indus- 
try of the farm. Sometimes the most careful 
farmers have lost their heads, and if money 
could be obtained have embarked in operations 
which should never have been attempted. In 
such cases it may have been that money was too 
easily obtained and confidence was too great. 

It is not to such phases of agricultural credit 
that we refer when we express satisfaction that 
capitalists are getting more true ideas about ad- 
vancing money upon agricultural security. It 
is this simply and solely. Men in various busi- 
ness and manufacturing operations often need 
loans upon work accomplished or upon estab- 

lished trade. They have no trouble, if their 
reputations be good, in obtaining, and often 
they obtain it upon very easy terms and rates. 
Hitherto agriculture has been well-nigh de- 
barred from accommodation of this kind and 
the farmer has been left at the mercy of the 
petty creditor, who has compelled him to sacri- 
fice his produce and to place outrageous obliga- 
tions upon his land, simply bepause he was in 
his power. General business has been compara- 
tively free from such impositions, because of the 
timely favor of the banks and private capital 
ists. The same favor and confidence ontheld to 
the agriculturist, upon security even more safe, 
is the point which we insist is the right of the 
farmer as a part of the business portion of the 
community just as worthy as the merchant or 
manufacturer. That this idea is gaining ground 
in financial circles of this city, is a satisfactory 
indication. It has many minds yet to encom- 
pass before these circles are rid of prejudice and 
false notions on the subject. 


Progress of the Coddling Moth War. 

Editors Press: — In your issue of February 
1st. 1879, and subsequent issues, you warned 
the fruit growers of the danger threatened by 
the spread of the coddling moth. Some of the 
orchardists in this neighborhood have been un- 
tiring in their eflForts, and we can assert, have 
been successful in destroying the pest to a great 
extent. But few growers could be induced to 
try any experiments, because they thought, to 
use their own language, it was at best only a 
forlorn hope; but they were mistaken. All 
honor to the few that, by their energy and in- 
dustry, have established the fact beyond dis- 
pute that the pest can be destroyed. 

Mr. John Cox, of Sutterville, two miles from 
this city, nearly lost his entire crop last year. 
Last March he scraped the loose bark off bis 
trees and washed them with the solution of sul- 
phur and lime, as described in your issue of 
February 8lh, 1879. He afterwards washed 
them twice with a solution of whale-oil soap and 
sulphur. We met Mr. Cox last Saturday. In 
answer to our inquiries (we will give his own 
words) he said: "I am so confident of success 
that I will wash my trees early this fall and 
twice next spring. I have saved over three 
fourths of my crop this season, and I am conti 
dent I can clean my orchard of the pest alto 
gether. By using this wash my trees have all 
smooth bark and look healthier and better than 
heretofore. My Bartlett pears are the best I 
have ever had. Easter Beurres, completely de- 
stroyed last year, will give a fair crop; Winter 
Nellis also. Apples, totally destroyed in 1877 
and 1878, will be a fair crop this year. The 
wash is a success." 

Thomas B. Flint, of Riverside, one mile from 
this city, had his crop destroyed in 1878. H 
washed his trees with the whale-oil soap and 
sulphur solution. In answer to our inquiry last 
Saturday, he said: "I have not five boxes of 
wormy fruit in my orchard." Georgo D. Kel 
loeg, of Newcastle, Placer county, used the 
whale-oil soap and sulphur solution, and has 
been successful to a great extent 

The proprietor of one of our largest orchards 
in this section, whose crops of 1877 and 1878 
were severely damaged, has bought 100 hogs 
and put them in his orchard, and keeps men 
picking all fruit off trees showing any signs of 
worms and feeding it to the hogs, and in this 
manner destroying the second and third broods 
of the moth. Others are picking off the fruit 
and destroying it, and many others, who have 
been doubtful of any remedy having effect, are 
now convinced that by united effort the pest can 
be destroyed. From the present feeling we ex- 
pect to be able to report to you a general at- 
tack on the pest this fall and next spring. 

Generally the moth is not so numerous as at 
this season last year, but the second brood is 
coming fast to perfection, and in some cases the 
third. Specimens taken from trees and fruit 

ers are much indebted to David Dunn, of the 
firm of Hutchings & Co., of San Francisco, who 
has given his assistance in perfecting the solu- 
tion which is now pronounced a success. — Cooke 
& Son, Sacramento, .July 14th, 1879. 

Eucalyptus Wood and Insects. 
But according to the testimrmy of Prince Troubetzkoy, 
the eucalyptus tree can be made to subserve most useftU 
purpose in our country in contributing to the protection 
of the cotton plant against the ravages of the boll-worm, 
caterpillar, lice and otlier numerous innectiverous ene- 
mies of the plant. He believes it to be a sure protection 
against phylloxera, a deadly enemy of the vine, though 
bis experiments have not proved fatisfactory. In all 
other cases tlie woo<l and the leaves have proved the most 
effective of insecticides. " hor instance, sajs he, "the 
sleejiers on the East Indian railways were ravaged by the 
white ant. but now that they have been replaced by 
others made of eucalyptus the insects have ceased to at- 
tack them." Also in Australia, where all vessels are 
made of his wood, the sea-worm never approaches them. 
In Algeria, the locusts spare the eucalj ptus forests, while 
they eat up all other green things not 'within the reach of 
their influence. If these most ravenous of insects dread 
the odorous influence of this tree, we see no reason why 
it should not prove destructive to the multitudinous ene- 
mies of the cotton and tobacco plants, and thus pro\e >n 
inestimable blessing to this country. —.Vew York Herald. 

When one speaks of the quality of the "euca- 
lyptus tree, " he stands a good chance of being 
wrong in what he says, because the genus Euca- 
lyptus contains more than a hundred species, 
many of which have widely different qualities 
and characteristics. Whatever insect killing 
power some species of eucalyptus wood may 
have, the species most generally introduced, 
the E. ijlohiilu^, is not ruinous to all iuiects, for 
there is a boring beetle which delights in it and 
honey-combs it just as thoroughly aa the laurel 
and sycamore are sometimes riddled. We have 
also heard that the wood of the tjlohulus is not 
proof against sea worms. On the other hand 
there is a species of the tree which is said to be 
free. Sweeping statements about the eucalyp- 
tus as about most other subjects are quite apt 
to be untrue. 

this season and put under a glass have passed 
the pupa or chrysalis state in 10 days and ma- 
tured five specimens of the moths, which are 
now in our possession. 

We respectfully call the attention of fruit 
growers to unite in a crusade against this pest. 
Examine your trees carefully. Have all fruit 
showing any signs of larva (or so-called worm) 
picked off and destroyed, either by feeding to 
hogs or put in a pit with slacked lime. This 
will destroy the second and third brood of this 
season and will clean your orchards to a great 
extent, preventing the larva from lodging in 
trees throughout the winter. It will cost labor 
to do this; but remember it will pay the largest 
dividend on the amount invested that can be 
made in any improvement on the farm or 
orchard. Early in the fall the trees should be 
scraped, taking off all loose bark, and thor- 
oughly washed with either sulphur and lime or 
the whale-oil soap and sulphur solution; thus 
destroying any larva that may be left in 
crotches of the trees. Fruit growers having 
quince trees in or around their orchards should 
be very careful in cleaning them, as we find the 
larva prefers the quince to any other tree for a 
nesting place. In one instance we found 400 
larvce in a quince tree outside of an orchard, 
when we could only find from one to four larva; 
in large pear trees in the orchard. 

In their war against the coddling moth, grow- 

GooD Seed and Tiiorouou Ccltivation. — 
Hon. G. W. Colby, of Butte county, gave us 
the other day a good object lesson in the ad- 
vantage of good seed and thorough cultivation 
in wheat growing. He showed two stools of 
wheat from Australian seed, one of which had 
85 bearing stalks, the other 53. The heads 
ranged from 6 to 8 inches in length and held 
from about 80 to 100 kernels each. And such 
wheat it was to be sure, heavy, plump, smooth, 
far beyond what is usually seen. 1 his wheat 
was but a handful from a tract of l.dOO acres 
now ready for the reaper .it Mr. Colby's ranch 
in Contra Costa county, close to Avon station. 
These 1,000 acres Mr. Colby thinks will aver- 
age 50 bushels to the acre; one-half of it prom- 
ises to average 60 bushels. This splendid re- 
sult Mr. Colby attributes to summer-fallow, 
twice plowed, and to sowing dry so that all the 
rain of the season has been turned to account. 
The advantage of this method of culture in the 
locality named is plainly seen, for the fields 
cultivated by the old system of constant crop- 
ping and late plowing, make a poor show for a 
crop. The seed Mr. Colby used was introduced 
from Australia and is now in its third year. He 
believes in introducing fresh seed from other 
regions at short intervals, thinking that an 
opinion widely held, that seed by continued re- 
sowing deteriorates, is true. 

Plants Irrigating for Themselves. — It has 
been shown by the experiments of the late 
Prof. Habberlandt, that plants sometimes irri- 
gate on their own account and thus draw nutri- 
ment from dry soils. He undertook a series of 
experiments on the phenomena of vegetation of 
plants grown in an absolutely dry soil. For 
this purpose he allowed the lower portion of the 
roots of the plants experimented on to dip down 
into distilled water, while the upper portion 
was retained in a soil so dry that the plants 
would otherwise, as was practically demonstra- 
ted, inevitably be withered up. The results of 
these trials went to show that the portion of 
the roots lying in the upper dry stratum of soil 
rich in nutritive constituents of plant life does 
not remain inactive, as has been generally main- 
tained, but is chiefly occupied in supplying the 
plant with the constituents of its ash. As there 
is no absolute want of water, this being sup- 
plied by the lower portion of the root, the up- 
per portion is enabled to secrete a certain quan- 
tity of moisture which is takon up by the im- 
mediately surrounding soil, and dissolves its 
earthy constituents, which are then taken up 
directly by simple endosmosis. 

A Happy Event. — We learn with pleasure 
that Thomas J. Davis, for severitl years foreman 
of the Press printing establishment, has con- 
cluded to change for the better, his condition 
in life, with the consent and connivance <if Miss 
Grace Bartling, with whom Mr. Davis was 
united on the ICth instant. The columns of 
this paper have been indebted to Mr. Davis for 
their attractive appearance, and we hope his 
married life will be as pleasant as his efforts in 
that direction have been successful. We have 
nothing but our most earnest congratulations to 
offer the new couple upon their favorable ven- 
ture upon the sea of matrimony. 

American Bctter in England. — American 
butter setms to be following the course of Amer- 
ican cheese in winning favor abroad. At the 
late meeting of the Royal Agricultural exhibi- 
tion prizes were offered for American butter, 
one of which was awarded to John B. Murray, 
of Delhi, New York ; another to John Stewart, 
Ananosa, Iowa. 

July ig, 1879.J 





rinu Off 'I'rinidad RucU 

utilization of Bones. 

Editors Press:— Will you request Prof. Hilgard to give 
me some informalioii as to the best way to turn boues to 
account as a fertilizer. I have the promise from a couple 
of butchers of all their bones, concisting of shanks, heads, 
horns, feet, etc. Can I fit them tor use myself, or had I 
better ship them to San Fruncisco and exchange them for 
prepared bone fertilizers? How shall I apply the mate- 
rial to fruit trees, etc. ?— S. B. Bellew, El Monte, Los 
Angeles Co. 

Editors Press: — Inasmuch as the same ques- 
tion asked by Mr. Bellew in the above letter, 
comes to me a number of times each year, I de- 
sire to take the benefit of the publicity the 
answer will receive through your columns. The 
simplest way in which a farmer, who pays due 
attention to that fundamental requisite, the 
manure pile, can obtain the full benefit of a 
moderate quantity of bones, is to mix them in 
with the hot, fermenting manure, provided the 
pile is kept in a proper condition of moisture. 
The smaller and softer bones are thus reduced 
to a very efficient state of comminution within 
a few weeks; the larger and harder ones may be 
but partially softened, and will, in that case, 
mostly be left behind by the manure fork when 
the manure is hauled out: to be subjected to the 
samrt process a second 
time. The success of 
this convenient pro- 
cess depends materi- 
ally, of course, upon a 
proper management of 
the manure pile, which, 
must neither be kept 
sodden with water, 
nor allowed to "fire- 

Larger quantities of 
bones are very con- 
veniently treated 
where wood ashes are 
abundant, by packing 
them in ashes (which 
may advantageously 
have been previously 
mixed with about a 
gallon of slaked lime 
per barrel); either in 
barrels, hogsheads, or, 
best of all, in iron 
tanks, and ktepng 
the mass as we./ as 
may be without leach- 
ing. In the course of 
from six to eight 
weeks, most of the 
bones will be found 
reduced to something 
much like putty; and 
this mass, with the 
ashes, makes a very 
efficacious phosphate 
fertilizer. Coal ashe 
or any light soil, mixed 
with three or four 
pounds of common 
washing soda per bar- 
rel, will do instead of 
wood ashes. The vice 
of the process is that 
much of the bone 
gelatme is thus lost in 
the shape of ammonia 
gas; but the bone phos- 
phate is left in a very 
active form. Where 
iron boilers are used 
in the process, a little 
heat can be made to 
accelerate the soften- 
ing very much ; but 
bulling does not pay. 
Note: That burning 
the bones for the 
purpose of readily 
crushing them, spoils 
them entirely for use 
as a fertilizer. Noth- 
ing but treatment with 
sulphurio acid can 
afterwards render 
them etiicacious. 

In my personal experience I have come to the 
conclusion, that where the home preparation of 
the bones in either of the modes described can 
be done in spare time (that is without employ- 
ing additional help for the purpose of looking 
after the matter) it is very profitable to do so; 
whereas, if special help has to be employed, or 
the manure pile or ash tanks neglected for want 
of timely attention, it is better to pay the manu- 
facturer for doing what he is specially pre- 
pared to do: always provided, that the fertil- 
izer business is managed as is that of ores, the 
price bearing some reasonable relation to the 
amounts of actually efficient matter present, as as- 
certained by assay. On any other basis, the stu- 
pendous frauds to which the farmer is exposed 
in buying commercial fertilizers, should dispose 
him to manufacture all the manure he can, at 

As regards the manuring of fruit trees in par- 
ticular, not the worst mode of utilizing bones is 
to simply bury them in the ground around the 
trees, which will gradually but surely embrace 
them with their rqotlets and consume them 
completely. The pear tree, through which the 
bones of Roger Williams fed his descendents, 
is a case in point, but it does not take a couple 
of hundred years, under any ordinary circum- 
stances, to accomplish the result. A trefi thus 
manured will be sure to get all the phosphates 

American Honey in England. — It is an- 
nounced that a premium was awarded to Amer- 
ican honey at the fair of the English Royal 
Agricultural Society, held last month. The 
honey was exhibited by a New York firm, but 
we are not yet informed in what State it was 
produced. That American honey is bound to 
win its way in England seems assured, for 
quality usually wins its way ere long. We are 
informed by our Ventura correspondent that 
Chilean honey is selling in Europe at nine cents 
per pound on an average. It is poor and dark, 
hat has secured the run of the trade and can 
only be supplanted by spreading information of 
the vast superiority of the American nectar. 
The recent award at the Royal will do some- 
thing to awaken English consumers to this fact. 
California will not figure largely in honey 
shipping this year, but the apiaries will be 
maintained and all eft'orts to develop a future 
market for California honey will ultimately 
result to the profit of our producers. 

Testing the Germination of Seeds. — Mr. 
Gregory of Marblehead, Mass., the well-known 
seedsman, does not believe in the tests of seeds 
by counting the percentage which germinate 
between wet cloths, etc. He says, if you adopt 

A Pacific Coast Harbor of Refug 

The peculiar configuration of the Pacific coast 
line of Lower California, California, Oregon and 
Washington Territory is such that there are 
very few indentations affording harbor facilities 
in the whole length. Between San Diego, at 
the southern boundary of California, and the 
Strait of Fuca in Washington, a distance of 
some 1,300 miles, there are really only two good 
harbors accessible at all times— San Diego and 
San Francisco. There are a few others which 
are good when once inside, but they are bar 
harbors, difficult of access in stormy weather. 
A large proportion of the landing places are 
mere roadsteads partially protected from the 
summer winds by projecting headlands, but 
open to the southerly gales of the winter 
months. Between San Francisco and San Diego 
most of the trade is done by .steamers, and to 
the more important points north of this place 
steamer connection is made. There is, how- 
ever, a very large fleet of sailing vessels in the 
coasting trade, carrying produce, lumber and 
coal. Tne bulk of thu trade is to the north of 
San Francisco, to the ^^mber and coal regions, 
our northern coast line 

Blank Hock f% 


The latcer treatment is too difficult for any 
farmer or other novice to indulge in. Burnt 
fingers and holes in the clothes is the least 
damage likely to befall the daring experimenter, 
and actual danger to life, limb and house, ex- 
ists wherever the "oil of vitriol" is kept on 
hand outside of establishments devoted to its use. 

As to the comparative advantage of working 
up the bones in the manner described above, at 
home, or exchanging them for manufactured 
phosphate manures, it is impossible to give any 
general advice, since everything depends upon 
circumstances of location, soil, crops, commu- 
nication, reliability of manufactured products, 
etc. As to the latter point, I think I can con- 

it wants for its well-being. — E. W. Hiloard, 
College of Agriculture, Berkeley, Cal. 

Alfalfa by Irrigation. 
A reader of the Press who thinks of growing 
a few acres, of alfalfa by irrigation from wind- 
mill pumping, desires to know about how many 
gallons of water will be required per acre on 
what may be regarded as pretty dry land. Some 
of our readers have doubtless figured on this 
question, and if they will send as what they 
regard as approximate amounts per acre for one 
or more irrigations, the information will be in- 
teresting. It has been determined by experi- 
ment and computation that the plants on an 
acre of corn fodder will take up and exhale 

fidently recommend as fully up to the standard, I 200,000 gallons of water while reaching a con- 

the steam bone-meal manufactured and sold by 
the two San Francisco firms now in that line of 
business; while the Eastern importations that 
have come under my notice are at least of 
doubtful quality, and in part unmitigated 
frauds. What terms the firms in question 
would make in the exchange, and what would 
be the effect of adding the cost of transporta- 
tion both ways, Mr. B. can easily determine. 
Elsewhere the railroads convey such goods at 
a merely nominal freight charge, considering 
them as adding to their business in an indirect 
way, more than could be gained by charging 
prohibitive freights. 

dition fit to cut. Any experience on the sub- 
ject of water required for certain crops of any 
kind will be of value to many no doubt. 
Langshan Fowls. 
Another reader wishes to know who has 
Langshan fowls, and what can be said about 
their value. Who will respond ? 

TiiE idea of cutting a ship canal through the 
Isthmus of Panama is at least three and a half 
centuries old. Philip II., of Spain, had a route 
carefully surveyed by some Flemish engineers, 
but never pushed the matter. 

that system, and carry it through, with differ- 
ent seeds, you will have entirely erroneous re- 
sults. Take two-year-old parsnip seed, which 
is good for nothing, and put it in your test 
cloths, and you can make it all sprout. Trying 
it iiy that test, you would say it was all good; 
but take that same seed and plant it outside, 
and you will find it just about all bad. On the 
other hand it is very hard indeed to hit the 
right temperature and degree of moisture in the 
cloth test, and seeds that fail there may come 
first rate out of doors, when the temperature is 
juat right. Again, people who are not practi- 
cal seed planters, do not plant right. Each 
seed needs its, own degree of moisture and its 
own depth also. The smaller seeds need a 
mere patting of the ground. The larger the 
seeds, the deeper they can go. 

A Swiss Exhibition. — Switzerland has ap- 
pointed the year 1881 for an international ex- 
hibition of watclies, jewelry, snuff boxes and 
musical boxes — a display in which the ancient 
republic may well call the rest of the world to 
see what she can do. This project adds another 
illustration to the recent tendency of interna- 
tional exhibitions, especially in smaller coun- 
tries, to run to specialcies. This will be the 
first exhibition of the sort in Switzerland. 

being especially rich 
in its lumber resour- 
ces. There are 945 
vessels, aggregating 
243,709 tons, belong- 
ing to the port of San 
Francisco, and of this 
number, 467 are 
schooners engaged in 
the coasting trade. 

Most of the north- 
ern coast trade is done 
at "chute" landings, 
as thoy are called, a 
loading system neces- 
sary from the rugged- 
ness of the coast line. 
These chutes consist 
of a long incline of 
wood in the form of a 
shallow trough, ex- 
tending from a head- 
land of a shipping 
point, or from a high 
wharf or pier, out to a 
point where the water 
is deep enough to al- 
low vessels to come 
under and load. Lum- 
ber and other articles 
are slid down these 
chutes to the vessel's 
deck, the vessel mean- 
t i m e being moored 
head and stern and 
tied up strongly to 
keep her in position. 
Some of these chutes 
are 400 or 500 feet 
long. The peculiar 
formation of the coast 
brings nearly all the 
chutes on the north 
sides of the landings. 
At some places even 
these cannot be used, 
owing to the rough- 
ness of the place. 
Then a wire rope is 
let down from the 
cliff, taken between 
the schooner's masts 
to a rock or buoy, and 
a steam engine on 
shore lowers the ma- 
terial down the rope 
to the vessel. 

A great many 
wrecks occur in win- 
ter on this co.ast from 
the lack of harbors, as 
in bad weather ves- 
sels have to be at sea 
and take it as it comes, 
with no place to run 
to. The roadsteads are untenable and the bar 
harbors inaccessible. A harbor of refuge has 
therefore become an absolute necessity, and 
steps have been taken by the Government to 
construct one. Congress has appropriated 
1150,000 for the commencement of the work, 
which will cost some $8,000,000 or $10,000,000 
to complete. .It will be the largest operation 
ever undertaken on this coast by either private 
corporations or the Government. 

It has been decided to have this artificial har- 
bor at some point on the coast north of San 
Francisco, between it and the Strait of Fuca, 
a distance of 700 miles; between which two 
points there is not a single place accessible at all 
times. The United St.ttes Board of Engineers, 
under instructions, examined Drake's bay, Men- 
docino City, Shelter cove, Humboldt bay, Trini- 
dad harbor. Crescent City, Macks' aich. Port 
Orford, and Cape Gregory to see which place 
afforded the best facilities. After the examina- 
tion they reported on the cost of all, giving 
preference to Trinidad harbor, an engraving of 
which we herewith present, showing the con- 
figuration of the harbor and the lines of a pro- 
posed breakwater, as designed by the board. 
Trinidad bay is about 17 miles above Hum* 
boldt bay and 31 miles north of Cape Mendo- 
cino. This point is preferred thus far, but an- 
other may be chosen after fuller examination. 

Lit tie River Keck" 



[July 19. 1879. 

The Austrian System of Milling. 

[From Prof. Kick's new work 011 Millinir.] 
High milling— or, as it is also called, Vienna, 
Austrian, Hungarian, Prague, or Saxony mill- 
ing—is that method of grinding wheat which, 
by a gradual reduction of the grains of wheat, 
aims at jiroducing the largest quantity of mid- 
dlings, which, being cleaned, reground, and 
again cleaned, etc., and consequently gradually 
reduced, is finally manufactured into flour. This 
system of grinding, which originated in Vienna, 
produces the most beautiful and tlie whitest, 
and generally the finest kinds of tiour, in pro- 
portionately larger quantities. In the Austrian 
system of grinding, the stones are placed at such 
a distance from each other that the first time 
the grain passes through them it is only slightly 
rubbed and broken. In this operation the 
beard and parts of the cuticle would be rubbed 
off, if this was not done before by the hulling 
machine. This operation is called ending, 
(Spitzen), or, in case the stones grind more 
coarsely (Hochschroten), inasmuch as in this 
coarse grinding the grain is broken along the 
entire length of the furrows, so that the pro- 
duce therefrom is mixed with flour, branny par- 
ticles, and germ that have been scraped olf. 
The products are separated by sieves, and the 
result is dark flour, poor bran, and coarse mid- 
dlings. The latter product is passed through 
stones placed more closely together, and is sub- 
jected to the first grinding, that is to say, it is 
further broken, and we obtain particles varying 
in si'ze, flour, ihiiisl (which is analogous to flour), 
middlings, and a still coarser commodity called 
tchrot. After this product has passed through 
the sieves, the dift'erent sorts are graded accord- 
ing to their size, consequently all those branny 
particles, which are of equal fineness with the 
flour mingle with the flour, and those of the 
same size as the so-called dunst, with the diimt, 
etc. It is scarcely possible to separate from the 
flour the equally fine branny particles; this is 
done, however, as far as the middlings and 
dunst are concerned, by means of middlings 

The question now is, of which parts of the 
grain of wheat does the several products con- 
sist ? The flour obtained from the first grind- 
ing (Schroten) will be better, in other words, 
will contain fewer branny particles than that 
obtained by the operation hochschroten above 
described, but it will nevertheless contain a 
great number, seeing that the stone exercises a 
breaking action upon the grain, and more or less 
reduces the cuticle. 

Dunst and fine middlings are mostly composed 
of small fragments of the flour substances, and 
in the process of breaking fall from the inner as 
well as from the innermost part of the grain, 
and become polluted by the admixture of branny 
particles of equal fineness. If these are removed 
by the middlings purifier we obtain pure mid- 
dlings, which in consequence of being derived 
from the innermost part of the grain, are called 
core-middlinfis (Keingriese), or, because they are 
used for making the finest flouts, Auszugmehle 
and Auszugriese. 

The coarser middlings (Aufla'sungen), and 
the still coarser schrot, are fragments which, the 
larger they are, the more certain are they to be 
overlaid with portions of the layer of gluten, of 
the skin of the germ and the grain, and are, 
consequently, of a much darker color than pure 
middlings. The coarse middlings and the coarser 
ichrot are put through the purifying machine, in 
which they are gradually reduced. If during 
the preliminary grinding (Hochschroten) germs 
get loosened from the grain, they get knocked 
off especially during the first grinding, and ar- 
rive in proportion to their size, for the most 
part uninjured, among the coarse middlings, to 
which they impart, by their yellow color, a 
speckled, yellow appearance. The product of 
the preliminary grinding is separated, and the 
middlings and finer middlings purified. 

It is exceedingly difficult, nay, even impos- 
sible, to give to non-practical men anything like 
a clear idea of the nature and appearance of the 
various milling products either by description 
or illustration. The oidy way in which he can 
become acquainted with them is by seeing them 
in a well conducted mill, where high milling is 

The first rough grinding is followed by a 
second, the second by a third, and the third by a 
fourth, but the number of these is not in all 
mills alike. We must not imagine, however, 
that in these successive divisions or breaking up 
of the grain, that in the preliminary grinding 
(Hochschroten) the grain is broken in two, and 
by the first grinding (Schroten), it is broken into 
four pieces, etc. , on the contr.ary, the division 
when the stones are rightly placed, is so man- 
aged that at each successive operation the sev- 
eral parts gradually loose their polyhedrons or 
sphtrical shape, and assume a lamelliferous form. 
In the first, second and third rough grindings, 
the greater part of the grain is consequently re- 
duced to flour and middlings, and the material 
which undergoes fourth grinding has become so 
far triturate<l that no coarse middlings can be 
got from it, but only dust mixed with numerous 
particles of outer husk. Along with these we 
obtain flour as well as coarse and fine husks. 
There are scaly particles consisting of gluten, 
and the cuticle of the germ and the grain, to 
which a perceptible number of starch cells ad- 
htr«. In many mills these scaly particles are 

called stripes, in fact those remaining after the 
fourth and fifth grinding, while stripes; and af- 
ter once more grinding black stripes. The fine 
and coarse roughs are in many mills ground to- 
gether, in others separately. The former go 
also by the name of Uaspan. By ground roughs 
and ground Ilaspan, we understand those scaly 
parts, which, by their repeated passage through 
the stones, are freed from the particles of flour 
adhering to them, which serve as fodder for 
cattle and horses, and are distinguished by the 
general name of bran. 

How TO GtT Kid of Flour Mill Dpst. — A 
French process designed to circumvent the 
perils traceable to dust in flouring mills, is thus 
described : The stones should be surrounded as 
completely as possible by a movable covering of 
wood or sheet-iron, which should have no open- 
ing in front but what is absolutely necessary 
for the work. In order to avoid the choking up 
of the ventilating pipes, it is necessary to pro- 
vide special discharge pipes for the water, ac- 
cording as the stones are partly below or en- 
tirely above the floor. Again, the passages in- 
tended for carrying the dust should be placed 
underneath the stone, and beyond the point 
where the work is applied, regarding the direc- 
tion of motion; it should have a breadth a lit- 
tle greater than that of the stone, and a depth 
of eight inches at most, for the largest stones, a 
sliding door serving to close it whenever dry 
dust is not produced. The water discharge 
pipe should also have a valve, which may be 
losed when water is not used, and when it is 
desired to carry of the dust produced when the 
stone is trued. If there are only four or five 
stones in the work, a single collecting pipe will 
suffice, and the blower should be placed at the 
end; but if there are eight or ten stones in one 
line, a second collector, 16 inches by 12 may be 
placed in the middle of the length of the first, 
and perpendicular to its direction. If, too, 
there are two long parallel rows, with eight or 
ten stones in each, they should be connected 
with the second collector, or with a third, IGx 
20 inches, communicating with the ventilator. — 


Fair Premiums for Mechanical 
Products and Inventions. 

Fourth Department. 
For the most meritorious exhibition in this department 
the Society's gold modal. 

All products of industry competing (or premiums must 
be of California manufacture. 

Best exhibition of traveling trunks, valises and bags 

Silver Medal and $10 

Best carpet sack 6 

Best set double harness Silver Medal and 10 

Best set single harness 10 

Best display of Mexican saddles 10 

Best display of leather Silver Medal and 10 

Best display of saddles and bridles 10 

Best display of saddletrees 5 


Best display of copper work Diploma and 820 

Best display of work Diploma and 20 

Best display of axes - 

Best display of locks 5 

Best di»i)lay of door trimmings 6 

Best display of window triniminfrs 5 

Best display of window blind or shutter trimmings. . . b 

Best display of saddlers' hardware 10 

Best display of plumbers' goods and ware 

Diploma and 10 

Best display of gas chandeliers and burners 

Diploma and 10 

Best display of lamps 10 

Best display of general hardware 20 

Best display of iron and steel 10 

Best aisplay of iron fencing, including post 10 

Best barb wire fencing, in coil 5 

Best display of mechanics' tools. „ 10 

Best display of table cutlery Silver Medal 

Best display of pocket cutlery .') 

Bert display of silverware 25 

Best display of Britannia ware S 

Best display of clocks 10 

Best display of kitchen utensils of brags or copper — 10 

Best di'play of kitchen utensils of tin 5 

Best circular saws 6 

Best mill saws ^ 

Best hand saws 5 

Best disjilay of files 5 

Best burglar and lire-proof safe 20 

Best pruning shears 5 

Best pruning knives 5 

Best milk cans 5 

Best samples block tin pipe 5 

Best exhibition lead pipe 5 

Best exhibition anti-friction metal .'> 

Best exhibition shot !> 

Best display of wire goods 20 


Best cooking stove, for wood 45 

Best cooking stove, for coal 5 

Best parlor stove 5 

Best gas or oil stove 5 

Best warming furnace or other apparatus !> 

Best cooking range 10 

Best parlor grate 3 

Best pair ornamental iron vases 3 

Best specimen of marbleized iron 3 

Best specimen of marbleized stone 6 

Best specinienot marbleized wood •> 

Best display of hollow iron ware 5 

Best ornamental statuary 6 

Best ornamental fruit and flower stand .* 5 

Best church bells 20 

Best farm bell .• 5 

Best chime of bells 5 

Best farmers cauldrons or steamers 5 

B-'st fmrtable range 5 

Best laundry stove , 6 

Best assDrtnient of .lapanese ware 20 

B'ist gas and water pipes '. Diploma 

Best water and steam gates Diploma 

best asphaltum pipes Diploma 

Best assortment of bathing tubs Diploma 


Best grand or semi-grand pianoforte ?20 

Best boudoir piano 20 

Best Sipiare piano 20 

Best parlor piano 10 

Best dressing bureau 10 

Best sofa 10 

Best lounge ; . 5 

Best extension table & 

Best ofTiCp chair 5 

Best set parlor chairs 10 

Best center table 6 

Best pair of side tables 5 

Best set of parlor furniture 20 

Best display of furniture 20 

Best display of mattresses 6 

Best writing desk 6 

Best bookcase fi 

Best wardrobe 10 

Best sick chair or cv)ueh 5 

Best school furniture 10 

Best spring bed 5 

Best set of bedroom furniture 10 

Best billiard tuble 10 

Best display of upholstery 10 

Best otHee desk .5 


Best display of cedar ware 35 

Best display of pine ware 5 

Best display of oak ware .*> 

Best display of window shades 5 

Best display of window blinds. 5 

Best display of willow ware 10 

Best display of splitwood baskets 3 

Best display of pine, oak or walnut ddsirs 10 

Best display of turning lathe work 5 

Best display of osier willow 5 

Best display of wooden ware 25 

Best exhibition of broom corn, brooms and brushes. . 10 

liest assortment of hair brushes 5 

Best gilt frames :< 

Best sample of twist moulilings 

Best display of fancy moldings and scroll sawing 5 

Best wo»d carpeting 5 

Best assortment of coopers' wares 16 


Best surgical implements Diploma 

Best set of optical instruments. Diploma 

Best dentists' instruments ! Diploma 

Best set of mathematical and philosophical instru- 
ments Diploma 

Best specimens dentistry Diploma 

Best theodolite Diploma 

Best level Diploma 

Best surveyors' compass Dijiloma 

Best achromatic telescope Diploma 

Best reflecting telescope Diploma 

Best optical apparatus Diploma 

Best balance Diploma 

Best thermometer Diploma 

Best barometer Diploma 

Best electro-magnetic apparatus Diploma 

Best electric telegraph Diploma 

Best electric machine Diploma 

Best galvanic battery and apparatus Diploma 

Best set of drawing instruments Diploma 

Best chronometer Diploma 

Best clock (eight-day) Diploma 

Best specimens Argentine or Britannia ware. . . . Diploma 

Best turned and cast Britannia Diploma 

Best doublf-barrel shotgun (California make) 85 

Best sporting riHe (Cal. make) 5 

Best breech-loading shotgun (Cal. make) 5 

Best game bag (Cal. make) 3 

Best and largest displav of firearms (Cal. make) 

Silver Medal 


Best Prussian Blue $S 

Best copal varnish 5 

Best glue 5 

Best prussiate of potash 5 

Best linseed oil, five gallons 10 

Best white lead 5 

Best display of soap Silver Medal 

Best displav of candles (California make) 10 

Best specimen of lard oil 5 

Best five gallons castor oil 10 

Best display of potash, saleratus, pearlash and other 

alkalies 6 

Best yeast powder 6 

Best display of writing fluid 2 

Best display of blacking 3 

Best display of lubricating pretroleum 5 

Best display of illuminating petroleum 5 

Best samples of paint (California manufacture) 5 

Best hair restorer, to be tested 6 

Best stove polish 5 

Best bleaching soap Diploma 


B»it specimen Kockiugham ware Diploma 

Best stoneware Diidonia 

Best specimen ground glass Diploma 

Best specimen stained glass Diploma 

Best water pipe for water lime Diploma 

Best sample drain tile $5 

Best roofing tile 5 

Bt-st flooring 5 

Best looking glass Diploma 

Best plate glass Diploma 

Best window glass Diploma 

Best flint glass Diploma 

Best bottle glaas Diploma 

Best bottles, green glass Diploma 

Best vials, green class Diploma 

Best tincture and other stoppered bottles and vials Diploma 

Best demijohns Diploma 

Best display of confectionery SIO 

Best carboys Diploma 

Best terra cotta Diploma 

Bist Hre bricks 83 

Beat pressed bricks Diploma 

Best pottery, various kinds Silver Medal 

Best displav of stoneware 810 

Best display of glassware 10 

Best display of (pieensware 5 

Best dre3se<l stone 5 

Best mill stone 5 

Best barrel common salt 3 

Best sack table salt 3 

Best barrel lime 5 

Best hydraulic cement 5 

Bfst samples stained glass 5 

Best samples of ground and cut glass 5 

Best display of California marble 20 


Beat set of useful minerals of California, including coals 
of California, iron ores of Cahfurnia, marbles of 
(,'alifornia, sandstones of California, marls of Cali- 
fornia, peats of California, soils of California, salt 
waters of California, minerals of California, pot,ters' 
clay of California, tire clay of California, burr stones 

of ('alifornia, gj'psum of California 820 

Best suit of fossils of California Silver Medal 

Best collection of minerals illustrating the geology of 

California Silver Medal 

Best collection illustrating the ornithology of Cali- 
fornia Silvt-r Medal 

Beat collection of natural fishes, living or dead. Silver Medal 
Best suit of crystallized minerals of California. Silver Medal 
Best suit of the vegetable kingdom, including the woods, 
and most useful plants, and native grasses of (Cali- 
fornia Silver Medal 

Best suit of the animal kingdom, including insects injuri- 
ous to farmers Silver Medal 


Best original design of an engine or machinery of any 
kind, accompanied by complete det.iil working draw- 
ings, from which the same might be constructed, first 
premium Gold Medal 

Second best do Silver Medal 

For the best original mechanical drawing cjf any 
kind 810 and Silver Medal 

For second best do Diploma 

Lands for Sale and to Let. 


Temperance Colony. 

45,654 49-100 ACRES. 

Cheap and Desirable Homes. 

TERMS OF HALE- 25% cash, and the remainder In el«bt 
ciual annual instalhuents with interest at lOX per annum, or 
full payment and Deed Immediately. 

Rich Soil and Healthful Climate. 

Located In the Western part of .Santa Barbara Ceunty, 
California, embracing 10,000 acres of the Finest Bean Land 
in the State; as liigh as 3,700 Itis. of Beans to tlie acre have 
been raised the present year, while 3,000 lbs. to the acre is not 
an uncommon yield. 


And Telegraphic Communication with all parts of the State. 
The Telvgraph Stage Co.'s Coaches now nm daily, each 
way, directly through the town of 


E. H. HEACOCK, President. 

IRVING P. HENNING, Secretary. 

November 6th. 1878. 

A Good Farm For Sale. 

The undersigned offers for sale a Fann of i>iO acres of 
fine loamy grain land in a high state of cultivation, 400 
acres being well fenced, wiih house, bam, outbuildings, 
water tank, house and wind|nill, orchard, vineyard and 
garden sutticient for family use. The water is excellent. 
It is situated IJ miles north of Arbuekle Station, on the 
Northern Railway, in Colusa County. 



and everything 

A Schoolhouse is adjoining this farm 
desirable for a 

Nice and Comfortable Home. 

Can be bought for part Cash and part Credit, or pay- 
ments in Installments to suit purchasers. Address 

Arbuekle P. O., Colusa Co., Cal. 

Farm For Sale. 

Yields an Income of $4,000 a Year. 

Price, $10,5OO. 

My Farm and Poultry Businen yield 
over 84,000 a year. The place -116 acres 
— with orchard, vineyard and improve- 
ments, has cost me 815,000. The good 
will of the business is worth fully 
Sti.OOO. I will sell the business and 
farm for 810,600, half cash, or exchange 
g for San Francisco property. It is a 
bargain such as is seldom offered. 

M. BYRE, Napa, CaL 
Law Office in San Francisco, No. 638 Clay St., Room 25. 

1^1 am In Napa each Saturday and Sunday; other days 
in San Francisco. 


700 Acres. The Finest Stock and Oraln 
Farm in Northern California. 

Price, $2,'), 000, including Farming implements. The 
whole under fence. 

The Stock upon this farm, all thoroughbred and graded, 
embracing some of the finest in the State, will be sold at 
private sale. Among the stock is some that has been 
awarded different premiums at State and County Faira 

This is one of the finest opportunities for a man of 
means in the State. For full particulars apply to 

D. B. HAYS. 
Real Estate Agent, Oroville, Cal. 

Flonr Mill f or S ale or Rent. 

A good water power flour mill, with two runs of 4-feet 
wheat stones, one middling and one feed atone, all in good 
order, situate in southern California, with a good wheat 
crop near the mill, can be bought cheap, or a part inter- 
est can be purchased by a good, reliable mill man, or the 
property can be leased; mill is running, and has a good 
reputation. Want of experience, and other business, in- 
duces the owners to offer a good trade. Apply to JOS. 
WAGNER & CO., 105 and 107 Mission street, S, F. 



Office, 276 First St , San Jose, Cal. 

Will buy and sell Land Warrants; Locate and Surrey Pub- 
lic Government Land, I're-emption Homesteads, Soldier's 
and Sailor's Homesteads, Timber and Wood Lands, Desert 
Lands. Etc. 

For Sale in large or small tracts, on easy terms. In 
the best parts of the State. 


202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Good land that will raise a crop every 
year. Over 14,000 acres for sale in lots t» 
suit. Climate healthy. No drouths, bad 
floods, nor malaria. Wood and water 
S Title, perfect. Send stamp for illus- 
to EDWARIJ FRISBIE, Proprietor of 

convenient. U, 
trated circular. 

Reading Ranch, Anderson, Shasta Coimty, Cal. 


That Mrs. C. II. Sprague, at the California Poultry 
Yards, at Woodland, Y olo County, keeps the choicest lot 
and the greatest and best variety of Thorotighbred Fowls 
of any one west of the Mississippi river, and that one can 
get just what is wanted by sending orders to her. 

July 19, 1879.J 


P0RCHA8ER8 OF Stock will find in this Directory the 
Names of some of the Most Reliable Breeders. 

Our Kates.— Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 


PETER SAXE & SON, 520 Bush St, S. F. Importers 
and breeders of all varieties of 'Ihoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep, Horses, and Berkshire Swine. All animals fully 

W. L. OVERHISER, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Durham Cattle, Spanish Mer- 
ino Sheep and Berkshire swine. The above for sale. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 323 Front street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 


E. W. WOOLiSEY, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Importer and breeder of choice thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Sheep. 

L. U. SHIPPEB, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 


WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importer 
' and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Berkshire 
and Magie Poland-China Swine. 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
■ Pekin Ducks, etc. 

A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California, 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 

ALBERT BURBANK, 43 California Market, S, 
F. Importers and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry, 
Do^s, etc. Eggs for batching. Send for price list. 


ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine. 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 

T. C. STARR, San Bernardino, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Berkshire and Poland-China Swine. Light Brahma and 
Black Cochin Chickens for sale. 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 


JOS. D. ENAS, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal. Breeds pure 
Italian Queen Bees. Imported Queens furnished. 

Grrangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 


Authorized Capital - $2,500,000 

In 25,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $405,000 


Prbsident G. W. COLBY, 

Manaqer and Cashieb, 


The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, foi 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pre- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
the best market rates. 

Grangers' Co-operative Business Associa 
tion, of Sacramento Valley. 

Location: K & lOth Sts., Sacramento, Cal 

CERIES, and sale of FRUITS. Desire the co-operation 
and trade of farmers in general. Pay the highest; markst 
rates for all produce, and sell for the smallest ])rofit. Our 
orders are cash on delivery. Goods shipped; marked C, 
CD. W. H. HEVENER, Manager. 


— AND - 

Commission iigent 

310 Pine Street, Boom 31, San Francisco 

Special attention to Fire, Marine and Life Insurance 

Insurance placed in none but first-class Companies. 


Elegantly Furnished, and with Gas and 
Hot and Cold Water in Every Room 


At 1031 Market St., San Francisco. 





At Prices that Nobody can beat! 


Is one of the leading Pianos, and 
has been before the Public 
For Forty Years. 

We Sell no Bogus Instruments, 



Post street, near Dupont, 







Growers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealers in 

Comprising the Most Complete Stock 

Prices Unusually Low. 
*»*"Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden | 
will be sent prbb to all Customers. It contains in- 
structions on the culture of Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental 
Tree Seeds, Alfalfa, etc. 

419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 




Continually arriving, NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
VERNAL, MEZQUITE and other Grasses. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
SEED; together with al kinds of FRUIT, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 


Importer and Dealer in Seeds, 
425 Washington Street, - San Franciacc 



A first-class iioarding and Day School. Location unsur- 
passed; methods most approved; health preserved ami physi- 
cal dtvelopnient secured by daily gymnastic and brief mili- 
tary drill. Preparatory department tor lada in successful 
operation. Attention invited to methods and terms. Ad- 
dress tor particulars, , , 
H. E. JEWETT, A. M.. Principal, 

Oakland, California. 
N. B.— The next school year will commence July 29th, 1879 


2i I'ost Street 

Near Keirny, 
San Franciica, Cal. 

The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
structionis given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modern Languages are practically taught. Tlie 
discipline is excellent, and ts system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladies' Dkpartment.— Ladies will be admitted for i- 
etruction in all the Departments of the College. 

TKLBORAPurc Department.— In this Department yomig 
men and young ladies are jiractically and thoroughly tit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, B. P. HEALD 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 

BARLOW J. SMITH, M. D., announces to his friends 
and former patrons that he has resumed hygienic medical 
practice at the Smithsonian Medical and Phrenological 
Institute, 635 California street. The institute provides all 
forms of Electro-Medical baths and Hygienic boarding. 
Terms reasonable. Phreno-Physiological examinations in 
regard to health free. During the past 30 years Dr. 
Smith has developed a System of Phreno-Physiology that 
shows the relations that exist between the brain and body 
and claims that the organs of the brain show the strength 
of the spine, heart, lungs, stomach, bowels, liver and kid 
neys, also the reproductive organs, and the tendency of 
each and all to disease. The most powerful Electroized 
Magnet ever used in the treatment of nervous and chronic 
diseases is employed in this Health Institute. Mrs. Dr. 
Smith has charge of the Female Bathing Department 
Phrenological examinations daily. 


Importers, Growers and dealers in Garden, Field and 
Flower Seeds, Dutch Bulbous Roots, .Summer Flowering 
Bulbs and Garden Requisites of every description. Cata- 
logues mailed to all applicants. Address 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 34 Barclay Street, N. Y. 


Parties wiahina' to exjieriment in the cultivation of 
rhajtparal as an economical and valuable substitute for 
fencing, can obtain the seed in 50 Cts. and .$1 packages, at 
W. R. STRONG'S, Sacramento. ^S"Sent by mail. 

EXOTIC ^- I^IILLER & CO., Mission St., 
opposite Woodward's Gardens. Send 
GAriOtlNo. for Catalogue and Price List. 

Blackberry and Cranberry Plants. 

100,000 Plants of new varieties of BLACIfBEERY Plants 
—the Early Cluster and Vina Seedling, Missouri Mammoth 
and Deering Seedluig, the earliest and the most productive 
of all. I ^v^ll give satisfactory proof that these berries hav^ 
realized §750 per acre. It paid more than double the 
amount as the old late varietieo. Price by mail, $2 per 
dozen, §8 per hundred, and §80 per thousand. Send for 
Catalogue. Cherry Cranberry plants for $150 per acre, 
planted, not less than 10 acies in one order. We will sell to 
responsible parties, large orders on time, part cash. 

H. NYLAND, Bouldin Island, San Joaijuin Co., Cal. 


Tiios. A. Robinson. 

rOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
.Ten Cents. STEVENS BROS., Northford, Conn. 


Contents of Pamphlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S. Land Laws, Map of 
California and Nevada, Etc. 

Map of California and Nevada ; The Public 
Lands; The Land Districts; Table of Rainfall in Cafifor- 
nia; Counties and Their Products; Statistics of the State 
at Large. 

Instructions of the U. S. Land Commis- 
sioners. — Different Classes of Public Lands; How Lands 
may be Acquired; Fees of Land Office at Location; Agri- 
cultural College Scrip; Pre-emptions; Extending the 
Homestead Privilege; But One Homestead Allowed; Proof 
of Actual Settlement Necessary; Adjoining Farm Home- 
steads; Lands for Soldiers and Sailors; Lands for Indians; 
Fees of Land Office and Commissions; Laws to Promote 
Timber Culture; Concerning Ajipcals; Returns of the Reg- 
ister and Receiver; Concerning Mining Claims; Second 
Pre-emptioii Benefit. 

Abstract from the U, S. Statutes.— The Law 

Concerning Pre-emption; Concerning Homesteads; Amend- 
atory Act Concerning Timber; Miscellaneous ProvisioncJ 
Additional Surveys; Land for Pre-emption; List of Cal" 
ornia Post Offices. Price, post paid, 50 cts. 

Fablisbed and sold hv DEWEY & CO., S F 

The "California Legal Record." 

The ONLY WEEKLY containing all the 
decisions of the Supreme Court 
of California, 
(The ONLY COMPLETE contuiuation of the 8. F. Law Journal.) 

Published every Satm-day, inSvo. size— like the California 
Reports— contains every deciston of the Supreme Court, 
as fast as rendered, with a syllabus and statement of facts, 
and other important legal matter. The volumes conmience 
on the first of October and April each, and have a full index 
for reference and binding. 

REDUCED PRICE, only $5.50 per year, or S3 per volume 
of six months. Remit by Postal Order or Registt'red Letter, 
specifying what date or mmiber to commence. Back num- 
bers furnished. Sample numbers sent flee. Address, 

F. A. SCOFIELDft CO., Publishers and Prop's. 
No. 529 California street. San Francisco. Cal. 

California Inventors 

Should con- 
sult DEWEY 
& CO., Amer- 
ISCO. Their long experience as journalists and large prac- 
tice as patent attorneys enables them to offer Pacific Coast 
inventors far better service than they can obtain else- 
where. Send for free circulars of information. Office of 
the MiNiNo AND Scientific Press and Pacific Rural 
Press, No. 202 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

PirtllPOCnilO ByE. CONKLIN, Representative 
rililUI COlJUC of the National Associated Press, 
Api7nnil '""^ .artist and correspondent of 

HI I^UIICl. Frank Leslie's publications. Be- 
ing the result of Travels and Observations in Arizona dur- 
ing the fall and winter of 1877. Fully illustrated. Sent 
by mail, post-paid, for $2. Address DEWEY & CO., 
202 Sanjome Street, S. F. 


Chromo, perfumed, Snowilakeft Lace cards, name on all 
10c. Game Authors, 15c. Lyman &Co., Cliutouvillr, Ct 


CHROMO, Gold Border, etc., 10c., no 2 alike, or 20 
Cupid Cards, 10c. J. B. HUsTED. Nassau, N. Y. 

Ctn Elegant Perfumed Cards, Chromo, Motto. Lily, Etc., 
DU 16c. Gift with each pack. H. M. Smith. ClintonvlUe, Ot 



[July 19, 1879. 

'atents and Inventions. 

List of U. S. Patents Issued to Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

[From Official Rrports to I>EWEY & CO.'S Mirao anu 


By Special Dispatch from Washlngrton. D. C 

For tub Wbf.k Exdino Ji-nk 24tb, 1S79. 

216,848.— !• IRE Arm— S. T. Harrison, San Jose, Cal. 

•216,749 — CoKKis -U. E. McAlistpr, S F. 

7,432,— Coffek— Trademark— E. Ouittanl h Co., 8. F. 
For tiik Wkek Endino July Ist, 1879. 

217,075.— Crcsuino asd Pi i.verizino Mill— J. T. Davis 
San Francisco. 

217,096.— Grii'Pi.vo Devick for Wire-Rofe Railways 
J. Hansen, S. F. 

216,956 —Vehicle Si'RINO— F. A. Hill, San Leandro, Cal 

217,157. -CoMBi»EB Collar akd Hambs— A. Rutherford 
Walla Walla, W. T. 

217,187.— Horseshoe -H. G. Valeu, S. F. 

Note.- Copies of U. S. and Forei^ Patents furnished 
by Dkwky&Co., in the shortest time pos.sible (by tel 
graph or otherwise) at llie lowest rates. All patent biisi 
ness for Pacific coast inventore transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible time. 

They Inaugurate the Game in New York, 

Through all channels of intelligence we are 
advised of a growing interest in mining affairs 
at the East. This information, announced first 
by telegraph, receives later confirmation through 
private letters and newsuapers coming to hand 
from that quarter. The New York TinieK, of re 
cent date, remarks that the evidences of a grow- 
ing disposition to speculate in mining shares are 
too numerous and palpable to be mistaken. In 
anticipation of increased activity in this class of 
securities, the price of seats in the mining stock 
board of that city has recently advanced several 
hundred per cent. Brokers, who before care- 
fully eschewed this class of paper, are now 
operating in it extensively. Numerous mining 
companies, with flaming circulars and officered 
by prominent politicians, are being formed there, 
who, immediately they are organized, proceed 
to widely advertise their properties, purposes 
and prospects. Every little exchange shop 
down town has its freshly written placard 
announcing all kinds of mining stocks bought 
and sold witliin. Claim owners, agents, experts, 
middlemen and promoters of every description 
fill the hotels and swarm about the business 
centers, the inevitable " process man " being 
also present with his clever methods for extract- 
ing the precious metals, from the most obdurate 
ores, closely, quickly and cheaply. Many of 
the knowing ones, men early to perceive the 
tendencies of the times and accustomed to fore- 
stall the coming market, have gone, or are about 
to go, West for the purpose of buying, bonding 
or otherwise securing control of mining proper- 
ties; being desirous of seeing for themselves 
and saving the commissions of go-betweens. 

Observing these things, the Times justly con- 
cludes that they indicate a growing excitement 
about mining matters, which, if suff ered to go on 
imchecked, will be very likely to lead to wide- 
spread and ruinous speculation. We think 
there is a danger of this. Even at this distance 
it looks to us that way. These are the symp- 
toms that usually precede an unhealthy activity 
in the mining share market. This gathering of 
mining sharps and adventurers in Eastern 
cities; this multiplication of "bucket shops" 
there; these numerous, respectably headed and 
well advertised mining companies, with such 
great appreciation in the price of seats in the 
stock board, are the sure forerunners of a big 
gamble in this class of securities. This is the 
sort of machinery manipulators employ for 
enthusing the masses and popularizing the 
shares of these mining companies. When we 
see recourse had to these methods of procedure, 
with their exhibition and blare, we know what 
it means: It means gain to the few and lo?8 to 
the many. It means seeming and short-lived 
prosperity to be followed by goaeral distress and 
injury to every branch of legitimate business, 
including mining itself, which latter is harmed 
more perhaps than any other industry by these 
seasons of undue inflation and reckless invest- 

Stock manipulators find it neces.sarj' to use 
fresh bait or angle in other waters. In this 
extremity those in interest are seeking to trans- 
fer the business to a more appreciative constitu- 
ancy and a more genial soil. Californians hav- 
ing been milked to the strippings, it is meet 
that the milking machine bo taken hence to 
perform a like service where the lacteous fluid 
remains still abundant. As it may suit these 
Orientals to stake their money on this sort of a 
layout, we shall not object to the removal. 
They are welcome to the gambling arm of the 
business so long as the mines and their legiti- 
mate proceeds are left to us. The game, though 
not wholly new, may serve to slightly diversify 
their old methods and make them more attrac- 
tive. We wish them a happy experience with 
their new acquisition, hoping they will find 
delectation in it while it lasts, and have happy 
riddance of the institution when they have had 
enough of it. They have already establishments 
in the great Eastern metropolis akin to these 
stock exchanges. To discriminate widely be- 
tween the operating methods employed in the 
mining bourse and those in use at the place of 
the man Morrissey involves distinctions too nice 
for our unschooled casuistry. — Mining and 6'ci- 
entific Prett, 

The Eclipse of 1880. 

California, amidst all of its golden blcssinijs, 
is to receive the full benefit of the grand total 
eclipse of the sun which will occur on the Ilth 
of January next. All of its sublimity is to be 
bestowed upon our State, and this fact may ex- 
cite the laudable jealousy of other States to 
provide a similar exhibition in the near future. 
The field is open and the moon and sun not con- 
trolled by any human monopoly. Scientific 
men and amateurs are already making prepara- 
tions to visit us, and we should be prepared to 
receive them, with moderation as to pecuniary 
expectations. State character is as good and 
valuable as individual character, and besides 
the world at large holds to the doctrine of Mon- 
tesquieu, that when the State possesses a bad 
disposition it is because the people who compose 
it are wrongly disposed. 

luyo county lies almost exactly upon the cen- 
tral line of totality, and this county, as shown 
by the Independent, offers advantages unex- 
celled by any other county in this State or any 
other kingdom. First, clouds, even in winter, 
especially in January, rarely obscure the heav- 
ens; and, second, we have the highest and 3'et 
most accessible peaks (and many of them) in the 
United States. The highest of them is Mount 
Whitney, 15,200 feet above the sea level, to the 
very top of which observers can ride on horse- 
back — barring an accidental snow storm to pre- 
vent. But in any event, the snow-belt is never 
but a few miles in width at any time, since it is 
but a few miles from the mountain summit to 
the valley, where snow never, or "hardly ever," 
falls. There are dozens of other peaks in sight, 
some much easier of access, and several nearly 
as tall as Mount Whitney. But in view of the 
risks of clouds on the high Sierras, the surest 
place for good observation is from the summit 
of the Inyo range, say 20 miles eastward of the 
high peaks of the Sierras, therefore not far 
enough from the central line of totality to be of 
consequence. The towns of Darwin and Cerro 
Gordo, and the Indian Queen mill, a hundred 
miles to the northward, are all in this range, 
and all well suited for points of observation. 
There are fewer cloudy days or hours to inter- 
cept a heavenly view from that range than from 
any other in this State. Its peaks reach an alti- 
tude of about 9,000 feet. The atmosphere on 
this range is, as before intimated, almost uni- 
versally perfectly clear, even when the 
summits of the Sierras, but a few miles distant 
and the lands west thereof, are all buried in 
haze or clouds. 

Of course San Francisco would be the ren- 
dezvous for all parties, and other localities se- 
lected. So let us be prepared to do our share 
in the scientific features accompanying a total 
eclipse. Scientific men of this State are acquir- 
ing a world-wide reputation, and they should 
maintain it. We have capital, and to spare, for 
improvements, and more of it might be devoted 
to scientific pursuits with profit to the capitalist 
and benefit to humanity. 

Professor Nordenskjold. 

In the latter part of May last, dispatches 
were received in San Francisco from Berlin, via 
New York, to the "ffta that Prof. Nordensk- 
jold, the Swedish exnlorer, had escaped from 
the Arctic ocean by the way of Behring's straits, 
and was on his way heme, in the Vega, via Suez 
canal. Since that time no confirmatory reports 
have come to hand of his arrival in Japan, and 
many people have concluded that he was not 
seen upon the Siberian coast near the 
point the Esquimaux claim to have had 
a sight of his vessel. Late Stockholm papers, 
received at the office of the Alaska Fur Co., 
in this city, make clear what has heretofore 
been shrouded in mystery. The first dispatch 
is from Governor Schamarin, of Siberia, to a 
gentleman in St. Petersburg, ^ated at lakintsk 
stating that he has letters from Nordenskjold 
to the effect that on the 16th of September, 
1878 je was caught in the ice in latitude C7* 
3' north, longitude 171° 33' west, quite near to 
the shore, and that, as it was so early in the 
season, "he had hopes of getting through 
Behring straits, and reaching home, via Suez 
canal, before spring." This telegram has never 
been correctly given before, and in translating 
it what the Professor gives as a "hope," 
rendered as a fact. The very latest in 
egard to the whereabouts of the Vega 
comes in the columns of a St. Peters- 
burg paper. It is a dispatch from Governor 
Schamarin, dated lakintik. May 26th, stating 
he had a letter from Prof. Nordenskjold, in- 
forming him that he had drifted down the coast 
some di.stance, and was, at the time of dispatch- 
ng the messenger, located about 120 miles to 
the westward of East Cape. He had plenty of 
provisions and fuel, and had no fear but that 
he should work his way out safely with the 
breaking up of the ice this spring. This situa- 
tion of the Vega confirmed the report brought 
to this port by Capt. Campbell, of the whaling 
bark y'orman, which left St. Lawrence Bay on 
the 22d of October, who stated that a party of 
natives had just come in who said they had 
seen the spars of a ship near the shore at that 
point. It is a little singular that such a mis- 
conception of Governor Sohamarin's first dis- 
patch, as has been pointed out, should have 
misled the entire press. The probability is that 
the Vega will have worked her way out before 
the Jeannelte arrives in the Arctic; and even 
now she may be on her way to Japan.— CaU. 

Sheep Supply of the United States. 

The Economixt gives a letter from Joseph 
Walworth, in answer to some inquiries from 
England relative to the sheep supply of the 
United States, from which we take the follow- 
ing table showing th.e number of sheep and the 
yield of wool, as estimated by the Agricultural 
Department" at Washington, and by James 


No. of Sheep. 

I Pounds Wool, Pounds Wool 

{Agr. Dept. est. 

1878 1 35,739,900 



J. Lyneh's est 


Mr. Walworth says: "You will notice that 
in 1867 we reached our maximum of sheep — 42,- 
000,000. These are estimated to produce 147,- 
000,000 pounds of wool, and now in 1878, 
with 35,739,900 sheep, we are estimated to pro- 
duce 211,000,0000 pounds of wool. This ap- 
parent contradiction needs explaining. During 
the war, say in 1863, there was introduced into 
the principal wool growing .States, such as Ohio, 
New York and others, what we called the 
'Black Spanish Vermont buck.' This caused a 
great increase in the weight of fleece per sheep; 
some claim that it actually increased the pro- 
duction of scoured wool per sheep. This may 
be true to some extent, but one thing I know, 
that it increased the grease and waste in wool 
very much indeed. I have always refused to 
buy it on account of its shrinkage." 

The Cow Tkee.— It seems that the "Cow 
Tree" about which so much has been written 
since it was shown at the Paris exposition, is 
no new thing to tree growers, and on account of 
a proposed introduction of it to England more 
than 50 years ago, which we find in a New 
Zealand paper, is both interesting and amusing. 
Half a century ago the idea was prevalent in 
England that every householder might have a 
cow tree in his family ; but the wrong plant was 
introduced, and the experiment failed. .It is 
true the juice of this tree excels cow's milk. 
Another species produces nuts, which arc roasted 
and eaten as bread; so that by having a tree of 
each sort, one may have bread and milk in the 
garden all the year round; the two best articles 
of diet we have. The cow tree is a native of 
South America. The plants introduced to 
England 50 years ago were placed in Colville's 
nursery. King's Road, Chelsea, London. There 
being little demand, and the plants being so 
badly packed, they all died except one or two, 
which were sent to Kew Gardens, and turned 
out to be plants of the Sapola family, and 
proved the mistake of the importer, who in 
troduced 1,000, and expected to make a haul, 
but made the mistake instead. 

A BcKiED F0RE.ST.— It has been recently dii- 
covered that an oak forest lies buried in the 
valley of the Fulda, near Rosenburg, Hesse Cas- 
sel, Germany, at a depth of from six to nine 
feet below the surface. The wood flourished at 
a very remote period. The greater number of 
the trees discovered were in good preservation; 
but, owing to the action of the water through 
unnumbered ages, they have become thoroughly 
black in color; they have also become very hard 
and close, so that they would be good material 
for carving and ornamental cabinet work. 
Some of the trees are of great size; one taken 
out of a gravelly portion of the bed opposite 
the village of Baumbach, and since sent to the 
(.ieological Musuem at Berlin, was 59 feet long, 
nearly five feet in diameter near the root, and 
about .38 inches at the top. Even larger speci- 
mens have been found. It is reported that the 
furniture and fittings of the Geological Museum 
at Marburg are to be made from this long buried 
timber. It is not yet decided whether these 
buried oaks belong to a species still existing or 
to an extinct one. 

Fi.AVORiso Meat on Foot.— M. Monclar, a 
noted agriculturist in France, advocates the 
flavoring of meat on foot, by appropriate feed- 
ing. He says that by flavoring the food of 
cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry, their flesh may 
be rendered much more agreeable to the palate 
than it often is. He is substantially right, for 
reasoning by contraries, we know that rabbits, 
quail, deer, etc., which feed and browse upon 
the artemisia and bitter seeds have a disagree- 
able flavor when eaten. Any flavor may be 
given the meat — mint, anise, thyme, etc., and 
several tastes may l)e given the meat, or a com- 
pound flavor be added by a variety of flavors of 
any selection. For invalids particularly, or for 
epicurean palates, the common meaty flavor can 
be modified in flavor to suit the palate, and the 
aversion to healthy, nutritious meat be over- 
come by a delicious* conglomeration of sweet 
flavors. We hope to see the experiment tried 
in our State. 

Alle Same Gopher. — The ^'cienfi/fc Amtrican 
has an article urging young people to invent 
gopher traps, in which this sentence occurs 
" The California ground squirrel, commonly 
known as the gopher, is a most industrious and 
audacious forager." Now, the California ground 
squirrel is not a gopher either in appearance, 
habits or anatomy. The California ground 
squirrel is known to naturalists as Spermophiltu 
grammurits ; variety, Beecheyi. The gopher is 
Tkomomi/s tulpoidtn buViicenis. 'This hint of 
nomenclature will enable our con temp ')rary to 
read up the characteristics of each of these 
pests. Our readers are too familiar with the 
subject to warrant us in going into descriptions 
By a little study of Dr. Coues "North American 
Rodentia," it will appear even to those at a dis 
tance that different appliances are required to 
trap these animals, and that one is not "com 
monly called " the other. 

LiOHTfNO THE Capitol by ELEcrRiciTY.— 
The arrangements for lighting the capitol build 
ing at Washington with a new electric light are 
nearly completed. The experiment has already 
been made in the Hall of the House of Representa- 
tives, and a single lightplaced on the front row of 
the reporters' gallery and over the Speaker's chair 
made the whole hall so light that print could be 
easily read at the points farthest from the 
burner. The plan is to place four lights in the 
hall, and it is now believed that they will l>e a 
very great improvement upon the present 
arrangement of gas burners. Three electric 
machines have been purchased under the appro- 
priations for lighting the interior of the build- 
ing, and it is in contemplation to place another 
in position for the purpose of supplying a light 
of vast power upon the top of the dome. It is 
claimed by the inventors that a burner can be con- 
structed there which shall havea very appreciable 
effect upon a large area of the city. It is claimed 
that with the steam power of the heating and 
ventilating apparatus in each wing of the build- 
ing, a dynamo-electric macbuie of 175,000 oandle 
power can be ran, 

Literary Notes.- Pacific Rural Handbook, by Ohaa. H 
Shinn This little book uix>n horticulture and t^irdeuing 
in California, covers a (ground never before attempted. 
Writers upon these subjects have probablj been deterred 
by the dillicultv of adaptintr a sing^le volume, of reasona- 
ble size, to the K'reat number of special conditions in the 
dilTereut lociilittes in the State. There are, however, 
many |M>intH of general interest, and of wide application. 
These, chiefly, our author has taken for the material of 
his work. There is much in it which will be read with 
profit by the professional eardener or nurseriTiian; bu t 
for the non-professional farmer, fruit-grower or florist, 
■ even for everyone who has a half-rc^ of t'round upon 
which to plant a tree or a flower, it is full of valuable sug- 
gestions. We especially commend the chapters upon 
Improving tbe .Soil" and "Irrigation" to our farmers. 
Of course our praise is criven with the undemanding that 
the work professes to be only what its name indicates, a 
hand-book, not an elaborate treatise. But to say that It 
is full of reliable information is only half the truth. Its 
chief value to many readers lies in a different direction. 
It is a collection of esKays so adinirablj written, with such 
wealth and beauty of language, and such an evident love 
for, and conception of the spiritual n.eaning of all beauti- 
ful things in nature, that we think it will be welcome to 
every home. To the seeker for knowledge for love's sake, 
it will speak a familiar tonf^ue, while to the unapprecia- 
tive, to whom nature has hitherto been a book In an un- 
known language, it will be a new revelation. — Washington 
Contei'it Rrjuu'trr. 

The "P.\ciKic RrRAL Handbook," written by Chas. H. 
Shinn for the publishers of the Pacific Rural Prbri, 
will be sent, post-paid, in substantial cloth binding for tl; 
in full leather, $1.50; in cloth, Interleaved with flne ruled 
pai^r for memoranda, $1.50. Address 

No. 202 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

Books on Agrriculture, Eto. 
Tbt* following among other books will be sent post-paid 00 
receipt of publishfrs* priced, annexed:— Tobacco. Ita culture, 
manufacture and use, 500 nages, j$J.50;— Tbe Patrons of Hus- 
bandry, SoOpaires. M 75; -The Women of the Bible. 77 en- 
gravings. ^4;— Wellfl* Every Man Ills Own I.,awyer, 612 pages, 
¥2-75; — American Husbandry, 2 vol., ?> 1. 50;— Gray 'a Agricul. 
tural EH.iayg. ?l:-Langstroth'8 Honey Bee, $1 50;— Randall's 
Sheep Husbandry, $1.50;— Agricultural Engineering. $1.50; 
New Bee-Keepers' Teit Book, $1;-Paclfic Rural Hand- 
book. 81;— Ropp's Easy Calculator, gl;— U. 8 Land Law. 
50 C'ts.; — Woodward's Graperies. Etc., ^l;-8ugar from 
Melons, 25 C't8.;-.Strawb,rry Culture, 50 Cts ; -Lajrrea' 
Belles Lettres, ^^1;- Holt's Map of California and Ne- 
vada, to subscrllwrs, 81: -Back Volumes Pacific RcBAL 
Press (bound) !*5; unbound. $3; -Picturesque Arizona. $3. 
Address DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 202 Sansome St., 8. P. 

Frbhh attractions are constantly' added to "Wood- 
ward'a Qardens, among which is Prof. Uruber'a great 
educator, tbe Z<>ographicon. Elach department lucreaAes 
dally, and the Pavilion performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder- 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 

Sbttleiu) and others wishing good farming lands for 
sure crops, are referred to Mr. Edward Frisbie, of Auder. 
ton, Shasta County, Cal, who has some 15,000 acres for 
sale in the Upper Sacramento valley. His advertisement 
appears from time to time in this paper. 

How TO Stop tuib Paper. —It is not a herculean task tu 
stop this paper. Notify the publishers by UtUr. It it 
comes beyond the time desired, you can depend upon it 
we do not know that the subscriber wants It stopped. So 
be sure and Bend us notice by Utter. 

Sample Copies —Occasionally we send copies of this 
paper to persons who we twlieve would be beneflted by 
subscribing for it, or willing to assist lis in extending its 
circulatiim. We call the attention of such to our pros- 
pectus and terms of subscription, and request that they 
circulate the copy sent. 

E.XTRA Copies can usually be had of each issue of this 
paper, if ordered early. Price, 10 cents, postpaid. 

For Information bi music matter* send a postal to 
iCohler & Chase. 

Semd to tbe Orcat Music House of Kohler It Chase (or 
anything in the music line. 137 and IS9 Post ttreet, 8. F 

July 19, 1879.] 



NoT«. — Our trade review and quotationa are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the itate of the marlcet on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, July 16lh, 1879. 
' The Produce markets are full of bustle, but there is 
general complaint of the low prices \*ich prevail. Sup- 
plies of all kinds are very large, and the market favors 
buyers, although holders of Grain are firm and expectant. 
Foreign advices still favor the realization of good prices 
for the surplus we shall have tor shipment this year. The 
cable has shown an advancing disposition, as may be seen 
by the following: 

Banse of Cable Prices of Wheat. 
The course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been as 
recorded in the following table : 

Cal. Ateraqb. 



83 9d(a 93 



3dO^ 9s 


88 10d@ 9s 



idea 9s 


Saturday. . . . 

8a 10a@ 9s 



4d(* 93 


83 lOd® 9s 



4d@ 93 



83 10d@ 98 



6d(a 9s 


Wednesday . 

8s lOd® 93 



6d(a 93 


To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare wiih same date in former years as follows : 


1877 123 2d@128 5d 

1878 IO3 — @10d 48 

1879 88 10d@ 98 7d 




5d@133 — 
4rl(ai03 9d 
6d@ 9s lOd 

The Foreign Bevlew. 

Ohio river, 101; straw short, but grain plump and heads 
heavy; greatly improved by recent rains. States west of 
the Mississippi, 89; injuries by chinch bugs in the southern 
parts and by storms in the northern portion. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, July 15. --Wool has relapsed into something 
of the monotonous tone niling before the late flurry set 
Tlie demand is not over active or anxious beyond 
immediate wants. 

Philadelphia, July 15.— Wool is quiet, steady. Colo- 
rado washed, 18?S25c; unwashed, 15@18c; extra and Meri- 
no pulled, 35@37c; No. 1 and super pulled, 33@36c. 

Boston, July 11. — The Wool market was comparati\ely 
quiet during the past week. Receipts continue very 
large, being for the past three weeks more than double 
those of the same time last year. More active move- 
ments are expected in a short time, as nT^.nufacturerg are 
now fully employed, consuming more Wool than for some 
previous years. In unwashed Wools there is a fair busi- 
ness doing, sales comprising 444,000 ItiS, mostly medium 
grades. It is difficult to give reliable quotations for fine 
Wools, as sales indicate a wide range in prices — the prin- 
cipal owners not being disposed to sell the best quality 
under 40c; but it would be hard to realize over 37@38c 
for X, XX and above, and 38@40c for medium and No. 1. 
Sales comprise Ohio and Pennsylvania fleeces X, XX and 
No. 1, at 36J(a41c; Michigan X and No. 1, at 36i*37Jc; 
New York X and medium, 35@37c; Wisconsin, 38c; 
Combing and Delaine, 42@44c; unwashed and unmer- 
chantable fleeces, 17(831c; Missouri, 26(a31c; Texas, 23<a 
30c; Georgia, 34i(*35c:- Colorado, 25c; scoured, 45@60c; 
tub washed, 39@43J; super and X pulled, 38(34.50. Cali- 
fornia Wool is in fair demand. Sales of 349,000 lbs Spring, 
at 20@32c, most at 25@31c. Total sales of the week; 
Domestic, 1,525,900 ths; foreign, 71,000 lbs. 

Receipts of Domestic Produce. 
The following table shows the San Francisco receipts 
of Domestic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day 
aa compared with the receipts of previous weeks : 



Wednksdat m., July IC, 1S79. 


London. July 15. — The Mark Lane Express says: In 
consequence oi the continuance of the rain, the Wheat 
has made little, if any, progress. The ears have scarcely 
begun to appear. The bulk of the Hay remains uncut, 
or m cases whore it has been cut, it has been left lying to 
rot. In Scotland the crops are fully three weeks behind 
hand. The pastures are mostly well covered. Potatoes 
are looking fairly. Ou the whole the agricultural pros 
pect3 there, though far from promising, are less gloomy 
than in England. The Grain trade has not been so ani- 
mated since the spring of 1877. The falling off in the 
deliveries of English Wheat having once started an up- 
ward movement, buyers respond with readiness, which 
proves that they are fully aware of the existence of con 
ditijns tending to create a rise. Fine samples of home 
growu Wheat are now becoming 50 very scirce, that, in 
many instances, holders have refused to accept the rise of 
25d per quarter, which has been readily obtained at Mark 
Lane and in the country markets, and now hold for 35d to 
45d per quarter advance. There have been extensive ini 
ports and transactions in foreign Wheat during the week, 
the imports being principally from Ameriau) Atlantic 

fiorts. There has been no lack of speculation. The mill- 
ng demand has assumed large proportions. These con- 
ditions caused an improvement of from ls@25d per quar 
ter. The ictjuiry has been chiefly for American and 
Russian descriptions,' but any variety of sound Wheat has 
sold easily, owing to the scarcity of fine English. There 
has been much demand for choice qualities of foreign fit 
to replace it, s uch^as Daiitzig and |New Zealand. These 
are held for very full prices. The, recently published 
official returu of stocks of Grain in London, July 21st, 
waa, notwithstanding the hea\'y imports of the last six 
months, nearly 134,000 quarters less than at the corre- 
sponding time last year, showing a large extent of pur- 
chases made by millers to arrive. Barley, Maize and Oats 
also show considerable diminution; Flour advanced a 
shilling per sack and barrel in sympathy with Wheat. All 
descriptions of Feeding Corn favored sellers. The sales 
of English Wheat last week were 27,727 quarters at 433 4d 
per quarter, against 15,681 quarters at 443 8d for the cor- 
responding period of the previous year. The imports into 
the United Kimrdom for the week ending July 5th were 
962,259 cwt of Wheat and 144,914 cwt of Flour. In to- 
day's ^Monday) market the unsettled weather has a de- 
cided influence. All choice lots of home-grown Wheat 
met with a ready sale at an advance of two shillings' per 
quarter. The foreign arrivals have been unusually heavy, 
but American realized an advance of one sbiliing per 
quarter. Russian was steady. Flour was in good request 
at an advance of I3 per sack, and from 6d to 9d per barrel; 
Barley was steady at last Monday's extreme prices; Maize 
quieter, and a shade weaker in consequence of very heavy 

Frelsrhts and Charters. 
The ship M. P. Grace, 1,928 tons, has been chartered 
for Wheat and Merchandise to Liverpool at £2 2s 6d. The 
chartered Wheat fleet in port numbers 21 vessels of a reg- 
istered tonnage of 20.170, with a carrying capacity of 45,. 
000 short tons, or 900,000 centals. Disengaged tonnage in 
port, 25,000; on the way, 166,000. 

Eastern Qrain Markets. 

New York, July 15. — The Merchandise markets re- 
main quiet. Flour is in moderate demand, 5@10c higher. 
Wheat is quiet, steady. Pork is steady, quiet. Lard is 
dull, firm. 

Chicaoo, July 12. — On the Board of Trade the week has 
been marked by wide-spread fluctuations In prices on ac- 
count of unfavorable reports from European crop^, local 
storms in the Northwest and light receipts of Grain. The 
Wheat market was advanced early in the week from 90|e 
to S104J for July options. Reports during the past three 
days of yellow fever in the South caused a hea\ y decline 
in Provisions. Wheat, in sympathy with the Provision 
market, suffered a decline of nearly 6c, selling at 98Jc, but 
afterwards a better feeling prevailed, and the market 
closed firm to-day at ?1 for July, 99Jc for August, 979c for 
September, and i)0^96Jc seller the year. The demand for 
Corn has been a trifle belter, and the market has ruled 
firmer, closing at 37c for c*sh. Oats, 32{c. July Rye, 
52c. , 

Eastern Wheat Returns. 

Washington, July 15. —Returns to the Department of 
Agriculture give the average condition of Spring Wheat at 
91, against 106 Julj 1, 1878. The northern New England 
States range nearly up to the average. A few counties in 
northern New York average 89 Texas, the only Southern 
State producing it to any extent, reports but 61. In the 
Northwest, Spring Wheat States range from 92 to 90, but 
Iowa falls to 88. The Spring Wheat crop of Kansas is but 
68. On the Pacific coast, most of the California crop is re- 
turned as Spring Wheat, and averages 92. The small 
Spring Wheat crop of Oregon is a full average. The con- 
dition of the crop in the Southwest and Northwest was 
largely effected by drouth. In some sections the Hessian 
fly was very injurious. In the Northwest local storms 
were more or less destructive. July returns show an aver- 
age condition of Winter Wheat of 91, against 101 in July, 
1878. The New England States average 99. The crop 
there is small and late, but promising. Middle States, 86. 
There arc complaints of drouth, mildew, Hessian fly and 
local storms. South Atlantic States, 95; thinned by win- 
ter killing and growth stunted by drouth in many north- 
ern counties, but farther down the coast the condition ia 
greatly improved. Southern inland States, 98; grain of 
remarkably fair quality generally. States north of the 

Flour, quarter aacks. 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, aacks 

Corn, centala 

Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacka 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, balea 

Hops, balea 

Hay. bales 





June 25. 

July 1. 

July 9. 

July 16 












































BAGS— The combination which holders of Bags are agi- 
tating still hangs fire, and Bags are therefore still selling 
at low rates. Sales this week have been at very low 
marks, the terms accepted by some dealers being 9c for 
Standard Grain Bags, with 60 days credit; and cash sales 
are at 8J(*8^c. About 10,000 Wheat Bags (Calcutta) were 
sold at auction Tuesday for $8.40 per 100. The Call of 
Wednesday says: "1'he Natnrahst, with 2,000,000 on 
board, is now out from Calcutta 162 dnys, and it is feared 
that she is lost. .\t 12 o'clock to-night all contracts on her 
cargo will expire, if she does not arrive, 

BARLEY — Prices are unchanged, although there is a 
firm feeling among holders, and desirable lots are in re. 
quest. The first sale of new Chevalier of which we hear is 
76 tons at .{1.50 per ctl. 

BEANS— There is no change reported. 

CORN— Prices rule about as last week. We note sale of 
150 sks Large White at 75c i>er ctl. 

DAIRY PRODl'CE-Tliere is no change. The supply 
is still large and prices within the former low range. 

EGGS- Fresh California Egga are firm and have im- 
proved in price. Some fancy lots have reached 24c, and 
21<a'23c is the gensral range. 

FEED— Ground Feed prices are unchanged. Hay is 
still dropping, the best price now quotable being $11.50 
for choice Wheat. We note a sale of 35 tons Stable Hay 
at $7.50. 

FRESH MEAT— Fresh Meats are abundant and low 
Hogs have declined from the effect of large arrivals. Beet 
and Mutton continue to arrive freely and in such quant! 
ties as to preclude the liability of an advance. 

FRUIT— The crop of earliest Peaches seems to have 
been nearly disposed of and the early Y'ellow Crawfords are 
beginning to appear. Prices to-day are about 25@40c per 
basket higher than Ust week. California Oranges are now 
quite scarce, but the trade is supplied with Tahiti and 
prices are not materially changed. 

HOPS— Unchanged. The New York market for the 
week ending J'jiy 3d is reported by Emmet Wells, as fol- 

Although crop reports come in a little more encour- 
aging this week, the price is fully one cent better than a 
week ago on all descriptions. The continued heavy re- 
ceipts into New York indicate a disposition on the part of 
farmers to consign and take advantage of the present 
activity in trade, which is not likely to keep up many 
weeks longer, it now being so near the time for New Hops 
to come in. Many of our large brewers, who, within the 
last few years have -acquired the habit of using Old Hops, 
have bought (|uite freely of late. The crop in England, 
according to late mail advices, is not doing well; on the 
Continent, however, a good yield is anticipated. 

OATS — Prices are sustained at the recent advance. 
Choice Surprise bring ¥1.55@S1.65 per ctl. We note sales 
of 230 sks good Humboldt Feed at .■$1,474, and 350 sks 
good California at $1.40 per ctl. 

ONIONS— The price is unchanged, exceot for choice 
Silver Skins, which range 5c higher per ctl. 

POTATOES~The Potato market has made an effort to 
reassert itself, and higher rates were reached, but the 
supply now in dealers' hands is too great for immediate 
improvement. Reports from several growing regions say 
that the fields are being left undug. 

POULTRY AND GAME— The trade is quiet and de. 
mand rather liirht. Roosters iind Broilers are a litttle 
lower. Live Turkeys have advanced about 2c per lb. 

PROVISIONS - The market for Meat products is un- 
changed and fairly active. Eastern Hams are firm; other 
articles very low and weak at quotations, on account of 
low prices of raw product. 

VEGETABLES— There are numerous variations in 
price, which will be found in our list, but the trade disJ 
closes no notable features. 

WHEAT— Wheat prices have advanced about 2Jc per 
etl for choice lots of Shipping, and the trade is quite 
atrong in view of reporta of probable European require, 
ments. Sales are few at present. 

~ WOOL— Receipts are going into store, being mostly 
choice Northern held for advance. Present salca are very 


Mayo, ctl 1 10 <ai 15 

Butter 1 75 Ctf2 09 

Castor 3 00 (33 50 

Pea @2 00 

Red 1 20 @1 30 

Pink — @1 00 

Sm'l White 2 15 S2 375 

Lima 6 00 (tf6 75 

Field Peas 1 23 (ai 50 


Southern 2 @ 24 

Northern 3@ 4 


Calitorma 4 @ 45 

German 65@ 7 



Cal. Fresh Roll, lb 15 @ 18 

Fancy Brands — (g 20 

Pickle KoU 19 @ 22 

Firkin, new 16 @ 13 

Western 12S<g 15 

New York — @ — 


Chee8e,Cal..old, lb 7@ 9 

do, new 7 10 

N. Y. State 12 @ 14 


Cal. fresh, doz.... 21 (3 23 

Ducks' — <a 20 

Oregon — @ 

Eastern 17 @ 

Pickled hero — @ 


Bran, ton 13 00 (o»14 00 

Cora Meal 20 00 >*21 00 

Hay 5 50 SU 00 

MiddUngs (a 18 00 

on Cake Meal. ..32 00 @ 

Straw, bale 40 @ 50 


Extra, bbl 5 00 fflS 50 

Superfine 4 00 goi 625 

Graham, lb 2i@ 3 

Beof, Ist qual'y, lb 6 @ 

Second 34® 

Third 3 @ 

Mutton 2i@ 

Spring Lamb 4@ 

Pork, undressed... 3Jc9 

Dressed 51@ 

Veal 6 @ 

Milk Calves 6i 3 

do choice. . . 7 @ 
Barley, feed, ctl... 60 P 80 

Brewing 90 (ftl 00 

ChevaUer — @1 50 

Buckwheat 1 25 (ttl 35 

Corn. White 72 J® 73 

Yellow 70 @ 75 

Small Round.... 85 @ 90 
Oats 1 00 -ai 50 

Pecans 12a@ 

Peanuts 4 @ 

Filberts 15 @ 


Alviso — @ 

Union City, ctl.... — 

San Leandro — @ 

Stockton — @ 

.Sacramento River. — (3 

Salt Lake — @ 

Oregon — (fti 

Rod — @ 

New Onions 40 @ 

Red, sk 40 

White, ctl 60 (A 



Petalum^,, ctl — @ — 

Humboldt — @ — 

Cuffoy Cove — @ — 

Early Rose, sk 25 ije 35 

Half M'n Bay, new 23 @ 35 

Kidney — (ft — 

Sweet — (3 — 


Hens, doz 5 00(3 7 00 

Roosters 5 00(3 6 50 

Broilers 2 50(3 4 00 

Ducks, tame, doz.. 4 50@ 6 00 

Geese, pair 1 25@ 1 75 

Wild Gray, doz.. -(3 — 

White do —.3 — 

Turkeys 18 (3— 22 

do, Dressed — @— — 

Snipe Eng - |3 1 50 

do, Common .... 50 @ 75 

Quail, doz — @ — 

Rabbits — @— 50 

Hare 1 25 (3 1 50 

Cal.Bacon.H' 8}(3 

Medium 9 (3 

Light 10 (3 

Lard 8J@ 

Cal. Smoked Beet 8 @ 
Shoulders. Cover'd 6i(g 

Hams, Cal 9 Jig 

Dupee's 13 (3 

None Such 13 ('« 

Boyd's ii\<ii 

WhittaKor 12J(3 

Royal 13»(a 

Reliable — ^ 

Clough's 13 (a 


Alfalfa, 5 (3 

Canary 45(g 

Clover, Red 15 @ 

White 50 C3 

Cotton 6 & 

Flaxseed 2i@ 

Hemp 8 @ 

Italian Rye Grass 35 (^ 

Perennial 35 (3 

MiUot 10 @ 

.Mustard, White... 5 @ 

Brown U@ 

Rape 3 (3 



I whoijBs*>b. 1 

WEItNEHDAY M,, July IS, 1879. 

do. No. 2 1 30 @ - 

Baker's A A 1 25 @1 30 

Olive, riagniol....5 25 (35 75 

Possel 4 75 (35 as 

Palm, lb 9 @ — 

LinBced, Raw, bbl. 78 @ — 

Boiled 80 (ce - 

Cocoanut 55 @ — 

China nut, C3 — (3 65 

Sperm 1 40 @ 

Coast Whales § 

Polar — (ff 

Lard — @ 

Oleophine 22 (3 

Devoe'8 Bril't n\@ 

Photolitc — @ 

Noupai'iel 31 @ 

Eureka 18 @ 

Barrel kerosene. . . 20 @ 

Downer Ker 35 @ 

Elaine 375(3 

Pure White Lead. 8 (3 81 

Whiting 1J@ — 

Putty 4 @ 5 

Chalk 1*(3 — 

Paris White 2|(3 — 

Ochre 35® — 

Venetian Red 3J(3 — 

Averill Mixed 
Paint. gal. 

White & tints. . .2 00 @2 40 
Green, Blue & 

Milling 1 60 ia\ 65 

Rve 80 (3 85 

Wheat, No. 1 1 675.31 75 ;Ky"Bluo Grass 17 

do, No 2 1 60 <rt\ 65 I 2d quality 16 (3 

do, No. 3 1 35 m 40 ISwcet V Grass. . . .1 00 (^ 

Choice MilUng. . — @1 75 1 Orchard 20 



Hides, dry 16 (3 

Wet salted 75(3 


Beeswax, lb 20 (3 

Honey in comb.. .. 5^ 

do. No 2 7 @ 

Dark 5 

Strained 45@ 


Oregon. @- 

Californla 4 @ 

Wash. Tor 4 @ 

Old Hops 3(3 


Walnuts, Cal 8 (3 

do Chile 05{f« 

Almonds, hd ehl lb 7 

Soft sh'l 16 (3 

Brazil 125@ 

Red Top 13 


Lawn 30 

I Mesqiut — ^ 

25 Timothy 7 @ 

10 I TAHOW. 

95 Crude, tt) 5 @ 6} 

6 Refined 7} (3 8 



San Joaquin and S. Coast. 

Burry 12 (3 134 

Free (dusty) 14 @ 16 

Free (choice) 15 @ 23 


9 Free 22 ^ 274 

8 BiuT-y 18 (9 22 

8 Ort-gon. Eastcru ... I'J (3 21 

18 , do. VaUey 21 (g 26 

13 ! 


Crystal Wax 17 (3— 

Eagle 12 C3— 

Patent Sperm 30(3— 

C'A\NE» tiOODS. 

Assorted Pie Fruits, 

2A lb cans 2 25 @ — 

Table do 3 50 @ — 

Jams and .Jellies. .3 75 (<« — 

Pickles, hf gal 3 So (3 — 

Sardines, qr box..l 675C31 90 

Hf Boxes 2 50 (32 75 

Preserved Beef, 

21b. doz 4 00 — 

doBeef, 41li,doz.6 50 (3 — 
Preserved Mutton, 

2 lb. doz 4 CO (3 — 

Beef Tongue 6 50 @ — 

Preserved Ham, 

2 lb, doz 6 50 (3 — 

Deviled Ham, 1 lb, 

doz 5 50 (3 — 

do Ham, *lt.doz.3 00 (3 — 
COAL— Jol»»>llig. 
Australian, ton.. 6 00 3 6 50 

Coos Bay — @ 5 50 

Bellingham Bay. — ®— — 

Seattle 5 50 (3 6 00 

Cumberland 12 00 @15 00 

Mt Diablo 4 75 (3 6 00 

Lehigh 11 50 (312 50 

Liverpool 00 (3 (i 50 

West Hartley... - @ 8 00 

Scotch - (3 8 00 

Scranton — @ 

Vancouver Id ... 6 00 @ 

Charcoal, sack.. . 75 @ 

Coke. bu.Hli f.O (3 


Sandwich Id, tb . — &— 

Costa Rica 16 @ 16 j 

Guatemala 16 (3 165 

Java 25 @- 26 

Manila 17 (3 

Ground, in cs.. . 25 @ 


Sao'to Dry Cod.. — @ 1 
do in cases. . 5 w 6 
Eastern Cod .... - 7 @- 7f 
Salmon, bbls.... 8 00 (3 9 00 

Hf bbls 5 00 (3 5 50 

1 tb cans 1 10 @ 1 12S 

Pkld Cod, bbls.. 22 00 @ 

Hf bbls 11 00 (S 

Mackerel, No. 1. 

Hf Bbls 9 50 (310 00 

In Kits 1 85 (3 2 10 

Ex Mess 3 25 (3 

PLld Herring, bx 3 00 (3 3 50 
Boston Smkd H'g 70 @— — 

LIME, Etc. 
Plaster, floldon 

Gate Mills.... 3 00 (» 3 25 
LandPl.iater.tnlO 00 (312 50 
L-ime, Sta Cruz, 

bbl 1 25 @ 1 50 

Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 00 @ 2 25 

Portland 4 00 ^ 4 tO 

Ass ted sizes, keg 2 70 (g 2 75 

Pacific Glue Go's 

Neatsfoot, No 1.1 00 @ 90 
Castor, No 1 1 36 (3 — 






Wednesday m., July 16. 1879. 


Apples, bsk — '20 (3— 35 

do, bnx — 30 (^- ;5 

Apricots, box.... - 65 (* 1 23 
Binauaa. bnoh.. 2 00 l3 6 00 
Biackb''st 2 23 (| 3 00 
Cherries, ch'st. . . — — (3 - — 

Citrons, Cal., 100 (ffi 

Oocoanuts. 100.. 10 00 (312 00 

Cunauts. chest..— — (3 

Figs, box — 50 @- 73 

Gooseberries.... (a 

Peaches 7 @ 8 

do pared ... 18 @— 20 

Pears 8 (^ 10 

Pluma 3 (3 

Pitted 125(3— 14 

Prunes 8 S 9 

Raisms. Cal, bi 1 50 @ 1 75 
do, Halves... 2 00 @ 2 25 
do, Quarters. . 2 25 (S' 2 50 

Malaga 2 75 (3 3 00 

Zante Currants.. 8 (3 10 

Limes. Mex 8 00 (312 00 lAsparagus, bo.x.. 1 2; 

do, Cal, box. . . 4 00 ® 5 00 ' Beets, ctl 
Lemons, Cal M.IO 00 @I5 00 
Sicily, box .... 8 00 @10 00 
Oranges, Cal M.15 00 (320 00 
do. small . 4 00 (f 8 00 
do, Tahiti. 18 00 S?20 01) 
Peaches, box....— 30 (3— 75 
do, bsk....— 25 i«— 73 

Pears, bx — 40 9- 60 

Pineapples, doz. 4 00 f3 6 00 

(3 1 50 

50 @ 

Beans, String...— \\<U— 2 
Cabbage. 100 lbs — &— 50 
Cauteloupes.doz 2 00 (3 3 > 

Carrots, ctl 30 (3— 40 

Oaulifiower, doz — ^ 50 
Chile Peppers. lb.— 2 (3— 3 
Cucumbers, bx . . 75 ^ 1 '25 
Egg Plants, 11)...— 8 C3- 10 
Garlic. New. lb..— 15(3- IJ 

Plums, box - 50 ® 1 00 .Green Com — 12H'5- 20 

Qiunces — ~ iGreen Pt.^8, llj 

3 ift 

10 (3 


— @— 25 

— (3— 1 

Raspb'ries, ch'at. 5 00 # 7 00 i Lettuce, doz 

St' wherries, ch'st 5 00 (3 8 00 Parsnips, lb 

DRIEI» FRUIT. iHorseradish 

Apples, sliced, lb 4 @ 6 1 Rhubarb Ih 

do, quartered. 2 (3 3 Squash, Marrow 

Apricots 15 @ fat, tu (340 00 

Blackberries.... 125(3 15 Summer, box..— 40 (3— 60 

Citron 23 @ 24i!Tomato, box....— 75 (3 1 00 

Dates 9 @ 10 iTumips, otl — 40 @— 50 

3 §e 4 White .... " " 

Figs. Black.. 




Wednesday, m., July 16, 1879. 

Sole Leather, heavy, lb 22 C3 29 

Light 20 ^ 24 

Jodot, 8 Kil., doz 48 00 (350 60 

11 to 13 Kil 65 00 C«70 00 

14 to 19 Kil 80 00 f390 00 

Second Choice, 11 to 16 Kil 65 00 (370 00 

Cornellian, 12 to 16 Kil 67 00 (307 00 

Females, 12 to 13 Kil 63 00 (367 00 

14 to 16 Kil 71 00 (376 00 

Simon Ullmo. Females, 12 to 13 Kil 58 00 ^i)62 50 

14 to 15 Kil 66 00 (370 00 

16 to 17Kil 72 00 (374 00 

Simon, 18 Kil '. 61 00 (303 00 

20 Kil 65 00 (*67 00 

24 Kil 72 00 ((f74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 KU 35 00 (3« 00 

Kips, French, lb 1 00 (<« 1 35 

(3al. doz 40 00 (^60 00 

French Sheep, all colors 8 00 (315 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs, lb 1 00 (3 1 25 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colora, doz 9 00 (313 00 

For Linings 6 50 «ilO 50 

^1. Russet Hheop Linings 1 75 @ 4 50 

oot L egs, French Oalf, pair 4 00 & 

BGood French Calf 4 00 e» 4 75 

Best Jodot Calf 6 00 (3 6 25 

Leather. Harness, lb 15 ((» 33 

Fair Bridle, doz 48 10 (372 00 

Skuting, lb 33 @ 37 

Welt, doz 30 00 @50 00 

Buif, ft 38 ^ 21 

Wax Side 07 @ 80 

Ch Yellow 3 00 (33 50 

Light Red 3 00 (33 50 

Metallic Roof... 1 30 (3d 60 
Chma, Mixed, lb.. 43@ 5 

Hawaiian 6 (3 — 

Cal. Bay, ton.... 15 00 (§22 50 

Common 10 00 @12 00 

Carmen Id 12 00 @14 00 

Liverpool fine. . .19 00 @ 


Castile, lb 8 @ 15 

(jommon brands. . 44(3 6 

Fancy brands 7 @ 8 


Cloves, lb — ^ 

Cassia 19 @ 

Nutmegs 35 @ 87i 

Pepper Grain — @ '2 

Pimento 19 @ 20 

Mustard, Cal., 

i tt. glass - @1 25 

SUCl.iR, ETC. 

Cal Cube, lb - 

Powdered — 

Fine criLshed — 

Granulated — 

(Jolden — (3 

(;al. Syrup, kgs... 70 @ 
Hawaiian Mol'ssHs 26 @ 

Young Hyson, 

Moyinie. etc — @ 

Countrj' pckd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial — @ 

Hyson 30 (?) 

Fono Chow 35 @ 

Japan, Ist quality 40 (cb 
2d quality 20 @ 





Wednesday m., July 16, 1879. 




Rough, M 18 00 

Rough, M 13 00;Fouciug 18 00 

Refuse 9 00 riuoring and Step 28 00 

Clear 23 00 Narrow 30 00 

Clear Refuse 13 00 2d ijuaUty 25 00 

Rustic 23 oOiLaths 3 50 

Refuse 18 00 Furring, lineal ft 

Surfaced 20 001 REDWOOD. 

Refuse 14 00 eetailpkice. 

Flooring 20 00 Rough, M 18 00 

Refuse 12 OO Refuse 14 00 

Beaded Flooring 23 OOjPickets, Rough 15 00 

Refuse 13 00 Pointed 16 00 

HalMnch Siding 16 00 Fancy 22 50 

Refuse 14 00 Siding 20 50 

Half-inch Siufacod 20 OOiSurfaced & Long Beaded30 00 

Refuse 14 00 Flooring 30 00 

Hali-inch Battens 16 00 Refuse 22 60 

Pickets, Rough 11 00 Half-inch Surfaced 30 00 

Rough, Pointed 12 50 Kustic, No, 1 30 00 

Fancy, Pointed 18 00 Battens, lineal ft 

Shingles 1 75 Shingles M 2 00 



Wednkhday m.. July 16. 1879. 


American Pig. soft, ton 23 00 @26 00 

Scotch Pig. ton 25 50 (326 50 

Am, rican White Pig. ton 23 00 <^ 

Oregon Pig, ton 26 50 ^ 

Refined Bar 2J@ 3i 

Horse Shoes, keg 6 00 @ 

Nail Rod — (r? 7 

NoiTvay, according to thickness 


Sheathing, lb 34 

Sheathing, Yellow 19 

Sheathing, Old Yellow — 


English Oast, lb 16 @ 

Black Diamond, ordinary 6iz«a 16 @- 

Drill 10 ((« 

Flat Bar 16 


7 V 

Plow Steol 
Tin Plates.— 
10x14 I C Charcoal. 
10x14 I Coke 

BancaTin 18(3. 

Australian 1550 17 


By the Cask 

Zinc. Sheet 7x3 ft. 7 to 10, lb. less than cask. . 

Assorted sizes 2 90@3 DO 

9 @ 

94@- 10 


(.TOBniNo riticES.] 

WiDNESDAY M., July 16, 1879. 

Eng Standard Wheat. 8i'3 9 
California Mjinufacture. 
Hand Sowed, 22x36.. 8i(9 9 

24x36 -(3ll.i 

22x40 10.',(3I0: 

23x40 lllimli; 

24x40 12i(fl2,', 

MachmoSwd, 22x36 . 9.1(3 <ji 
Flour Sacks, halves.... 8 (310S 
(Quarters 5 (9 65 

Eighths 3j^ 4 

Hessian, 60 inch 12 ^14 

45 inch 8 (S 9J 

40 inch 7J@ 84 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed, 34 lb.. 44 ^5 

4 lb do 475^52 

Machine Sewed 45 &- 

standard Gunnies.... 13 @14 
Bean Bags 7 S 74 

Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro & Co.) 

San Franoisoo, July 16, 3 p. M. 

Silver. 374(312-',. 

Gold Bars, 8'J0@910. Silver Barb, 8@19 W oent. dis- 

Exchange on New York, 20, on London bankers, 49}@ 
495. Commercial, 50; Paris, five francs $ doUar; Msxloan 
dollars, 92@935. 

London OouboIb, 97 1516; Bonds (4%), 104J. 

QuioKsiLVBR in S. F., by the flask. $1 lb, 33io. 




fjuly 19, 1879. 

Agricultural Articles. 


Easterday's Improved Cali- 
fornia Planter 

For 1879 is now ready for the Market. 

This is a Xo. 1 1: ; i u > . . Peas, and other 
Seed that iixay l»c ijlantci as tiiu jjrcuinl is plowecl, and byita 
r^ulartty greatly iucreases the yield, licsides the seed and 
labor saved. Valuable imjirovements Lave been made with- 
in the past year, and no effort lias been 8i)arc<l to make this 
Machine jiist wiiat it should he. A large number of the*e 
Machines hare been sold within the jiast two years. Our im- 
proved Machines have been constructed in the most durable 
manner, all wearing parts h- ing made of iron. They are 
easily attached to either single or Gang Plows, and can be 
thrown in and out of gear conveniently withrnit leaving the 
driver's seat. When only every second or thinl furrow is de- 
sired to be planted, the lever for the purpose neeil only be 
moved backward or forward to stop or start the Machine to 
operating. Distance of drop, from one t(» six feet, and easily 
regulated for ani'^uut and distance. Being attached to the 
Plow Beam by a l»ar of spring steel, they pass easily over ob- 
structions without in the least interfering with the working 
of the Plow, while at the same time the .\(achinc is caused to 
move firmly in the furrow. Price of the improved Machine. 
$20. All parts dupHcati'd. Full inrttructitjns Mvith each Ma- 
chine. When orderiug call for the Improve<l Machine. 

We also have on hand some of our la,'*t year's style Ma- 
chines, of which th'fcut here showni U nn excollent represen- 
tation, which we will sell at reduced rates, lliese are good 
Machines, and warranted to work perfect. AU orders 
promptly attended to. 


Manuractiu*ers. Watsonvllle, Santa Cruz County, Cal. 
BAKER it HAMILTON. Geu'l Agta.. San Francisco. 
This patent for sale by State Rights, or if desired the 
whole is offered on reasonable terms. 

The Famous "Enterprise," 

Self Regulating 


Pumps & Fixtures. 

These Mills and Pumps are 
reliable aiiJ always (five sat- 
isfaction. Simple, Btroni,' and 
durable in all (larts. Solid 
wroueht iron crankshaft with 
double bearings fortheerunk 
to work in, all tunied and 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positivebt self rrgnlating, 
with no coilsprin)L:orsprinjj9 
of any kind. No little rods. 
Joints, levers or balls to i^et 
out of order, as such thinfjs 
do. Mills in use si.x to nine years in guoJ order now, that 
have never cost one cent fi>r repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands in 
use. All uarranted. Address for circulars and infor- 


ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINFORTH, RICF 
& CO., 401 Market Street. 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 
In Stockton, in 1870 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
hvve been long in the business and know what is rciiuired 
»n the construction of Gan;; Plows. It is quickly adjusted. 
8 itHcient play is given bo that the tongue will pass over 
c-adle knolls without changing the working position of the 
shares. U is so constructed that the wheels themseh es 
govern the action of the Plow correctly. It has variout 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
and most desirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
oirciilar to 







1364 San Pablo Avenue, Oatland, Cal. 

•iM.'^";.,'""'''-;' °* "Colorado Wind Engine." Winil Grist 
Mills, rowii \Vater Works, IrrigatinE and Drainage Pumps. 
A very heavy and superior pattern of Deep Well and Arte- 
•inn Lift Pump Cyliudcrs. Circulars free. 


The Best Farm Engine '?he World. 


Less Fuel, Less Water, Less Repairs than 

any other Portable Engine. 
No Commission to Agents! Bottom Price to Purchasers! 

Engines for all purposes, with and without Wagons. 
You can save money by buying direct of us. Order early 
for next season's use. Send for Illustrated Catalogue and 
Price List. 

ARMINGTON & SIMS, Lawrence, Mass. 

ARMINGTON & SIMS were lately with the J. C. Hoadley Co 



Try one and you will Wear no other. 

Spring and Summer Styles, 

— AT — 

336 Kearny St., bet. Bush and Pine, 

— AND — 

910 Market St., above Stockton. 

Send fur Illustrated Spring St>le Catalogue. 




715 Howard St., near Third, San Francisco. 

This House is especially designe<l as a comfortable home for 
gentlemen and la^lie^ visiting the city from the interior. No 
<iark rooms, (_Ias and nmiiing wat^er in each room. The floors 
are covered with boily lirussels carpet, and all of the furniture 
is made c»f solid black walnut. Each bud has a spring mat- 
tres,s, with an additional hair top mattress, making them the 
most luxurious and healthy lieds in the world. Latiies wish- 
ing to cook for thnuaelves or families, are allowe<l the tree 
use of a hirge public kitchen and dining room, with dishes. 
Servants wash th._- dishes and keep up a constant lire fr»»nj C 
A. M. to 7 y. M. Hot and cold baths, a large parlor and reafl- 
ing room, containing a Orand Piano— all free to guests. Price 
single rooms per night, 50 cts. ; per week, from S2.50 upwards 

B. HUGHES, Proprietor. 
At Market Street Ferry, take Omnibus Une of street cars 
to corner Third and Howard. 






M;inufactured by the 

Rust Weil Auger 


OF M.4CO\. MO. 

ALiiEKS and uKILLS from best wrought 
r.)n and steel. Shafting is ^-inch gas pipe. 
I'ouplings are ruund plugs fitted inside the 
pipe, l/rills fitted for rope or pole. All 
tools irarranteii, and sold for less money 
than can he got elsewhere. 

Send for Circular. O. RUST, Macon, Mo 



SI. 50 

Homoeopathic Medicine Case. 

Containing 12 pnncipal remedies, with directions for 
use. Also Veterinary cases and books. Send for cata- 
logue. Address BOERICKE & TAFEL, 
Homoeopathic Pharmacy, San Francisco. 

ITe-w Dusters. 

D E A R B O rTT D U S T E R S , 

Taking the place of all Feather and other Dusters. Made 
in six sizes, retailed from 35 Cents to 41. The best, most 
durable Dusttr now known. Trade supplied. Address 

No. 12 California St , San Francisco. 


"^^^r*^ The best Ri 
fWKf\ 'oot guarante 

I / H. P. ( 



ubher Hose in ni;irket. Kvery 


General Agents, San Francisco. California. 


Pertumea, SnowHake, Chromo, Motto Cards, name in 
gold and jet 10c. 0. A. Spring, E. Wallingtord, Ct. 

Stock Notices. 


Choice stock of thoroughbred Bucks and Ewes, guaran- 
teed free from disease. Purchasers are invited to exam- 
ine. About 10 minutes' walk from the Railroad terminus, 
adjoining State University. , 
Berkeley, Alameda County, Cal. 




40 Head of Horses, 

Will arrii e about Sept. 1st, 1879. 






Grand Prizes in Europe and America, 

.\ward*;d Grantl Medals by the French Government, and 
alsoOmnd Medal, Diploma and Spcci.'il Ke]Kirtatthe 


The largest and most Complete Establishment of the 
kind in .\merica. 

i^My Catalogue, with history of the breed, sent free. 


WajTie, DuPage County, Illinois. 

Th.orougb.'bred Mares, 


Some of all the abo\ e for sale. For particulars address 
the undersigned, 


San Francisco, Cal 


Tlie undersigned would announce to thoeo interested in 
ANGORA GOATS, and the public generally, that lie will 
have a lot of 

Choice Angora Bucks 

On Exhibition at the State and District 

This fall, iiamely: At the State Fair at Sacramento, the 
Golden Gate Fair at Oakland, the Nevada State Fair at 
Reno, and the Oregon State Fair at Salera. 
These Bucks will be sold at fair rates. 


Hollister, San Bcnilo Co , Col 


My Berkshircs are Tlioroughbrod, and selected with 
great care from the best herds of imported stock in the 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit can- 
not be cxct'Iletl. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
"American Berkshire Record," where none but pure bred 
Hogs .ire admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 


18th and A Streets, SacTanicnto City, Cal 

Thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep 


Wool Growers sod 
Sheep Breeders de- 
sirous of imorove- 
ment are inritedto 
examine the Ban- 
nrr and Prrmiiim 
flock of the Sute. 
All lat Prenilnma 
taken at State Fair 
ill 1878, with strong 
ci'iupetltion- Nu 
Hheep superior In 
',he world. 

100 head yearling 
and 20 heail 2'year 
old Kama for i^le. 
lart(e sized carcaiM 

free from wrinkles. Ileavy shearers. long staple of white 
glossy wool. A few young Kwts also for sale. lir All Sheep 
warranted free from Disease. Send for circular and price 
list or come and see us at once. Laurel Ranch. Haywards, 
.\lauicda County. Cal. One mile from depot on C. P. R. R 




Curiit^r Market and ^th His., San Francisco, 

HORSES an.! MILCH C«)WS sold on comraission. Also, 
dealers in HAY and GRAIX. 

Parties coiifcigning Stock or Grain to us can rely upon 
I'rninpt sales and r|uick returns. 



Sasy Calculator. 

ThiH valualde work is used bv thousands of farmers, 
mechanics and business men, and is highly recommended 
for its practical utility and convenience. 

It embodies an entirely new system of calculation, by 
which a vast amount of ffj^resand mental labor— required 
by the ordinarj- methods— and fractions with their com- 
plexities, are absolutely avoided. 

It is so simple and ea.sily conipreliended that even the 
most illiterate is enabled, in a few minutes, to reckon 
with abfiolute accuracy and speed; while ita ori^pnal and 
mi'id niethckds, benefit and dclij^lit the most scholarly. 

It shows at a ^jrlance the accurate value of wheat, com, 
rye, oats, barley, cattle, ho^s. hay, coal, lumber and mer- 
chandise, from one pound to a car load, and for any price 
the market is likely to reach. 

It gives the iitterest, simple and com|)ound, on any sum, 
or any time, at six, seven, ciy^bt, and ten i>er cent.; the 
exact measurement of boards, scantlings, timbers, saw 
!og8, eisterna, tanks, wells, granaries, bins, wagon beds, 
corn cribs, etc. , the wages at various rates, for hours, 
days, weeks and months; besides numerous other imiK)r- 
U\ut methods, rules and tables. 

It is printed on fine tinted paper, is well and elegantly 
found in pocket-book sha;ic. and accom(>anied by a sili- 
cate slate, iwcket for pajK-rs, and memorandum, which 
can be replenished in the two latter styles. 

It answers the purpose of a pocket book and diarj', and 
costs no more, although it was gotten up at great expense 
ind labor, and is unquestionnniy one of the most useful 
publications ever issued from the i)rcs8. 
Price, boiind in Pine Engflish Cloth, $1.00. 

Sent dire..-t from the Kastem publisher, postpaid, on 
receipt of price, by P. O. order, registered letter or 
receipted Dy express. Address 

DEWEY & CO.. San Francisco. 


With 30 Changes of Position. 
Patented in the United .States and Foreign Countries. 
BEST rrv % TR ix THE WORLD. 


LIBRARY. ^^^^ 



_ _ _ Comfort. 

Same Chair in Can. .s^a^u.t;. -.k.. irablefor Bummer. 

Manufactured of th-- best of wiuught Iron and riret*. 
Castors made for the Chair. Kverything to au 
exact scieiice. WILL LAST A LIFE-TIME. 

Has been awardid Meilals, Prizes and Diplomas for its 
superiority and merit wht rever it has been exhibited. 

Orders by mail promptly attt-nded to. (itxKls shipped to 
any address. C. O. D. Send for Illustrated Circular. 

Addrefs the Wilson Aiui stable Chair M fo Co.. 

535 Washington St., Boston. 

M.ik.-si .. Mi.wk.- nr Mil- 11. l.i^- 1.. i:u riLimiie>>. 
uivc. a U*ft,]i,r;il ^oU hi.ii ck-ar li^hi. li.-vt-r re-i'i ns 
triinm iiy. nc\vr burr,* out. The wi.-k<* nro ninHe of 
Fell, cliemicMlIy pn-paml witli Asbf,stos, vhich It 
oon-combustible, ihoreby render nc the wick Per- 
petual. AHintfic wick was Ijiirned in ihe PHicnt Ottico 
at Wa^hlnirtoi), hytho oftiwrs ot thrtt (b'lrtruncni, lor 
}4(i dnya hikI iii^his (Hii)io<it hiinilni; onf), iM'fore a 
pAtcnt would bo grautcd. Stmplo by mAiI, inc; 3 fur 
tcc; &>e \»cr dot. 
Agents wanted. A'Klit-^s 

A. S. SPENCE & CO.. 

24 Geary St , San Francisco. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half vear eiuiinc thix "late, the Board of Direc- 
has declared a Diviilcnil on Term DeiKjsits at the rate of 
seven anil one-flfth (7 1-5) per cent, per annum, and on 
Ordinary licrK>sits at the rate of six («) per cent, per an- 
num, free from Federal Taxes, and payable on and after 
the 15th day of July, IbTU. By order. 

GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 

San Francisco, June 30th, 187«. 




The New Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price ^2 per irallon Vttr direeiions and testimonials, 
apply to FALKNER, BELL & CO., 

Sole Agents. 430 California Street. S P 

507 Mechanical Movements. 

?;very mcehiinic Should have a copy of Brown's 507 Me- 
chanical Movement."!, illustrated and described Inventors, 
inodel makers and amateur mechanics and students, will 
find the work valuable far beyond iu cost. Sold by 
DRnrKT & Co., Pateut Afrcnts and publishers of Huiitia 
AND ScmsTiKic PRIC88, San Francisco. Price, $1, (post psii 

July 19. 1879.] 





This Jar is extensively used in the Eastern States. It is 
the most popular, cheapest, and without doubt the simplest 
and most elfective Fruit Jar now in use. It is by far prefer- 
able to any Patent Self -Sealing Jar, and are as cheap as the 
poisonous tin cans. 



San Francisco and Pacific Glass Works, 





— AKD — 


At the Lowest Rates. 

Corner of Alameda and White Streets, 


Andersoxx's Springs, 


Nineteen miles from Calistoffa, five miles from Middle- 
town^ and ton miles from the Great^ Geysers; between 
which and Anderson's Sprir.(;s there is a ffood stag^e road. 


For Rhenmatisra, Paralysis, etc ; Cold Sulphur for Dys- 
pepsia, Diseases of the Stomach and Bowels. Scener\' un- 
surpassed. Climate mild and equable. Consumptives 
generally improve in health, and asthmatics are invaria- 
bly relieved. 


Deer Hunting in the Immediate Vicinity. 

^^Accommodations and Cookery ^ood. Board from 
810 to $12 by the week. 


Winchester Repeating Rifle 

MODEL 1873. 

string measuring from center of tar- 
get to center of eacla shot, 32 
Inches. Average distance of 
each shot, 1 9-100 inches. 

The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 

The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting, 
Defense, or Target Shooting. 

The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating: Arms Company, to wit : 
Round barrels, plain and set, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, plain, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel set 
24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set, 24 
26, 28, 30 — extra finished, case hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch- 
extra finished— C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— beautifully finished- C. H. & C. S., 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carbine? 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co,, for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 

Sole Agent for Dupont's Mining, Blasting, Cannon, and Celebrated Brands 

of Sporting Powder, 

JOHN SKiNKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Francisco 






Stories of California Life. 


The best delineations of Western character and inciden 
ever produced on this coast. For sale by 


PRICE, $2 00. 

A Card to Grangers and Farmers. 


Tbe undersigned is now prepared to receive and edl Hay. 
Grain, Horses and CattLi that may be consigned to him at 
the Highest Market Katea, and will open a trade direct with 
the consumer without the inteivention of middlemen. He 
also asks consumers of Hay and Grain and Stock buyers to 
co-operate with him, and thus have but one commission be- 
tween producer and buyer. Address S. H. DEPUY, Now. 11 
and 13 Bluxome St., San Francisco. 

The New Beekeepers' Text Book. 

By N. H. and H. A. The latest work on the 
Apiary, embodying accounts of all the newest methods 
»nd appliances. Fully illustrated. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, for $1. DEWEY & CO., 202 Sanaome Street. S. F. 

MERRY, FAULL & CO., Proprietors. 

We are prepared to receive on Consignment, CATTLE, SHEEP aud HOGS, charging mod- 
erately for killing, delivery and guarantee, and making advances to shippers on receipt at our 
Yards, which are supplied with every convenience. We assure our customers a 


For their product, and invite their inspection of our facilities, which are the best on the Pacific 
Coast. We shall be pleased to give all information in our power as to Market Prices. 
Please address our 

Principal Office, No. 415 Front Street, Cor. Merchant, San Francisco. 

In consequence of spuriom imitations of 


•which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrim 
have adopted A N£W LABEL, bearing their Signature, 


c ■ > 

which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCEy and withotit which none is gemtine. 

Ask for LEA <5r* PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester ; Crosse atid Blackwell, London. 

&c. ; and by Grocers and OilTnmt throvhout the World, 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San Francisco. 

Mission Rock Dock & Grain Warehouses, 


40,000 Tons Capacity. Storage for the Season, $1 per ton. 

Grain received and weighed in free of expense Wheat Cleaned and Graded. Deep Water Berths for the largest ships. 
Insurance and storage at the lowest rates. Loans effected on wheat stored in Warehouse at lowest rates. Apjily to 

CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Superintendent, 

Or to the California Dry Dock Co., Office, No. 318 California Street, San Francisco. 


We will give tlie use of 50 acres or more of choice land, 
rent free, for one year, with the privilege of purchasing 
at a low price thereafter; crops of all kinds may be planted 
nine months of the year. Apply to 


Bfiom 10, No. 320 Sansorae Street, San Francisco. 



McAFEE BROS., Real Es»'.le and Loan Brokers 
20ii Sansome Street, - San Francisco. 


Pyrethrum Cinerarife Folium— A California 


This wonderful Insect Powder will exterminate Tlies, 
Weevils, Caterpillars, Mo.s(iuitoes, Mirlges. Crickets. Cock- 
roaches, Spiders, Tarantulas, Scorpions, Ants, Hawk-bugs, 
Phylloxera, Plant Lice, Moths, Beetles, Grasshoppers, Lo- 
custs, Bed-bugs, Fleas, and every .species of Insects. 

ar^Rcmeniher that none is genuine unless my Trade-Mark 
is attached to evi ry package. 

Put up in eight-pound cans at SIO per can, wholesale. Ask 
your druggists and grocerynicn for it, and take no other to 
rid yourself of Insects. Sold at .Sl.iiO per pound or 12J cents 
per ounce, retail, Agents wanted evei-ywhere. 
$100 Will be Faid if it Fails to Kill any Insect. 

Endorsed by Prof. E. W. Hilgard, of the University of 
California, and by Prof, C. V. Riley, Chief Entomological 
Commissioner at Washington, D. C , and pronounced supe- 
rior to any imported article, and perfectly harmless to man 
and beast. 


Patentee an<l Sole Manufacturer, Stockton, Cal. 

The Voice of Worship, 


Conventions and Singing Schools, 

This splendid new book ia nearly through the press, and 
will be in great demand. Full collection of the best 
Hymn Tunes and Anthems for Choirs, numerous Glees 
for Social and Class singing, and a good Singing School 
course. Its attractive content^ with the low price ($1, or 
$'J per dozen,) should make it the most popular of Church 
iMusic Books. 

THF TPMPIF ^o"" Singing Schools, Conven- 
* I't- I U If 11 tions and Choirs. By W. O. 

Perrixs. Will be ready in a few days. First-class book 
for Singing Schools, with large collection of Glees ,ind 
plenty of Hymn Tunes and Aniiieins. Price. i\, or ?9 per 
dozen. AUhough Singing Classes are especially provided 
for, both the Secular and Sacred Music render it one of 
tbe best Convention and Choir books. 

FAT! NIT 7 A '^^^ ^""^ very favorite opera, 
is now ready, with words in three 
languages, all the Music and Libretto complete. Price, 

S2 paper, $2.25 boards. 

Price reduced to .'iO cts. The same 
elegant edition heretofore sold for a 
dollar. Complete words, Libretto and Music. All ready 
for the stage. 

Any book mailed for retail price. 


C. H. Ditson & Co.. 843 Broadway. N. Y. 



We wish to open correspondence immediately with one 
or more enterprising parties in each township upon the 
Coast to 

Establish an Agency 

Of our valuable imblications, among wliicli are tbe "Pic- 
torial History of the World," Stanley's 
Through the Dark Continent," "Chase's 
Improved Recipes," the Farmer's Account 
Book, and many others. Ministers, teachers, farmers 
and others will find this profitable. Ladies especially ar» 
successful. Address for full jiarticulars, 


No. 721 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 


Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 


Communications Promptly Attended to. "SJl 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cookb & Orboort. 




Wholesale .and Retail Dealers in 

Say, Grain and Feed. 

Also, Store and Sell on Commission at 
Reasonable Rates. 

receive prompt attention, and returns forwarded as soon 
as sales are made. For further particulars address as 

1535 Mission St., San Francisco. 


Will pay Aj,'i'iiU a, Salary of $1(10 per inuiilh and 
expenses, or allow a large cnnimission, to bcU our new 
ftna wonderful inventions. Wc mean what we say, 6am» 
Vfr^e- Address ^^U£RMAN & CO.. Murulmll, Mich. 



f July ig, jSj'g. 

^^^EY A GO'S 

Scientific Press 

The Mining and Scientific 
Press Patent Agency was estab- 
lished in i860 — the first west of 
the Rocky Mountains. It has 
kept step with the rapid marcli 
of mechanical improvements. 
The records in its archives, its 
constantly increasing library, the 
accumulation of information ol 
Eoecial importance to our home 
inventors, and the experience ot 
its prof rietors in an extensive and 
long continued personal practice 
in patent business, affords them 
combined advantages greater 
than any other agents can possi- 
bly offer to Pacific Coast invent- 
ors. Circulars of advice, free. 


202 Sansome St., N. E. Cor. Pine, 
San Francisco. 

Pocket Map of California and Nevada. 

Compiled from tho latest authentic sources, hy Clias. 
Drayton Glbbs, C. E. This map cooiprisue information 
obtained from the U. S. Coast and Land, Whitney's State 
Geological, and Railroad Surveys; and from the results of 
explorations made by R. S. Williamson, U. S. A., Henry 
Degroot, C D. Gibbs and others. The scale is 18 miles to 
1 m<ni. It gives the .Tudicial and U. S. Land Districts. 
It distinguishes the Townships and their subdivisions; the 
County Scats; The Military Pi>sts; the Railroads built and 
proposed, and the limits of some of them; the occurrence 
of gold, silver, copper, quicksilver, tin, coal and oil. It 
has a section showing the hights of the principal moun- 
tains. The boundaries are clear and unmistakable, and 
the print good. 1878. Sold hy DEWEY & CO. Price, 
postpaid, $2; to subscribers of this journal, until further 
notice, $1. 


And Graded 


K Rams For Sale. 

Bred from the first impor- 
tation of Spanish Merino 
Sheep to California, in 1859. 
Prices to suit the times. Residence, one mile north of 
McConntll's Station, Western Pacific Division C. P. II. R. 
P. 0. a.ldress, MRS. E. McCONNELL-WILSON, 
Elk Grove, Sacramento Co. , Cal. 



On Country Real Estate and Grain in 

McAfee brothers, 

202 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

C nrrrr>\iln tv Superior Wood and Metal Engiai - 
LllKraVinR. "'t'- Electrotyping and Stercotyp- 
I ■ Q I VI I ■ • ■ Q • ing done at the office of the 
AND SciK.\TiFic pRKss, San Francisco, at favorable rates. 
Bend Bt:imu for our circular and samplea. 

Rfl P"f'"<"il, gilt edge & chtomo Cards, Inelegant case, name 
•'w m gold, lOo. Atlantic Card Co.. E. Wallingford, Ct. 


Ill T!IL 

Celebrated Detrick ' E W " 22x36 Grain Bag. 

qui; No. 1, No. ami No. 3 SECOND HAND GRAIN BAGS selected and graded with care. 

rflTWriTT^TCC* 3, 4 and 5-ply for Grain Bags. C and 8-plv for Potato 'Junniea, ;i-plv K.XTRA kink foi Flour 
A W Xi^ Jui9* Bai's, made expressly for our trade and (^UAHTY GUARANTEED. 

FLOUR B ACS Printed to Order witiioi t kxtra ciiarok. POTATO GUNNIES, Wool, Bean, Ore and 

Suit and Seanilcss Cnttori B:i:;s. 

Tents, Awnings and Hydraulic Hose. 


119, 121 and 123 Clay St., and 118 and 120 Commercial St., San Francisco. 


Shasta Co., Cal 

Good Land! 
Sure Crops ! 
Prices Low. Terms Easy 


The K a .1 i n • 
R-mcli. iTi thr t I'- 
per Sacranuni'^ 
valley, <>ri|;iiial y 
cmhraciii); in<-r 
a>,0(H) acres 11' 
choice i,'''*'"t 
li.-ird and pasture 
land, is now 
offered for 
sale at low 
prices and on 
V J f a V o r a b I c 
tcrtiiH of pT\ . 
ment, in b>it.- 
di\i.Ti'.ni to 
mit purcli:i.>. 

Tile ranch 
was si.licleil 
at an early day by Major 1'. li, 
Reading, one of thelari'csi pioneer 
land owners in California. It is 
situated on the «cst side of tlie 
."^acraiucnto River and extends 
over 20 Hiiies along its bank. 
The average rainfall is about 30 
inches per annum, and crops have nci cr 
been known to fail from drouth. 

Tho climate is healthy and desirable. 
Tlio near proximity of high mountain 
polks give cool nights during tlic 
" heati-d terra" which occurs in our Cal- 
ifornia summers. 

P.asturage, w.>od and good water arc 
abunciant. Tho tillaite land is mostly 
level, with complete drainage. 

Figs, Grapes, Peaches, Prunes, .VI 
monds, English Walnuts, Oranges and 
other temperate and semi-tropical fruits 
raisca with success on most of the tract without 
irrigation. ANo, Alfalfa, Vegot.ibles, Corn and all other 
cereals ordinarily prown in the btate. 

The soil throughout the tilled portions of the ranch 
proves to he of great depth and enduring in its giKwl 
qualities. It is quite free from foul growths. Thovir^-in 
soil among the large oak trees on the bottom land is eu- 
iiy broken up and cultirated, 

Tho title is U. S. patent. Prices range principally from 
$5 to S30 per acre. 

The (.'aliforiiia aiiil Oregon railroad traverses ntar!; 
the entire length of the tract. There are several sec- 
tions, stations and switches, besides depots at the tow ns 
of Anderson and Reading, all of which are located 
within tho limits of the ranch. 

The Sacramento River borders tho whole tract on the 
southeast. Its clear waters are well stocked with lish. 
Good hunting abounds in tho surrounding country. 

Produccis nave a localniarket, which cnnanccsthe value 
of their produce. Thorailroad tr.xnsportation route isleiel 
thioughout to 8iin Francisco. A portion 
of the land is auriferous and located near 
rich mines now being worked. Land 
suitable for settlers In colonies can be 
obt lined on good terms. 

Town lots are offered for sale in Read- 
ing, situated on the Siciamejito river, at 
the present tcnninus of the railroad. It 
is the converging and distributing point 
for large, prt>s()erous mining and agrictil- 
tnral districts in Northern Califoni.a and 
s.iuiherii Oregon. Also, lots in the town 
• if .Vnderson, situated more centrally on 
the ranch. Lots in both these t'lwiis are 
■ •(Ti ivd at a bargain, for the purpose of 
ildiiiir up tho towns and lacilitatihg 
M itlcment of the ranch. 

1 u chasers are intited to come aiul 
see the lauds before buying here or 1 
• Isew herc. Apply on the raiK.'h, to 
the jiroprietor, 

Anderson, Shasta Co , Cal. 
P .s ■ -Send post. ige stain]> for illus- 
trated paper containing infoniiation 
;.Itt'Ut Shasta county and these lands, 
and -ay ad\ertiscd In this paper. 

Location of Shasta County. 

Shasta County lies not far fr 

midway between the two most ini 
|)ortant jHirts on the Pacific shon , 
f. c, San Francisco and Piirilund. 
Orcfon, and directly on the overland 
route, which in the future will be 
conic the grand thoroughfare from 
it<fa^ \b-\ico to British Columbia. The 
'<w3*io»vn of Reading, at present, and 
probably for years to come, ti e head 
of railroad trans|j<>rtati"n 011 tin- 
California side of tho moiiinains in- 
tervening below Oregon, is distant 
from San Francisco by rdlroud (via 
Vallejo) 25S miles; from«iiU> 
City, li'O miles; from .\la' > »;;;.•, 117 











IIOTfinTn COl'NTKIK.S; tradcnnirKs. lii)ifl.s and copy- ] 
rnin IIS rcgistcrLd thruUKh DKWEViCO.'S C 

I UlUJIlp illNINO and .SCIENTIPIC PlcESs' Patent i 

Aseocy. Sao Francisco. Sond for froc circular 

Ttils paper la printed with Ink furnished by 
Chaa. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South lOth 
St . Philadelphia ^ 59 Oold St.. N Y. 

Commission Merchants. 


No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

RBrsRBHCK.— Tradesmen's National Banx, N. Y. ; Ell 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
mento, Cal. : A. Lusk & Co. , San Francisco, Cal. 


Commission Merchants, 


No. 8 Davis St., near Market, San Francisco. 

CuiRLES Naiiman. Frank Nacmak. 

O. & F. NAUMAN &. CO-, 

Wholesale Commission Merchants 

- ASl) PEALf.KS IN — 


227 & 229 Washington St., San Francisca 

i^Xkmsignnients Solicited. 


Commission 3Iorchant, 

General Agent for ths CALIFORNIA SACK HOLDER. 

306 Davis St., San Francisco. 

Liberal advances made on Consignments. 

A. GALLI & CO., 

General Commission Merchants, 


Tropical, California and Oregon Fniits, Nuts, Produce, 
Butter, I heese, Poultry, Eggs. Honey, Hides, 
Potatoes, Grain, Wool, Etc. 
516 and 518 Sansome St., San Francisco. 
iHTCash can be drawn for immediately upon receipt ol 
account of sales. 


Galvanized — 

Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 


Wire Mills. 
Office, No. 6 California St. 



Of every kind on hand or Made to Order. 

Washington College. 

The Fifteenth Senii-Annual Term of this Institution 
will commence on 

Thursday, July 31st, 1879. 

Catalogties can be had at Bancroft j£ Co.'s Bookstore, 
San Francisco, and at Hardy's Bookstore, Oakland. 
Kor further Information address 


Washington, Alameda County. Cal. 


Tension Sewing Machines! 

A larire number of nearly new genuine SINGER, 
GKOVEK & BAKER, DO.MESTIC, etc , will be sold very 
cheap, many as low as $10. These Machines were Uken 
in exchange from families for the "AUTOMATIC" or 

Wilcox & Gibbs' S. M. Co., 

No 361 Twelfth Street, Oakland, Cal. 

Volume XVIII.] 


Number 4. 

Curing Rooms for Cheese. 

Oftentimes there has been loss occasioned to 
our California cheese producers because of in- 
adequate accommodation for the proper curing 
and storage of cheese. In former years much 
more money could have been realized if the 
cheese maker could have held his product at 
home for two or three months, but lacking con- 
veniences for this he has been obliged to ship to 
the city when the market was overstocked, and 
has realized very low prices in consequence. 
Last year and this year so far there seems to 
have been an excess of cheese, although greater 
amounts have been held back in the country 
than ever before, and country curing and stor- 
age facilities have been greatly improved. How- 
ever, the possession of a good curing and storage 
room is a necessity to good cheese dairying, and 
when the business revives, a little investment 
will be wise in this direction. To show how 
highly such accommodations are valued by the 
leading Eastern producers, we quote from the 
Utica Herald, a brief description of a new cur- 
ing room just completed by Dr. L. L. 
Wight, one of the most progressive 
New York dairymen. He has a sepa. 
rate building, 30x104 feet in size, and 
two stories in hight. As originally 
built the walls of this building were 
plastered, then furred out an inch and 
plastered again, thus giving two air 
chambers between the clapboards and 
the inner coats of plaster. This, of 
itself, made a room of quite even tem- 
perature; but the doctor thought it 
could be improved. Accordingly last 
spring he again furred, not ouly the 
aide walls but the floor and ceiling, and 
this time lined the entire lower room 
with planed boards about five inches 
wide. This gives an air chamber both 
in the floor and ceiling, and three of 
them in the side walls. The windows 
also are double, which gives one large 
air chamber between the outside and 
inside sash. In the second story the 
walla are plastered twice, with an in- 
terval between. The ceiling also is 
boarded and a floor laid in the attic, 
upon which is laid some six inches of 
sand. This protects the room from the 
heat of the roof. At night the windows 
of the whole establishment are left 
open in warm weather for the circula- 
tion of the cool night air. Early in 
the morning they are closed, and the 
shutters also, and thus a wonderfully 
even temperature is maintained. On 
the day when we visited there the aun 
was 86' outside. On examining the 
thermometer in the lower room it was just 70°, 
while in the upper room, which is not so well 
protected and would naturally be warmer, it 
was only 76°. Steam pipes run all through the 
house, and in cold weather the temperature can 
be controlled to perfection. 

We have not in moat parta of the State as 
violent extremes of heat and cold to guard 
against as they have in New York, consequently 
80 thorough a deadening of walls, etc., is not es- 
sential. And yet even in the coast regions a 
partial application of the method would be an 
advantage. As dairying is pushing its way into 
the lower and warmer regions of the State there 
should be the better regard paid to arrangements 
for curing, and the New York method of circum- 
venting heat would be worthy of introduction. 
Cheeaemakers by fully availing themselves of 
arrangements for controlling temperature will 
And that the quality of their cheese is greatly 
improved, and they are, to a certain extent, 
maaters of the situation, being able to place 
their gooda on the market when the trade calls 
for them. 

Honey East and West. — The great reduc- 
tion in the honey yield of our southern counties 
this year will doubtless give our Eastern apiari- 
ans a chance to realize higher figures for their 
surplus. The Beekeepers' Magazine also an- 
nounces that "the widespread destruction of 
the bees in all the Northern and Western States 
during the winter and early spring, cannot help 
having a healthful influence on the market for 
the crop of next autumn, and we venture to 
predict that the prices which will be paid will 
nearly double those of last year." It will be 
well if our producers can maintain the founda- 
tion of their stocks, for next year may make 
them all prosperous again, because of the clear- 
ing out of honey which will occur with this year's 
short crop. Even the low prices for the last 
crop are regarded by our contemporary as liable 
to work good results in the future, "for when 
delicious honey came down almost on par with 
New Orleans molasses, thousands commenced 
using it who had never hardly tasted honey be- 
fore, but have now acquired a liking for it 
which they will not soon forget, and so the 
army of consumers is greatly enlarged." This 
is_as it should be. The American people know 

One-Horse Ranches. 

One of our correspondents recently remarked 
forcibly upon the advantage to the State of 
numerous one-horse ranches, the inference being 
that by multiplying the number of small farmers 
our State could be strongly built up in prosper- 
ous and home-loving citizenship. The idea is 
not new, but very true, and the realization of it 
would compass the cure of many of the evils 
which now exist. There are various ways in 
which the salutary condition may be promoted. 
The agriculturists of Georgia have hit upon 
one which is certainly worthy of attention. 
The North Georgia fair association offers a 
premium of $50 for the best single one-horse 
farm, being "for the largest and best display, 
in merit and variety, of sample products from 
the field, garden, orchard, dairy, apiary, etc. , 
the contribution of a single one-horse farm." 
Some of the conditions of the award are that 
one horse only shall be employed to do all the 
work for which a horse is used; and one regular 
hand the year through. All extra help in the 


TuE British Crops. — The London Farmer 
of June 30th has this expressive comment upon 
the grain outlook: "To bring up the harvest of 
the United Kingdom to an average yield is now 
a feat beyond the ability of any weather to" 

very little of the desirability of honey for food, 
and the sooner they get educated in this line, 
the better. 

DoiiBTi'ui- Statements about Rennet. — The 
able editor of one of our esteemed Boston ex- 
changes must have printed one of his French 
correspondent's letters without reading it or he 
never would have permitted such a statement as 
this to pass without comment: " The different 
varieties of cheese do not ferment at the same 
temperature, nor under the influence of the 
same organisms, as fermentation cannot exist 
without the presence of animalcules; for each 
variety of cheese a different species of animal- 
cule is necessary." We know that something 
like thia waa long claimed, but the closest in- 
vestigation failed to disclose the "little ani- 
mals." Afterward the fermentation was attri- 
buted to plant growth reproducing itself as in 
the case of the yeast plant. Later still the co- 
agulation of milk has come to be regarded as 
the work of an unorganized ferment. The 
means of action of rennet in milk is one of the 
obscure things which still baflle the investigator, 
and dogmatic statements like that we quote 
should not be printed without stating that they 
rest wholly upon theoretical grounds. 

Lord Beaconsfield has declared that it is 
generally unwise to press foreign governments 
too strongly on the carrying out of treaties; it 
must be left to moral influence. 

I growing season and in harvesting the crop shall 
not exceed the labor of one additional field 
hand, so that all the labor on the farm during 
the year shall be equivalent to not more than 
two field hands. In addition to thia display at 
the fair we think the English system of award- 
ing a premium for the condition of the farm 
itself might be introduced to advantage. A 
small committee of competent and disinterested 
examiners examine the different farms entered 
for competition and prepare accurate reports of 
the points on which their judgment of supe- 
riority rests. Thus the practice on the best 
small farms is published for the public benefit 
and many get hints for the improvement of 
thair own enterprises. The subject is worthy 
the attention of our State Board of Agriculture. 

Early Grapes. — Unless we lost sight of 
earlier shipments, the first grapes reached the 
San Francisco market thia year about July 10th 
— considerably later than usual. St. Louis, 
therefore, led us by about 12 days, for she re- 
ceived Alabama grapes, Ives and Hartford va- 
rietiea, June 28th. They arrived in nice order, 
being packed in three-pound boxea, eight to the 
case, and sold at $3 per case, which, according 
to the Rural World, is much lower than early 
.eceipts usually bring. 

Larue quantities of fruits and vegetables, 
particularly potatoes, are being shipped at a 
profit from San Franciscc co Denver, Colorado. 

Notes on Geysers. 

Intimately connected with volcanic phenom- 
ena and in fact forming subordinate volcanic 
phenomena, geysers command the attention and 
study of the scientist, as well as excite the won- 
der of the ordinary beholder. Caused for some 
important purpose in the economy of nature, we 
should say vent holes for the relief of over-bur- 
dened mother earth, the true geyser should not 
be mistaken for the fumaroles, the so-called 
geysers of California. The true geyser is found 
only in Iceland, in the Yellowstone Pa»k of the 
United States and in New Zealand. Iceland is 
an essentially volcanic plateau, elevated about 
2,000 feet above the sea level, with only a nar- 
row marginal habitable region sloping gently to 
the sea. Upon this elevated plateau exists 
every sort of volcanic action, viz. : lava erup- 
tions, solfatara.s, mud volcanoes, hot springs 
and geysers. These last exist in great numbers; 
more than 100 are found in a circle of two miles 
diameter. One of these, the Great Geyser, is 
well known to our readers. 

In magnificence of geyser displays, Iceland is 
far surpassed by the geyser basin of 
Fire-Hole river, in the Yellowstone re- 
gion. This basin is only about three 
miles wide. Around it are abundant 
evidences of prodigious volcanic activ- 
ity in former times, and secondary 
volcanic phenomena are developed at 
the present day on a stupendous scale, 
and of every variety. More than 10,000 
vents of all kinds are found in this vi- 
cinity. On Gardiner's river, the hot 
springs arc mostly lime depositing; on 
Fire-Hole river the geysers deposit sil- 
ica, containing an enormous quantity 
of diatom<Bceous formations, some of 
them of a marine species mixed with all 
the varieties usually common to fresh 

The geysers are generally surrounded 
by hive-like elevations, ornamented in 
some cases in the most exquisite man- 
ner by a snowy d^osit from the hot 
geyser waters, in the fonn of scalloped 
embroidery set with pearly tubercles. 
The illustration in Fig. 1 will show the 
appearance of these surrounding depos- 

In some places the silica is deposited 
in large quantities, three or four inches 
deep, in a gelatinous condition like 
starch paste. Trunks and branches of 
trees immersed in these waters are 
soeedily petrified. The water of gey- 
sers is simple spring water, and they 
are true springs and not volcanoea. 
Mackenzie supposes that the eruptions 
are caused by the condensed steam 
of heated water seeking a vent and forcing the 
water up through the geyser pipe, as in Fig. 2; 
a shows the opening into the geyser; 6, the 
chamber in which the steam condenses. As the 
steam accumulates it forces the column, c, up 
through the opening or vent at d, with greater 
or less force, according as the supply of steam 
is greater or less, and then when the steam has 
escaped, the geyser returns to its quiescent 
state until another accumulation ocours. This 
theory, however, seems to be untenable on the 
ground tliat it is inconceivable that all of the 
many thousands of geysers should have a sep- 
arate cone and conduits so peculiarly con- 
structed. According to Bunsen, the geyser does 
not possess a cave or even a perpendicular 
tube, ready made, but, like volcanoes, makes 
its own tube. 

Fig. 3 is an imaginary section of a gej'ser 
mound, showing the manner in which, accord- 
ing to Bunsen's view, it is found. 

The irregular line, b, a, c, is the original sur- 
face, and a the position of a hotspring. If the 
spring be not alkaline, it will remain an ordi- 
nary hot spring; but if it bo alkaline, it will 
hold silica in solution, and it will be deposited 
about the spring. Thus the mound and tube 
are gradually built up. For a long time the 
spring will be hoilinrj, but not eruptive. But 
as the tube becomes longer, and the circulation 
more and more impeded, the diflferenco in tem- 

Oontinued on page 57- 




(July 26, 1879. 


We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents. —Eds 

Agriculture on the Humboldt River- 

Editors Press:— Slowly, steadily we plod- 
ded our weary way down the Humboldt in '49, 
wonderine; what the vast, dry, desolate, rugged 
region was ever made for. Now the problem is 
partly solved, though more and more of the 
truth for ages will be unfolding. A highway of 
the world is built through the desert, and the 
commerce of nations is passing along it. The 
mountains are yielding up their untold, inex. 
haustible resources of wealth in gold and silver, 
increasing the circulating medium — the very 
life-blood of the world's body of business. Its 
great, quickened heart-throbs are felt through 
all the habitable earth, and the results for good 
thousands of generations in the future may ex- 

Of the dried up, worthless, sagebrush valley 
of this river, large extents are being easily re- 
claimed by irrigation and made to blossom as 
the rose. The whole length of the Humboldt is 
becoming lined on each side with enclosed, 
grassy, wild meadows, or cultivated fields, green 
with barley, wheat, rye, oats, potatoes, and all 
the vegetables of the East. Groves of trees arc 
beginning to be grown, hedges to be set out, 
good roads surveyed, pleasant buildings put up, 
school houses erected, and lots of children are 
seen sporting in the play grounds or making 
unnumbered homes happy by their presence and 
their prattle. 

From Wadsworth, on the Truckee, to the 
head of Humboldt lake for 60 miles the region 
is dry and desolate with alkali. But imme- 
diately above the lake line lands commence, 
irrigated by nature and by art. The Big mead- 
ows, we judge, may be 20 miles in length and 
on an average, three miles wide, all of which is, 
or can be, easily supplied with water from the 
river to ensure excellent crops. Lovelocks is 
the railroad depot and growing place of busi- 
ness for all this region. I>id space permit, we 
should like to particularize the improvements of 
this section and mention the fine farms of I^aw- 
son. Trembly, Craig, Carr, Tulley and Smith, 
with others, all of whom are taking the Rtrai, 
Press, but the country is too large and too 
grand to stop long in description of each place. 

Above here the railroad mostly leaves the 
river and passes over the dry, sagebrush por- 
tion, yet the river is everywhere claimed, and 
the adjoining plain generally fenced in for stock, 
with occasional cultivated fields to Winne- 
mucca, a distance of 70 miles. 

Is the county seat of Humboldt county, with 
fine grassy plats above and below it, used almost 
entirely for pasture and hay. We were told 
that for 14 miles above this place a wandering 
ox could not find access to the river for drink, 
all being fenced by claimants. The town itself 
is next to the largest on the river; is pleasantly 
built and gradually growing— sure to be a perma- 
nent and prosperous point of business. Its 
population must be 700, with a fine court house, 
good school, and one church. The Winne- 
mucca hotel is worthy of especial mention as 
first-class for Nevada State; well conducted, 
quiet and neat, with every convenience. 

At this point Little Humboldt comes in from 
the north. Taking the stage, or better, on 
horseback, with a good animal from Montana's 
stable, a splendid ride of 45 miles takes one to 
Paradise City, in the center of a very fine, rich, 
productive valley of the same name. 

Paradise Valley, 
As reported by the Assessor, has 14,000 acres of 
tilled or plowed land, with more than twice as 
much in wild or cultivated grass. The valley 
has great facilities for irrigation from many 
mountain streams coming down into it on three 
sides, and is being improved in an admirable 
manner. Thfe only failure is that no common 
fruit can be raised, because of late frosts. This 
must everywhere be true in Nevada State, with 
possibly few rare exceptions, as all the valleys 
are from 4,000 to over 7,000 feet above the 
level of the ocean. This Paradise valley is 
nearly 6,000 feet, still wheat, barley, rye and 
oats grow very luxuriously. The wheat in the 
whole region sown is, so far as we have heard, 
the variety called Australian. 

Here, too, we should like to specify the beau- 
tiful farms and residences of a dozen or so all 
enjoying the Rcrai. Press, if only time per- 
mitted, as those of Abel, Burge, Riley, Nich- 
ols, Lamance, Pierce, Hinkey, BradshaW; 
Sperry, etc. But space and time forbid more. 

The excellent silver mines now opening in 
the vicinity, promising very permanent and 
good returns, we regard as assured, and to be all 
and some more than they have been reported to 
be. As yet they are proved by the working of 
only one mill of ten stamps, while another good 
one is being built. Rich as the mines seem to 
be, also those over the western range at Wil- 
low creek, the greater richness of this region 
we think to be in the agricultural wealth of the 
splendid valley. But this wealth is not yet 
one-sixth developed. 


Returning to Winnemucca we took the cars 
for another 20 miles to (iolconda. Here the 
I>ay Bros, arc developing a large, very fine farm 
of splendid grain and every variety of excellent 

vegetables. One of the largest hot springs of 
the State is on this farm at Golconda, and the 
water is brouglit to the hotel for medical bath- 

Mr. Cusick has a fine stock farm a little 
lower on the river. Forty-five miles more and 
one comes to 

Battle Mountain, 
The third town in size on the Humboldt, a 
town with not much of farming near it, the 
river with its grassy flats being some distance 
north. Yet the place has a beautiful irrigated 
10-acre lot — a perfect gem of a tract — connected 
witli the fine hotel of Mr. Huntsman. From 
this point lines of stages run to different min- 
ing localities, to Galena, to Lewis and to Tustin 
on the south, to Tuscarora and other places on 
into Idaho on the north. They have a good 
schoolhouse, about 4!S children attending, and, 
with all, the place is steadily developing in a 
good, American, civilized manner as one for 
permanent homes. From here there is nothing 
more like a farming town for near a hundred 
miles to Elko, though the river banks are yet 
mostly claimed for stock. Still we are sure 
that by windmills, pumps, dams and ditches 
this great valley of the Humboldt, so level, dry 
and covered with sage, -maybe made to glow 
with all that is beautiful on farms, except in 
the larger fruits, forty-fold beyond anything 
yet realized in it. The soil, with water, is as 
rich and productive as almost anj' valley within 
the national limits. Every part of it will be 
needed in less than 200 years, when our popula- 
tion must be between one and two thousand 
millions. We ought, by every possible govern- 
mental measure, to retain all our territorial 
lands for those of our own race, with no danger- 
ous distracting elements to our children. 

S. V. B. 

Characteristics of Santa Cruz County. 

Editors Press: — As you have many readers 
who are writing to me for information concern- 
ing the chance to make "pleasant homes" in 
Santa Cruz county, without too great an outlay, 
I would ask the privilege of answering such in- 
quiries through the Press, for the benefit of 
such inquirers. 

Santa Cruz county is pretty equally divided 
into mountains, foothills and level bottom land> 
nearly all rich and well adapted to the growth 
of wheat, barley, oats, corn and vegetables; 
and especially to the growth of a great variety 
of choice fruits — a greater variety perhaps 
than any other locality in America, being re- 
markably free from extremes of heat and cold, 
and not troubled with drouth, or excessive 
rains or storms. These never occur; our coast 
is Uuely "pacific." The mountains are not 
very high, and are covered principally with red- 
wood and taubark oak; and consequently there 
is a good deal of lumber and leather manufac- 
tured, both beigg of superior quality. There 
are also vast quantities of excellent lime made 
here, and shipped to San F'rancisco and other 
places; for we have cheap transportation, both 
by sea and rail, and have no trouble in go- 
ing to market. Besides, in consequence of the 
manufacturing interests, and the great influx of 
visitors in summer, we have a home market for 
our agricultural and most of our horticultural 

The county is well watered, and lumber and 
fire- wood are handy and cheap. There are good 
roads all over the county, so that you can travel 
in any direction with ease. 

The land is all good, and the title is good. 
You can buy land in quantities from one acre 
to thousands, cultivated or uncultivated, from 
S3 to S500 per acre. There are many pleasant 
homes to be had at from $30 to S50 per acre, 
and a good many for less, on wild land. But 
there are three things that make this county 
particularly desirable for homes: the pleasant 
climate, the certainty of crops, both grain and 
fruit, and the advantages of a market. As for 
society, it may be called good in comparison to 
that of other localities or of o'ther States. Our 
educational facilities are good, and there are 
churches enough to accommodate all that wish 
to go, and places of amusement for those who 
are that way inclined. The people are gener- 
ally peaceable, industrious and moral. The 
population consists principally of New Eugland- 
ers — mostly from Maine. 

With regard to the location of Soquel, I will 
state that it is on the Soquel creek four miles 
east of Santa Cruz (the county seat) and l(i 
west of Watsonville. It is a mile from the bay, 
where is located the much frequented camping 
and bathing place called "Camp Capitola," a 
place visited by thousands every summer for 
health and amusement. Here you will find 
assembled on the sand beach hundreds of the 
best citizens in the State, of all ages anfl both 
sexes, bent on fun and amusement, on the sand 
and in the water. "False modesty" is laid 
aside, and genteel women and pretty girls will 
drop the "pull-back" and make their way from 
the "dressing tent" straight to the bay, in their 
picturesque bathing suits, and tuen look out 
for fun. 

My place is one and a half miles back from 
So(iuel, in the foothills, and I am engaged in 
growing fruit, and I can show as healthy trees 
and fruit as can be found anywhere; and what 
is still better, is that with proper care the fruit 
crop is a sure thing and finds a good market, 
and my location is no exception. 

M. P. Owen. 

Soquel, Cal. 

StfEEf \HD Wool. 

Constitution in Sheep. 

R. M. Bell, a leading Missouri sheep breeder, 
gives tYie Journal of Agriculture his ideas of con- 
stitution in sheep. We quote as follows : 

Dr. Randall once said if he were asked the 
first point essential in a sheep he would say 
constitution. And the second point would be 
constitution, and the third would have to be 
constitution. The fact has been generally fixed 
in the minds of all that constitution is all im- 
portant in a sheep as T.°ell as any other animal. 

We are at a loss though to understand the 
term in all its varied usings. It becomes a rela- 
tive term. If for a Short Horn it means apti- 
tude to mature early and grow rapidly and 
maintain good health under the most abundant 
and liberal treatment. In a buft'alo it means to 
travel and endure hardships and find a precari- 
ous living on the plains. The two animals are 
so similar in bulkiness and so unlike in form to 
judge either by the other would be no criterion 
at all. A Short Horn is judged by roundness 
and width of heart region. A buffalo by the 
depth of chest, the same as a race horse, or deer, 
or greyhound or jack rabbit. These have con- 
stitution to travel, while a Short Horn, or Xor- 
man-Percheron horse, or a Berkshire hog, or Cots- 
wold sheep or Southdown has constitution for 
laying on flesh and early maturity under high 
treatment. Constitution in a Merino sheep will 
admit of all these meanings of the term and still 
lack what we claim as the essential purposes a 
sheep is kept for. A sheep must produce a fleece 
and a carcass. The two must be in harmony 
and unanimity. If it has constitution to grow 
more wool than carcass it will be a failure. If 
carcass and a light fleece it will be unprofitable 
to its owner. If for the pastoral regions to run 
in the natural way with the flock it must be 
constitutionally fitted to travel, do service and 
secure a living on the range. If for the pur- 
poses of breeding on a flock in the hands of the 
average farmer or breeder, the broad back and 
well-sprung ribs are sought for. They are found 
to be the better feeders and best to lay on llesh 
and grow large and heavy carcasses, and, by 
some it is claimed, heavj' fleeces. The claim is 
not so well sustained for fleeces as for carcasses. 

A Spanish Merino sheep that has a perfect 
constitution, for the purposes for which a sheep 
is kept, will have constitution written all over it 
from top to bottom. It will show it in every 
fiber of its fleece, in its bone muscle, in its 
stand up and bright shapely appearance. In a 
Merino the fineness of the fiber usually tells its 
constitutional vigor and stamina. The Saxons 
were tender and feeble under some climatic 
influences and systems of treatment. So are 
some of the finer fibered families of the Ameri- 
can Merinos. The stronger fleeced families are 
the heaviest shearers and most rugged, robust, 
healthy, long-lived of sheep. They withstand 
hardships, travel, bad treatment, uncqualed 
by any sheep known as thoroughbred. The 
Cotswolds, T-eicesters and Downs are constituted 
for an especial purpose and fill it with perfect 
promptness and fitness. In them the indices of 
vigor are as plain, as sure, as in Merinos. The 
fineness of fiber may be less distinct in vital 
forces than in the Merino, but doubtless follow 
the same rules one as the other. 

When a breeder says he breeds for constitu- 
tion, he ought to say for what purpose, so that 
we may know just what good thing he means. 
If he says to grow wool, we would like to know 
if they grow too much wool to be healthy and 
vigorous with good treatment. If they are 
vigorous from fullness of constitutional vigor, 
we would like to know how much they will 
shear in 365 days- an almanac year, not a 
sheep shearing year for breeders who would 
show big fleeces. One of the handsomest sam- 
ples of wool wo ever received came from a ram 
who had taken prizes at a Western fair. I 
showed the sample to a judge of wool aud told 
him where it came from. He said he saw the 
ram and that he was no account to any man for 
he had no constitution at all. That he saw him 
at their last fair, and he stood up all the time 
and slept with his ears hanging down like a 
sick mule. In this case there was constitution 
to grow handsome, long-fibercd fleeces, and not 
get up enough to lay down to sleep. We have 
seen some vigorous, bouncing, pounding, 
thundering rams without fleeces, at least too 
little to use in a vigt)rous flock of ewes. These 
hail vigorous, physical constitutions, but not of 
character to grow wool. 

There has to be a proper combination of vital 
forces to make up what is desirable in constitu- 
tional endowment. I once asked my family 
physician what he would call constitution in an 
animal. He said an animal's constitution was 
in its belly. He said constitution meant stock 
with its capabilities of digesting and assimilat- 
ing food to the various wants and purposes of 
the animal. 

We think this true, but have seen a sheep 
with stomach-vigor enough to insure health, 
large symmetrical carcass, but its skin so illy 
fitted for growing wool that for that purpose 
might as well have been an imbecile scrub. 

Constitution is the creation of a fostering 
system of treatment, and not as claimed by 
some who are ignorant of all laws of physical 
development, and think neglect and hard treat- 
ment hardens and toughens young animals. 
As if suffering and shivering could possibly aid 
in securing a perfectly full physical contour. 
Queer hygienic treatment for a feeble man or I 

woman to put them out of doors in the cold, 
stormy nights to toughen up. Under such a 
system the frailest ones die and the hardier 
ones survive, and the flock may appear more 
vigorous, but what a shame would come to any 
really intelligent man to think what a cruelty 
he had been guilty of in securing the death of 
his feebly constituted animals. It's as mean as 
turning the faithful, honest old horse into the 
road to find a living or die of hunger or thirst. 

Extracting Gape Worms. 

A reader lately asked for a method of ridding 
fowls of gape worms, and treatment was de- 
scribed by Col. Eyre. We find in the Rural 
Xev) Yorker a method described by Henry Hales, 
a leading poultry writer at the East. This 
method, it is said, is very difficult to apply suc- 
cessfully and almost im]x)ssible to learn unless 
one sees it done, and yet we give the description 
in case some careful operators may succeed with 
it, for it is exceedingly simple when the skill 
is acquired : 

Take a low seat, hold the chick's feet tightly 
between your knees, with its head to your right 
hand ; open its mouth, and with your right 
thumb and finger take hold of its tongue and 
draw it forward so as to bring the entrance to 
the wind pipe so far forward that you can see 
the entrance plainly and get at it easily ; pass 
your left hand on the off side of the patient, 
and place your left thumb on its tongue to keep 
it forward. The back part of the tongue forms 
a shoulder ; placing the thumb on this enables 
the operator to hold it still, with the left fore- 
finger under its lower mandible; the unoccupied 
fingers of the left hand can be placed behind 
the bird's head to prevent its pulling back. 
Have a stiffish feather — a secondary quill of a 
hen will do for chicks six or eight weeks old — 
regulated according to the size of the patient, 
but just stiff enough to prevent its doubling 
while it is being inserted. It must be stripped 
to within one-halt or three-quarters of an inch 
of its end. To cut off the barbs close to the 
stem with the scissors is the best way, as the 
stem often tears through if stripped by hand. 
Wet the tip end and twist it so that it forms a 
sharp point, and brush back the remaining barbs 
so as to form an arrow-head with the feathers. 

When the chicken is held as described, you 
can see the wind-pipe opening and shutting ; 
catch the opportunity while the wind-jiipe is 
open and run down the feather as far as it will 
go without too much force, keeping the chick's 
head up and its throat extended up straight, so 
that the feather passes readily down. Make 
sure the feather is in the wind pipe aud not in 
the throat. When quite down commence to 
twist it sharply and draw it up slowly, and it 
generally brings the worm or worms the first 

Sometimes it is necessary to insert the feather 
a second time, but not often, as it disturbs the 
worms, so shat the patient often coughs them 
out. The points to be remembered in this op- 
eration are: The preparation of the feather, the 
size to suit that of the chick, and the holding of 
the patient's tongue tightly, with the entrance to 
wind-pipe well forward aud its head up, and 
neck up straight, to facilitate the operating of 
the feather. 

Langshan Fowls. 

We called last week for experience with the 
Langshan fowls. While our California readers 
who have these birds are preparing articles for 
us on what they think of the breed, we will 
print a paragraph from the London AgricuUural 
Gazette: The Langshan fowls are now occupy- 
ing considerable attention in English poultry 
circles. The writer says he is convinced from 
examination that whatever affinity they may 
have to the Cochin race, they possess sufficient 
characteristics to entitle them to the possession 
of a claim as a separate class from Cochins. It 
appears to him also that they are well adapted 
for farmers' poultry, and that few breeds are 
more suitable for farmyards. These fowls are 
remarkable as winter layers, at a time other 
hens are idle. Beginning in the autumn, they 
will lay from !)0 to 100 of fair and rather over 
the average size of eggs. They are careful 
mothers. The male birds weigh from 8 to 
12 pounds, the hens from 7 to 10 pounds. 
They make weight rapidly on ordinary fare, 
averaging something like a pound a month for 
the first six months. The writer has not tested 
them as table birds, but is informed that they 
rank only second to game for the flavor of the 
flesh. Thus, they are hardy, fertile, and pos- 
sess plenty of weight for the table — three most 
essential qualities for the farmyard. There 
were some beautifully feathered birds among 
the flock examined, so level and smooth are 
they, aud the neck and wing feathers a beauti- 
ful beetle green, shine and scintillate in the sun 
in a variety of hues. They also possess the 
pink skin between the toes, which is not found 
in the Cochins, and the tails and other contour 
of the Langshans are dissimilar from Cochins. 
The gentleman who is raising them extensively 
in England says that so long as they are sup- 
plied with green food occasionally in the form 
of a sod of grass, they thrive and lay almost 
equally as well as those which have the range 
of the farm. The hen chickens begin to lay at 
five months old. 

July 26, 1879.] 




Pacific Coast Halibut 

At the last meeting of the California Academy 
of Sciences a paper was read by W. N. Lock- 
ingtou on new and rare fishes of the Pacific 
coast. We shall print these notea in sections as 
space will allow. This week we give notes 
about Pacific coast halibut ; 

I have lately been occupied in studying the 
flat-fishes or Pleuronectidaj of this coast. Since 
the date of my last paper on the subject, I have 
been fortunate enough to find another new 
species, and also to verify the occurrence in our 
markets of a species of a halibut ( Hippoglossus ), 
which is probably identical with the European 
species. It will be as well, therefore, to com- 
mence the present paper by recording some addi- 
tional information respecting this group of fishes. 
Prof. Theo. Gill, of the Smithsonian Institute, 
writing in 1864, enumerates 16 species of Pleuro- 
nectidae from the Pacific coast of North America. 
Not that Prof. Gill had seen all these species ; 
the list was a literary enumeration of species 
described by various authors. Among them 
were two species described by the old Russian 
naturalist, Pallas, and inhabiting the seas be- 
tween Kamtchatka and North America. These 
two species have not yet been, with certainty, 
identified, and, as descriptions of that date 
were very short, giving but few characters of 
the animal described, it is not unlikely that one 
or both of them may be identical with species 
now known under other names. Two of the 
species enumerated were characterized by Dr. 
Gunther, of the British Museum ; two or three 
by Dr. W. O. Ayres, formerly of this city, and 
one by Prof. Gill himself. Most of the others 
had been described by Girard in the " Pac. 
Rail. Rep.," vol. X.; but one of these, the 
common flounder, with rough scales and striped 
tins, had been proved by Dr. Gunther to have 
been first noticed by Pallas. In the following 
■year, Prof. Gill added another species to the 
list, making 17 in all. I am thus particular in 
giving the number because I wish to prove to 
you this evening how it is that, although I have 
found three new forms, the distinctness of which 
I could prove in five minutes to the satisfaction 
of any person who would take the trouble to 
look at them, I am yet in a position to con- 
fidently assert that the distinct species yet 
known on this coast are ftioer than 17, the 
number to be found in Prof. Gill's memoirs. 
Let us begin by leaving out the two unidentified 
and perhaps more northern forms described by 
Pallas, and the northern Pleuronectes glacialis, 
of Richardson. We ought then to have 14 
species upon this part of the coast, without 
counting the three I have lately found. But 
there are really only ten species, excluding the 
three just found. It may not be amiss to show 
how these "nominal" species were made, es- 
pecially as in so doing it will be made evident 
that the most learned and acute men, working 
from a few specimens preserved in alcohol, or, 
worse still, dried or skinned, may fall into errors 
which those who describe from quite fresh speci- 
mens are not likely to fall into. Girard's de- 
scriptions were incomplete and too often taken 
from young, immature specimens, or from a 
single specimen. From this insufficiency of the 
descriptions of Girard it came about that 
Gunther and Gill, from specimens forwarded to 
them, redescribed the same fishes that were 
described by Girard as so many new species, 
not recognizing the identity of their specimens 
with Girard's. 

One of our common flounders was thus made 
into three species, for one of which Dr. Gunther 
is responsible, for the other. Prof. Gill. The 
latter authority doubted the former's species, 
but added another, describing it in terms which 
are but a better description than Girard's, of 
Girard's species. Our "Turbot" was so indis- 
tinctly characterized by Girard that when Dr. 
Gunther received several specimens of it, he 
thought it another species, and placed it in 
another genus. Prof. Gill doubted the distinct- 
ness of the two, but in the absence of material, 
could not prove their identity. These errors 
were all of a nature which no naturalist, unless 
he have before him a series of fresh specimens, 
can avoid falling into ; but so much cannot be 
said for another of Gill's species, founded on a 
sun-dried specimen of a flounder sent him by 
Dr. J. G. Cooper, from San Diego. The de- 
scription of this fish, a very full and complete 
one, most unmistakably applies to a form very 
common in our markets, and first described, but 
incompletely, by Girard. The character on 
which Prof. Gill's new species and genus were 
founded are simply those due to the rough way 
in which the fish was preserved, and I cannot 
but wonder that Prof. Gill did not perceive the 
identity of his specimen with Girard's species. 

Again, I have lately been able to prove that 
one of the species described by Dr. Ayres, viz : 
Hippoghssus californicus, the California or Mon- 
terey halibut, is identical with a species pre- 
viously described by Girard. Girard's name, 
Paralichthys inaculosus, has precedence of Ayres' 
name, and must be retained as the scientific 
name of the species. 

I will now give a few notes upon the species 
of Pleuronectidce not mentioned in my last paper. 

Hippoghssus vulgaris. — A true halibut, very 
nearly related to, and possibly identical with, 

the halibut of the Atlantic, is occasionally 
brought to this market, but as yet I have only 
seen one speci(nen, or rather part of one, since 
the central portion had been sold away before I 
saw it. Its rarity may be inferred from its 
price, which was 50 cents per pound, but I am 
told that as the season advances it may proba- 
bly become more abundant. The first to bring 
the occurrence of this fish on our coast to the 
notice of naturalists was our Dr. Ayres. (Proc. 
Cal. Ac. Sci., vol. 1, p 40, 1855). "Another 
species, in which the eyes are on the right side, 
is occasionally taken near the Farallones, oppo- 
site the mouth of the bay, which I do not feel 
warranted in separating from H. vulgaris, with- 
out direct comparison. " Fin-rays, D. 102, H. 
73, p. 16, V. 6. 

Dr. Ayres, though he suspects the identity of 
this fish with the European form, does not prove 
it ; and as this point has never been proved, I 
am most anxious to procure a specimen for this 
Museum, so that it can be examined at leisure, 
and its characters compared with the European 

The only notes I could take were as follows : 
Eyes far apart, the distance between them 
equalling or exceeding their longitudinal diam- 
eter ; teeth numerous, in a double row along 
both sides of both jaws, with some irregular 
teeth not in the exact line of the rows, but be- 
tween them ; branchios tegals (the bones sup- 
porting the gill-membrane) seven in number. 
About twenty caudal rays, the principal ones 
several times bifucate, posterior margin nearly 

The specimen weighed between 40 and 50 
pounds, but this flsh attains a far greater size 
and weight. It is said to be common upon the 
more northern parts of our coast, also on the 
coast of British Columbia and Vancouver's is- 

Note. — Since writing the above, I have been 
informed that Prof. B. Goode, of the Smithson- 
ian Institute, says that the Alaska halibut is 
identical with the European form. 

About June 12th, a schooner load of this 
species, brought, packed in ice, from Vancou- 
ver's island, for once glutted the market with 
halibut. One of these fishes that I measured 
was 5 feet 1 1 inches in total length, and one 
weighed 220 pounds. 

Carp Culture iu San Bernardino County. 

The Colton Semi-Tropic gives an interesting 
account of carp growing in that vicinity, from 
which we quote as follows: We recently paid 
a visit to the carp-breeding ponds of Mr. J. H. 
Pettit, on Colton avenue. Mr. Pettit is one of 
the pioneers in this branch of industry in this 
county, and is enthusiastically devoted to it- 
He has undoubtedly mastered the difficulties 
which beset one at the commencement of new 
enterprises and has an assured success within 
his grasp. 

He has two ponds at present, and expects 
soon to add more. His two ponds are connected 
by a large gateway and are, for all ordinary pur- 
poses, converted into one by raising the water 
a foot or so higher than the separating embank- 
ment. The water for the ponds is furnished 
from two sources; first, from an artesian well 
on the place adjoining, and second, from several 
fine springs that were uucovered when making 
the excavations for the ponds. There are waste 
weirs, as well as sluiceways, for completely 
drawing both ponds. 

The area covered by the two ponds is about 
two-thirds of an acre, the depth of water rang- 
ing from 18 inches to eight feet. There are no 
sides nor bottom to them but the native earth, 
the carp being a native of muddy waters, and 
delighting to bury itself in the mud at the 
bottom. This fact renders the making of ponds 
an easy matter, as the growth of grasses in them 
is an aid rather than a detriment to the fish. 
For the same reason the ponds need no cleaning 
if no putrefying matters are allowed to foul the 

Extraordinary stories are told of the enormous 
growth and fecundity of carp. Mr. Pettit's 
own experience leads him to think that these 
stories are not fabrications, but facts. He says 
the young fish will grow an inch a week, and 
that they fatten as easily as pigs. He had only 
a few fish last year, while this year he has over 
2,000, and more coming all the time. As they 
do not eat one another, but live on vegetable 
food, the losses from any cause are small. The 
best time to sell carp for table use is when they 
are four or five years old. The Germans have 
from five to seven ponds connected together. 
One is used for a breeding pond and one of the 
others sold out every year. 

Mr. Pettit will have several thousand fish to 
sell this fall and next year expects to be able to 
supply all who come. The importance of this 
industry caunot be overrated and we shall al- 
lude to the subject again and again until the 
public is fully aroused to the importance of 
securing so valuable an addition to the tables of 
our people. 

Dyed Cocoons. — A Spanish silk spinner has 
hit upon the ingenious idea of adding dyes to 
the warm water which is used for detaching the 
silk fibers from the cocoon, and thus to dye the 
fiber as it is being formed into thread. His ob- 
ject Is to obtain a dyed thread which is to con- 
tain all the natural gum and luster, and which, 
on that account, will retain the color more easi- 
ly and readily. 

Apple vs. Citrus Fruits. 

A writer in the Climate Cure, a new venture 
in New York journalism, writes concerning the 
apple and the fruits of the citrus family, in 
whiofa the former is rated by far too low. IIow- 
ever the comparison is an interesting one to 
fruit growers, and we quote the leading para- 
graphs : 

I find the a2)ple designated as the "Prince of 
fruits. " Now I wish to expostulate, and enter 
my "bill of exceptions" (as the lawyers say) 
against this (with us) long exploded delusion. 

The apple contains three constituent parts 
which can readily be recognized by the non- 
scientific. Malic acid, sugar and a spongy 
indigestible pulp, the latter you must either 
swallow or get rid of by turning your mouth 
into a miniature cider mill, to separate the juice 
from the pulp, in any case the only palatable 
part of the apple is the juice, which is made up 
of more or less sugar (generally less), malic acid 
and water. The malic acid is not recognized 
in the "materia medico," as possessing any cura- 
tive properties whatever, but is considered ex- 
ceedingly injurious if taken alone, and it seems 
that the less of it swallowed the better, hence 
the saccharine part of the fruit is its only valu- 
able component. 

The pear, who no doubt was at one time 
nearly related to the apple, is a wholesome, 
palatable and digestible fruit, and so much 
superior in the social scale of fruits to the apple, 
that the latter should never be mentioned on 
the same day. But neither have any claims on 
royalty, the true and reigning family is the 
citrus, and it is so known and admitted by all 
enlightened people (where less than 20 inches 
of snow fall at a time) in every part of the 
world. The sweet orange is the "crowned 
head," the tangerine is "royal consort," and so 
on in the order of their excellence to the lime, 
which is the most intensely sour, and might be 
called the "little joker at court." 

But my dear (old time) lady friend at my 
elbow, says, "you can't make anything of 
oranges but to slice them with sugar." Now I 
can pardon her, as she never lived in the tropics, 
and knows only one life, while I have lived two 
lives, one under King Boreas, and another of 
many years under the gentle dominion of King 
Sol ; so my judgment is certainly of more value 
than my friend's, because having heard both 
sides, I can judge understandingly between the 
claims of the contestants for the crown. Al- 
though in my youth I was brought up to support 
the " pretender," simple, plebian Mr. "Apple," 
who, in his humble sphere, furnishing "hard 
cider," and dyspepsia-breeding "apple pies," is 
useful enough — to the doctors — nevertheless one- 
third of my life spent in a land where he does 
not find a place in the humblest garden, has 
convinced me that in my youth I hnew nothing 
of heraldry in fruits. You know as well as I, 
that we make puddings, pies, preserves, marma- 
lades, jellies, wines and ambrosia from the 
"royal" citrus tribe. They are all rich in "citric 
acid" (the most wholesome and medicinal of all 
chemicals, a tonic and antiscorbutic), and most 
of them contain a large proportion of sugar, 
besides possessing no deleterious properties 
whatever. The sour, unripe specimens of the 
citrus family which find their way to New York, 
furnish no criterion. In a year's residence in 
this city, I have seen but two oranges that were 
fit to eat, and they came from somewhere in the 
South. The imported fruit is gathered green, 
and tastes precisely as our "wind falls" do, 
when they lie two months on the ground, and 
turn yellow in the first stage of decay. 

J^E "Field. 

Quality of Wheat and Time of Cutting. 

In a leisure hour, if such a thing should come 
in harvest time, some reader may be interested 
in some notes on the quality of wheat for flour 
as influenced by the time of cutting. We take 
such suggestions from a paper prepared by Prof. 
N. H. Townshend of the Ohio State University, 
for the Farm and Fireside: 

For the purpose of human food, the most 
valuable constituents of a grain of wheat are 
starch and gluten. Starch forms on the average 
about 60% of the kernel; it is one of the com- 
monest and most important articles of food. 
Gluten is even more nutritious than starch, its 
composition being more nearly that of animal 
substances, but it is found in the wheat kernel 
in much less quantity than the starch; in Ohio, 
wheat it may amount to 10% or possibly to 15%, 
while in drier climates the proportion is greater. 
In addition to the value of gluten as food, it 
has properties which make it especially valu- 
able in combination with starch for making 
bread. It forms with water a most tenacious 
paste, and when fermentation, or chemical ac- 
tion, is set up in dough, this paste forms a thin 
pellicle about the bubbles of carbonic acid gas 
as they are produced, and retains them. This 
retention of the gas causes the dough to expand, 
or rise, so that when baked in this condition 
the bread comes from the oven thoroughly vis- 
cular or light. A flour exclusively of starch, or 
containing insufficient gluten, will not retain 
the gas, and consequently does not rise; the 
more gluten there is •'u flour, the more per- 
i fectly the dough made of it rises, and the lighter 

and better the bread. Flour from sof> 
which contain abundance of starch but ai 
cient in gluten, command but a low price for 
bakers' use in Eastern cities, while flour from 
flinty wheat, which is more glutinous, and 
strong enough to raise itself not only, but possi- 
bly a mixture of cheaper flour and a good quan- 
tity of water, is in good demand and at higher 

A question which may help to fix the proper 
time for cutting grain, hero presents itself. 
Are the starch and the gluten deposited in the 
wheat kernel at the same time, or does the de- 
position of either precede that of the other? 
One means to determine this is by the use of 
the microscope, and accordingly, observations 
were made almost daily through the month of 
June and July. The method pursued is very 
simple; a thiu slice across a kernel of wheat was 
put on a slide and wet with a drop of water, 
then a little tincture of iodine was added; the 
iodine turns the starch granules blue, and leaves 
the gluten uncolored. Using a two-third or 
one-half inch objecture, it could bo seen that 
while the kernel is "in the milk," starch grains 
are formed and begin to bo deposited, while not 
until the kernel has passed into the doughy 
stage can gluten be seen. When first visible 
the gluten cells form a layer next the bran; 
they are circular or irregular in form, some dis- 
tance apart, and manifestly not filled; later in 
the season they fill and crowd each other into 
square form, and when quite full the rows of 
gluten cells appear much like the ends of bricks 
in an arch. Numerous observations will war- 
rant the conclusion that the starch begins to 
be deposited in the kernel before the gluten, 
and also that the starch cells may be well filled 
while the grain is still soft; that the deposit of 
gluten begins later than the starch, and that 
the gluten cells are not thoroughly filled until 
the kernel begins to be hard. In hard and 
flinty varieties of wheat the gluten was found 
to form earlier than in soft wheat, such as Claw- 
son; with the latter the gluten continued to in- 
crease to the time when circulation was arrested 
by the drying of the straw. 

There is then no reason to doubt that early 
cut wheat makes the whitest flour and bread. 
The real issue, however, is not one of color, but 
of quantity. If the flour of early cut wheat is 
white from the absence of the usual percentage 
of gluten, and the presence of disproportionate 
amount of starch, such flour will be weak, will 
not rise, or stay up as well, and in short, will 
not make equally light, tough, moist and sweet 
bread. The wheat of dry, inland regions is 
more flinty and glutinous than that of moister 
.climates, and makes a better flour. 

Tl|i I 

Parsnips as Dairy Feed. 

The London Farmer translates from a French 
exchange the following account of a new variety 
of parsnips and its value as dairy feed: "At 
the last meeting of the administrative council of 
the Societe dos Agriculteurs de France it was 
decided that a gold medal should be awarded to 
M. Le Bian, in recognition of his indefatigable 
zeal of growing the panais fourager of Brittany, 
to whose merits we have before called attention 
in our cdlumns, and his generous gratuitiwus dis- 
tribution of the seed to his brother agriculturists 
in all quarters. During the course of last year, 
M. Le Bian forwarded packages of seed to 1,250 
different applicants, and by the end of the first 
month of the present year he had already re- 
ceived 770 requests for a supply for the season. 
From reports sent in from various departments, 
it appears that the yield has been everywhere 
from 40,000 to 60,000 kilogrammes per hectare, 
and sometimes even more considerable. Farm- 
ers are unanimous in stating that cows show a 
marked preference for these roots over other 
foods, and that it notably increases the quantity 
and improves the quality of their milk. It has 
also given excellent results when employed for 
fattening pigs, and horses fed upon it are main- 
tained in excellent condition. On the Maury 
estate, in the Haute-Vienne, the property of M. 
Paulin Palahot, the yield last year was at the 
rate of nearly 27 tons per English acre, and 
equally favorable reports have been sent in from 
various other quarters. An analysis under- 
taken by the society has established beyond a 
doubt its superiority, from a chemical point of 
view, over the ordinary parsnip, its proportion 
over dry material being 17. 28%, as against 11% 
in the common variety. These solids contain 
7.94% of nitrogenous matter, 1.80% of fatty 
matter, 64.9!)% of starch .and aromatic sub- 
stances, 11.57% of crystallizal)le sugar, 8.70% of 
cellulose, and 5% of ash. It is by its sugar, 
starch and aromatic constituents, therefore, that 
the Britanny panais fourager is chiefly distin- 
guished from the ordinary parsnip, and the re- 
sults of the analysis fully justify and explain its 
superiority as a feeding stuff in practical agri- 
culture. These results accord pretty closely 
with those of MM. Coren winder and Contamine, 
already recorded iu our columns, though in their 
an.aly8is the proportion of dry material was 
sometimes found to be as high as 20 or 21%." 

Lime Water.— Agitate an ounce of pure 
caustic lime in a pint bottle nearly filled with 
water, and after the lime has subsided decant 
the clear supernatant liquid. It must be kept 
in well stoppered bottles. 



I July 26, 1879. 

Correspoudonoe cordially invited from all Patrous for this 
department. ^ 

The Model Grange. 

AVhat constitutes a model Grange is a ijues- 
tion on which there might be a wide ditferonce 
of opinion. To sum up the whole in a single 
word, we would say — progress. This does not 
involve necessarily a fine hall with extravagant 
appointments; nor a large membership; nor an 
over-flowing treasury. The model Grange may 
meet in the log cabin; a dozen members may 
carry out the purposes of the Order as effectively 
as a hundred; its coffers may be innocent of 
cash. Vet actuated by the true spirit, it will 
be as essentially progressive as though possess- 
ing all the accompaniments of a large and 
wealthy (i range. The tendency will be to se- 
cure these. The inrjuiry arises, what are the 
distinctive features which characterize the sub- 
ordinate Grange pressing ou to the front rank? 
The first is the percentage of attendance. This 
is the touchstone of a true interest. It must be 
activelv concerned in the distinctive (irange 
work. ' What this shall be, is clearly enunciated 
in the platform of principles, published to the 
world. The ends sought are— to promote the 
individual thrift — to stimulate a higher and bet- 
ter scholarship— to build up a truer and more 
perfect manhood. These are the logical results 
of the (irange principles. The processes by 
which they shall be attained are for the subor- 
dinate Grange to determine. But they involve 
another characteristic of the model (irange in the 
recognition and accurate performance of the 
work. This is a point in which there is much 
vagueness and iudifference. Elveryofhcer should 
know not only his place, but his part, and be 
skilled in his especial work. This involves also 
on the part of the members zealous endeavors 
to carry out the plans and purposes agreed 
upon. To sum up the whole there will be a 
large per centum of attendance; the business 
will be entered upon promptly ; officers in their 
places, and skilled in their allotted duties; work 
marked out in advance and something for all to 
do, with due attention to amusement, literary 
culture, and general profit. That all this is 
within the reach of every suborilinate Grange 
can hardly be called in ((uestion. That it in- 
volves progress and salutary influence both 
within and without the Grange, is a necessary 
result of a faithful adherence to principles and 
laws. How or in what way these grand results 
may be secured is left largely to the discretion 
and enterprise of the individual (irange. The 
benefits to be attained will amply reward the 
effort. These may not be immediately seen, 
but will surely give illustration of the proverb, 
"Cast thy bread upon the waters, and thou 
shall find it after many days." — Grniirje BuUdiu. 

Making all Property Shoulder its Burd- 

KuiTOKs Press: — In the P.^cuic Jai rai. 
Press of .July 5th, 1879, on page 8 of that num- 
ber, is a piece with the heading of "Tubs on 
their own Bottoms," well worthy of perusal 
and consideration. I ask every one who takes 
that excellent paper to reread it, for I suppose 
every one preserves the paper for future refer- 

What I add is a way to carry out the leading 
thought into practical effect with the aid of ap- 
propriate legislation. Sec. 1 of Article 1.'? of 
the new Constitution provides that all property 
in the State (not exempt) shall be taxed in pro. 
portion to its value, to be ascertained as pro- 
vided by law. 

Here is the need for proper legislation. What 
is more just than to tax in proportion to the 
value? Again, it is a well-defined rule for as- 
sessment; a guide to the assessor, in which the 
old Constitution was delicieut, perhaps, though 
continuous usage of any chattel as property 
under it would seem to have been sufficient to 
have identified the property beyond question. 

The word "property," as used in this article 
and section, is defined to include "moneys, 
credits, bonds, stocks, dues, franchises, and all 
other matters and things, real, personal and 
mixed, capable of private ownership;" thus, 1 
believe, virtually overruling the bank case that 
relieved much property from taxation that ha<l 
been assessed, prior to that judgment, under 
the old Constitution. 

It is well that the people have thus declared 
what constitutes property in this State, as a 
guide to assessments and to avoid in the future 
<lue8tionable cases being brought before the 
courts to relieve capitalists from taxes, and 
leaving it to the residue of the taxed to pay 
their own and make up the deliciency of the 

Sec. 8 of the same article provides that "the 
T>egislature shall, by law, recpiire each taxpayer 
in this State to make and deliver to the County 
Assessor, annually, a statement, under oath, 
setting forth specifically all the real and per- 
sonal property owned by such taxpayer, or 
1 his possession, or under his control, at 12 

o'clock meridian on the first Monday of March." 
This requirement is just what is needed to im- 
part efficiency to the taxation and revenue pro- 
vision included in said Article 13. Shall we 
have the requisite legislation? That is the im- 
portant question near at hand. 

My view of the most effectual method, and, 
indeed, the only one to enforce the assessment 
of all the taxable property, is to do substantially 
as New Hampshire has done under a late law of 
that State, which is the same as our own, re- 
quiring the oath of the taxpayer to a class of 
printed interrogatories, comprehending the 
whole matter of taxable property. There is 
also a printed pamphlet, being an annual report 
of the town or city officers, containing the name 
of every taxable inhabitant, including poll 
assessments and those of all kinds of property 
and the valuation with the amount of the tax 
to each name. Thus every one may see what 
his neighbor is assessed for, the items and the 
amount of tax, as well as of his own. 

I have such a printed pamphlet report for the 
year 1879, ending in March last, of the town of 
Bedford, Hillsborough county, N. H., a town 
containing 1,221 inhabitants. This was the 
first year of the operation of their new tax law. 
My correspondent wrote me that the putting 
the new law in execution in that town unearthed 
.1?S0,000 of interest money that had before 
escaped assessment. And from what purported 
to be an oHicial report, I read ten millions 
were in like manner unearthed in the State, and 
that, as a consequence, the taxes were at a 
much lower rate to those who had paid all the 

Probably the capitalists of that town and of 
the State would have been ashamed to have 
asked for the assistence of their less wealthy 
neighbors to pay their taxes for them. To do 
it, would be reviewed in the light of pauperism. 
(Jh, no I but they took the aid, and what's the 
difference ? But it appeared all was not dis- 
covered in towns under the domination of the 
rich; the law of discovery being opposed by 
that class. These delinquents were to be seen 

If such a showing can be made in New Hamp- 
shire, with a population of 3 IS, .300 inhabitants, 
by virtue of disclosure of the property under 
oath and the printed pamphlet showing the 
assessment and tax by school districts in towns 
and wards in cities in the hands of every tax- 
payer, familiar in every houshold as a family 
almanac, what could be made to appear with 
like arrangement in California with its resources? 
It is caution to every officer and taxpayer 
under oath with the means at hand for detec- 
tion. Charles Aiken. 

Highland Precinct, Santa Cruz (jO., July 18th. 

The Insurance Company Suit and As- 

We continue to receive letters asking infor- 
mation concerning the suit against the Califor- 
nia Farmers' Mutual Insurance Company and 
the assessment which the managers are now en 
deavoring to collect from the policy-holders 
Messrs. Fox & Kellogg, 5.30 California street, 
attorneys for G. W. T. Carter, in the suit 
against the company, inform us that the motion 
for leave to file an amended complaint and for 
an injunction to restrain the company from col- 
lecting the assessment, was heard on Saturday 
last and submitted to the court. The matter 
will of course rest with the court until the de- 
cision is rendered. 

Messrs. Fox& Kellogg authorize the statement 
that there is hardly a reasonable doubt that 
the motion will be granted, and they assert 
that it would be advisable for all parties inter- 
ested to withhold payment of any and all assess- 
ments until the final decision of the '.-ourt. As 
before stated by us it is definitely understood 
that this suit is brought for the benefit of all 
policy-holders who may choose to come into the 
suit hereafter and pay their proportion of the 

Items from the "Patron." 

\V. H. Cunningham, Secretary, writes: "The 
meml>er8 of Magnolia Grange, Grass Valley, 
have decided to have a grand celebration of 
their anniversary day, 11th, 1879, and 
lasting three consecutive days. The programme 
will consist of various exercises, suitable to the 
occasion. All (irangcrs are cordially invited to 
come and camp with us and be sociable." 

There will be a reunion of (irangers at Mar- 
tinez, on Friday and Saturday, August 22d and 
23d, 1879. (! rangers from San Mateo, Alameda, 
.Sacramento and Contra Costa, have signified 
their intention to attend. Delegations from 
San .loaquin, Solano, Napa, and other counties 
are expected. A general invitation is given to 
Grangers from any part of the State to attend. 

The next annual meeting of the California 
State (irange will be held in the city of Oakland 
on Tuesday, Oct. 7th, 1879, at which the elec- 
tion of orticers of the State Orange will take 
place, (iranges, to be entitled to representation 
at the meeting of the State (irange, must not be 
more than one quarter in arrear for dues. 

A WASHOUT, Ogallalla station, 30 miles west 
of Omaha, on the U. P. R. II., delayed trains 
12 hours on the 21st. 

I r is reported that Madame Elizabeth Patter- 
son-Bonaparte is to have a .S4,000-tomb at 
Greenwood cemetery. 



Si'READiN(j Alfalfa. — ExposUor, July IG: 
So popular has this vigorous forage plant become 
in this county that no farm, where water can be 
procured for irrigating, is considered complete 
without an alfalfa field. Almost the first thing 
that a new settler in eitlier of the colonies does 
is to level off two or three acres of land and 
plant it in alfalfa. It is safe to say that there 
are over 20,000 acres of alfalfa growing in the 
county at present, and this acreage will be 
largely increased, if not doubled in the next 12 


Bees and P'ruit.— N. Gray in Anaheim Ga- 
zette: I see in your issue of this morning a 
small paragraph regarding the manifest injury 
done to the grape and fruit crops of Anaheim 
by the busy bee. 1 would say in reply that at 
the last Paris exhibition there was an interna- 
tional concourse of bee entomologists, and they 
decided that the bee did no injury whatever to 
vegetation or fruit, of any kind. The great wine 
growing countries, France and Italy, have made 
laws protecting bees and bee culture, and it was 
understood in the concourse of bee entomolo- 
gists at Paris that such laws should be passed 
by every country in Europe. And now some 
of the wise menof Anaheim step to the front, in 
spite of men who have devoted their lives to 
study and experimenting, and say that the bees 
are injuring the grapes and fruit! 


Season's Rainfall at Pomo. Editors;— The rainfall for this place is as follows: 
July 1st, 1878, to Jan. 1st. 1879, fi.72 inches; 
for Jan., 4..57; for Feb., S.-'iS; for March, 14.75; 

for April, 2.86; for May, 1.13; for June, ; 

total, 3.5.58 inches. — Z. W. Bransforh. 

Goose Lake Valley. — Iri'lepetnlmt: The 
grain fields look exceedingly well, and the 
farmers are expecting a heavy crop. The hay- 
ing season will begin the first of next week and 
a large amount of hay will be harvested. Al- 
though there arc about .500 acres of growing 
grain in this extreme southern end of (ioose 
Lake valley, yet the main interest is in stock rais- 
ing and dairying. About 8<),0(X) worth of beef 
cattle were sold during the month of June. 
Berry & Standlee, \Vm. Page, J. H. Linville, 
J. C. Morrison and the Lee Bros, being the 
principal sellers, and James Miller andfi. W. 
Mapes the buyers. The d.airymen have al- 
together about 250 cows, and are doing well, 
and making a good quality of butter. At .South 
fork the hay crop is very good, and of a superior 
quality. The grain crop, notwithstanding the 
exceedingly dry and unfavorable season, is look- 
ing remarkably well. Upon the sage brush 
land of Messrs. C. W. VVilliams and W. H. 
Nelson, the average will be about 30 bushels. 
Which proves beyond doubt the utility of the 
sage brush of Modoc. 

Salinas Valley. — Democrat. July 19: Har- 
vesting progresses. The reports of the yield, 
as to quantity and quality, continue favorable. 

Protective Union. — Herald, July 19: (Juite 
a large number of miners and farmers assembled 
at Music hall. Auburn, at one o'clock last Sat- 
urday, for the further consideration of the 
grievances suffered by them in consequence of 
the endeavors of the railroad company to obtain 
title to nearly the whole of this belt of country, 
to the exclusion of the farmers and miners who 
have built homes in this section of the country. 
After a pretty thorough discussion on the aims 
and objects of the gathering, it became fully 
developed that the ends aimed at were of e<jual 
interest to all of the producing classes of this 
part of the State, and as a preliminary to ac- 
tion it was decided to first organize under the 
name of Miners' and Farmers' Protective Union, 
the general object being the advancement of 
this part of the country and the mutual pro- 
tection of all its members. A member roll was 
opened and nearly every man present signed. 
A permanent organization was then cfifected by 
the election of A. Uackliff, President; Robert 
Stuart, Secretary; B. K. Low, Treasurer. A 
Finance Committee was elected consi.sting of A. 
Oliver, A. 0. Bell and Wm. Pellow. It was 
decided to have a committee 011 land and land 
matters to consist of six members, three miners 
and three farmers. This committee will be an- 
nounced at the next meeting. This organiza- 
tion, properly conducted, can not fail of accom- 
plishing much good. It will not only be able 
to gather and collate a great deal of valuable 
evidence regarding the mineral or agricultural 
character of the various land claims in this belt 
of country, for use in cases of contest with the 
corporation cormorants, but it will be able to 
otherwise materially assist its individual mem- 
bers who may need assistance in the tedious 
and expensive routine which all land claimants 
in this character of country necessarily have to 
go through before having an opportunity to 
secure their land at any price. 

The Wheat Crop. — Imltpemlmi, July 22: 
From the present indications it is thought by 
those best (jualilied to judge that the wheat 
crop of San Joacjuin county will be nearly as 
much as Hst year. We hear very favorable re- 
ports from various portions of the county, the 

yield being more than was expected. In locali- 
ties in the northern portion of the county, we 
learn that the yield has been better than ever 
before, over 30 bushels to the acre being har- 
vested where a yield of 20 bushels was the 
largest ever before known. The same favorable 
reports are received from the sandy lands in the 
southern portion of San Joaquin county, and we 
also hear that, in almost every instance, the 
land has been better cultivated than heretofore, 
and that in all instances where the land has 
been summer-fallowed, the yield is perfectly 
satisfactory. Thorough tillage is the main se- 
cret of success in the production of the cereals. 

Harvest. — Enterprise, July 19: Harvesting 
is now in full blast and grain is being hauled to 
market daily. The cheerful sound of the steam 
whistles can be heard at regular intervals in all 
directions. The crops are turning out very 
well, and in some localities it is better than that 
of previous seasons. All taken together, San 
Benito county will hold its own with any of her 


Crops. — Tribune, July 12: There will be a 
bountiful yield of produce in the north end of 
the county, and notwithstanding low prices we 
are steadily advancing toward solid prosperity. 
The yield of butter is unprecedented in the his- 
tory of the dairy interests in our county. We 
also have an excellent crop of hay, wheat and 
barley. A large area of our rich valley lands 
has been planted to beans, which at present, 
give promise of a rich harvest. A large number 
of beef cattle have been driven from here the 
present season, which have been sold at remun- 
erative prices. 

Bui'KSKi.v Tannery. — Tele<jraj>h, July 19: 
John Waugh has opened a buckskin tannery in 
Santa Maria and is doing well. 

Crop Note.« in Santa Maria. — R. D. Cook 
has finished heading — in 38 days having cut 
over 900 acres of grain. He says his experience 
for the last eight years in crops is, that on an 
average the grain will turn out this year equal 
to that of any former years — most of the wheat 
being of the best quality. Mr. Morris reports 
crops on the Nipoma as the best for years. He 
says his 200 acres of wheat is the finest he ever 
saw in the valley. Mr. Blpsser started his 
threshing machine yesterday on Mr. Crow's 
ranch. He states that the grain is turning out 
well. Our corn crops are large ami all looking 
well. Nothing so far is disturbing the com. 
Mr. Fessler has GO acres of pumpkins adjoining 
town that promise to yield enormously. Already 
he has pumpkins two feet in diameter. 

Corn. — Santa Barbara Press: The corn crop 
in this vicinity never loo'iced better at this sea- 
son of the year than at present. 

Gra.sshopper Work. — Reno Jourtuil, July 
19: A friend just in from the valley gives us 
these items: The farmers have about finished 
cutting. They were compelled to cut this early 
in order to save a portion of their crop from the 
grasshoppers. .Some of the grain was not over 
six inches high, but to let it stand was to lose 
it, and it was cut with the rest. Thus not a 
quarter crop was realized anywhere in the val- 
ley, while in the middle of the valley nothing 
was saved. Many of the farmers who a few 
years ago were well-to-do, are now on the verge 
of bankruptcy, and all because of the grasshop- 
pers. Their land is rich enough, but it is not 
profitable to sow and cultivate for several 
months and then realize only a myriad of in- 
sects which have no market value. 


A Char.mino Rural Home.— Cor. Dixon 
Trihnne, July 19: We are now at the beautiful 
residence of H. A. Ross, one of our home-made 
farmers, who, with his truly amiable lady and 
tlieir little ones, seem to be in the midst of 
earthly comforts. As I write this on the front 
porch, three beautiful spotted fawns gambol 
over the blue grass sward, and as the fountain 
sends forth its elegant jets, sparkling, like 
myriads of diamonds, in the sun's rays, numbers 
of California linnets dart from the trees to lave 
their wings under the refreshing shower. In a 
park of eucalyptus trees are a male and female 
deer with a little fawn, and in a small enclosure 
adjacent, two Shetland ponies; while in the 
fields are fine cows, horses, mule.s, and two fine 
windmills supply the needed water and also 
grind what feed is re<iuired for stock. A large 
and beautiful grove of black walnuts is growing, 
while mulberry, locust, gum, acacia, spruce 
and fir adorn the grounds around the residence. 
The grain this year is shrunken with rust, yet 
will average 15 bushels per acre. This beauti- 
ful property has been thus improved and 
adorned by Mr. Ross within 10 years. So much 
for a practical California farmer. 

Summer-Fallow. — Neirs, July 18: L. 
Dickey, one of the thorough farmers of the 
Salida neighborhood, harvested 33 bushels to 
the acre on summer-fallowed and twice-plowed 
land. The same field under the old system of 
cultivation used to be considered as doing well 
when it turned out 15 or 20 bushels to the acre. 
In the same neighborhood, Mr. R. Bailey har- 
vested over 28 bushels to the acre by the same 
manner of cultivation, which is another proof of 
its benefits. Mr. Dagget, one of the extensive 
farmers near this place, informs us that he will 
this year, by heavy odds, harvest the largest 
crop ever taken from his land. Summer-fal- 
lowed and thorough cultivation he assigns as the 
cause. Mr. J. M. Henderson, south of the 

July 26, 1879.1 


Tuolumne river, says "summer-fallowing and 
good cultivation this year saved me " The 
above are only a few of the instances going to 
establish the fact that in this comparatively dry 
year, when the rainfall has been less than eight 
inches, not only good but heavy crops can be 
raised by a system of thorough cultivation. The 
successful experiments during the last two dry 
seasons, 1877 and 1879, are sufficient to cause us 
to hope that our farmers have at last learned a 
lesson in the cultivation of the soil that will in 
a manner offset, if not absolutely bid defiance 
to the severest drouths that inflict this part of 
our valley. 

Wheat. — Sif/nnl, July 12: Our wheat is 
nearly all harvested. An Ojai farmer informs 
us that the yield will be nearly up to the best 
seasons. The yield on the Conejo will be very 
good. Threshing commences on the Ojai in a 
week and perhaps earlier on the Oonejo. The 
barley crop is not up to the best seasons, but 
the grain is very good. 

Fruit. — The fruit crop opens up well. Ap- 
ricots and peaches have never been better. The 
trees are not so heavily laden but the fruit in 
consequence is of better^ quality. Apples will 
be good and the grape crop is promising. 

Wheat. —Marysville Appeal, July 18: The 
crops in this section of the State are reported 
to average well, but are not quite as good as 
was anticipated, as there is more or less of 
shrinkage in kernel, especially the Club variety 
of wheat. There has been for years considerable 
difference of opinion among farmers as to which 
variety of wheat was safest for the greatest 
yield, as well as less liable to rust and smut. 
This has been a disputed matter for a long time, 
and hence we find all the varieties considered 
among the favorites growing in different sections, 
both in Yuba and Sutter county. The Proper 
grain has had many admirers, and large fields 
are being harvested at the present time. But 
the Club, this season, appears to have more 
shrinkage than other varieties, and we have 
heard farmers say they would sow no more of it. 
The millers inform us that the Genesee is the 
favorite grain for milling, it making the whitest 
and best flour, and they believe will hereafter 
become the favorite in this section. 

Oranoh.s. — The hundreds of orange trees in 
this city are well filled with green oranges, and 
the crop is very promising. 

Better than they Thought. — Denwa-at, 
Jnly 10: We have conversed with several 
farlhers lately in regard to grain matters, and 
they all say that wheat is turning out much 
better than was expected. Many fields that 
were considered worthless are being harvested 
with a fair result. This, together with the 
prospect of good prices tends to put a brighter 
phase on business matters. 

The Fruit Crop. — Democrat, July 17: The 
fruit yield in this county this year is unusually 
large and of good quality. Our town markets 
are well supplied in the fruit line and we notice 
a number of wagons running into the country 
selling fruit. 


Cane Sugar. — Phoenix Expositor: Mr. W. 
Osborne has grown cane (from Sonora seed) for 
three years and has now the fourth crop grow- 
ing on the same land and from the same seed, 
and last year made a good quality of brown 
sugar — some 6,000 pounds, which sold here for 
20 cents per pound. We are told that the man- 
ufacture of this sugar was an accident, as Mr. 
Osborne tried to make panocha, but failed in 
that and made sugar. 


Mason'.s Valley. — But for the sink of the 
Humboldt the valley in which it lies, known as 
the Big Meadows, would be almost the exact 
counterpart of Mason's valley. The latter lies 
about 50 miles southeast of Virginia, and is 
favorably situated to be irrigated by the waters 
of Walker river, of which there are two 
branches, which join near the south end of the 
valley, and run for a considerable distance 
through it. Several important irrigation 
schemes have been planned and are in partial 
operation. The price of water is only 50 and 
75 cents an acre per year. Two crops of alfalfa 
per season can be cut. Wheat and barley grow 
from 25 to 50 bushels to the acre. The valley 
is about 22 miles long and 10 wide, and is capa- 
ble of supporting a dense population. The soil 
is alluvial mixed with decayed vegetable matter 
and is very rich. There have been great im- 
provements in the last two years. The popula- 
tion is now about COO and it is steadily increas- 
ing. Quite a furore existed for a time in parts 
of Nevada, and it looked as though half the 
people of the State were going to Mason's valley. 

Grasshoiter Exterminator. — Reno Gaielte: 
The little red bug described by Prof. Lemmon 
has appeared in Long valley and is making it 
very unpleasant for the grasshoppers. Antelope 
ranch has specimens, but they do not number 
one to a million of grasshoppers. When they 
do attack a "hopper" they bore into his body 
under the wing and soon kill him. 


Horticultural Society. — Willamette Farw,- 
cr: This society held its monthly meeting in 
the Council chamber, Portland, Saturday 
afternoon. The committee on constitution sub- 
mitted the old constitution of the Horticultural 
Society, which was amended and. adopted. 
The permanent name adopted was, The North- 
western Horticultural Society, to include all 

persons interested, in Oregon and Washington. 
The society holds annual meetings for the elec- 
tion of officers the first Saturday in June of each 
year, and its monthly meetings are to be held 
the first Saturday of each month at 2 o'clock 
P. M. , at such place as shall be designated. The 
name Horticultural was presumed to include 
gardening and floriculture as well as pomology. 
The permanent officers of the society, as now 
organized, are: S. Leulling, of Milwaukee, 
President; S. W. Brown of Vancouver, and ii. 
W. Walling of Oswego, Vice Presidents; Henry 
Denlinger, Secretary; Dr. Cardwell, Treasurer. 
The above officers constitute an executive com- 

Intended Exposition. — The Oregon and 
California Railroad company, we understand 
from Mr. Scheulze, agent of the Land depart- 
ment, desires to make a collection of Oregon 
products for exhibition at the coming fair of the 
Mechanics' Institute, in San Francisco. Such 
a collection was made two years ago and exhib- 
ited at the Mechanics' fair, and attracted a good 
deal of attention. Many strangers visiting that 
exposition saw the Oregon display, and by its 
means much information was conveyed abroad 
concerning our State and its products. All 
such displays are valuable, and tend to create 
interest in our State. 

Subterranean Irrigation at Los Angeles. 

There is being developed in Los Angeles 
county a system of subterranean water distribut- 
ing which may ere long come into general use 
in orchards and like irrigations. It is called 
the "Asbestine " system, and it is about a year 
since our attention was called to it by our Los 
Angeles contributor. General Shields. We had 
expected before this time to have shown the 
system with illustrations of its appliances. The 
inventors, Messrs. E. M. Hamilton and C. N. 
Earl, have, however, found the invention de- 
veloping on their hands, and they are improving 
their appliances in ways to secure more effective 
work. We hope ere long to have a full descrip- 
tion and engravings to lay before the reader. 
We may at this time give a preliminary account 
of the working of the system as observed by a 
writer for the Los Angeles Jmtrnal. He saw it 
in operation on the fruit ranch of M. P. Grove, 
and gives the following description : The 
system consists of a tank or a reservoir of water 
located at the highest portion of the field. A 
main pipe, the inside measure of which is from 
four inches upwards in diameter, according to 
the size of the field to be irrigated. This main 
usually runs along the highest side of the field. 
From this main at proper distances are branches, 
each branch is subdivided into three lines of 
pipe, one running down each row of trees. 
These pipes are only two inches in diameter in- 
side measurement. Wherever a branch pipe 
leaves the main, there is a valve with which 
the operator can turn off or turn on water to 
any part of the field to be irrigated. Along the 
two-inch pipes, opposite each tree on the upper 
side of the pipe, is an inch wooden plug, through 
which is a gimlet hole; over this plug is placed 
a piece of pine six inches in diameter, which 
comes about six or eight inches above the 
ground. When it becomes necessary or desir- 
able to irrigate, the water is turned on to a por- 
tion of the orchard; at each wooden plug in the 
pipe the water which escapes through the gim- 
let hole rises in the short pipe which comes to 
the surface and seeps away into the ground at 
the lower end of the pipe. The water is not 
allowed to run so fast as to flow over the upper 
end of the pipe and wet the surface of the 
ground. The flow is regulated by means of a 
small plug in the gimlet hole through which the 
water escajtes. This system of irrigation places 
no water on the surface of the ground. There 
is no plowing before or cultivation after irriga- 
tion. The ground does not become settled, 
baked or hard by this system of applying the 
water as in the case of surface irrigation. One- 
tenth of the water only is used by this system 
that is used by surface irrigation, and the ex- 
pense is nominal, after the system of pipes is 
once laid. The cost per acre of laying the pipes 
is about $50. This would call for an investment 
which seems considerable, but really a small 
part of the value of an orchard in full bearing, 
and the claim is that the cost would soon be 
more than returned in the lessened expense at- 
tending each irrigation. 

Willows for Waste Places. — While many 
Californians are studying the cheapest way of 
grubbing out willows, the Austrians are prepar. 
ing for a large planting of them on waste lands^ 
Their example may, perhaps, be profitably fol- 
lowed in some parts of this State. We read 
that the Inspector-General of Austrian railways 
has addressed a circular to the Boards of Direc- 
tors of all railways in the empire, urging upon 
them the advisability of cultivating osiers on 
the waste lands adjoining their lines, both as a 
source of income, which is by no means to be 
despised, and as an encouragement to the wicker 
and basket-work industries of the country gen- 
erally. He points out that, of the 800 or more 
different kinds of willows with which botanists 
are now acquainted, there are three in particu- 
lar, one or other of which would do well on the 
different soils met. with along the course of the 
lines. These are the Salix vimiiialis, specially 
fitted for damp ground; the Salix purpurm, 
which does well on dry, sandy soils; and the 
Salix prninom, which yields satisfactory results 
on lands that are almost absolutely barrm. 

Agricultural Instruction at the State 

Editors Press :— As the opening of the 
University session approaches it may not be 
superfluous to recall to the minds of those de 
siring for their sons, instruction in the facts and 
principles of agriculture, the present arrange 
ment of the course and the increased and im- 
proved means of instruction. 

For students entering for the full course of 
four years, the studies of the first year and a 
half do not differ from those pursued in the 
other scientific colleges; this being part of the 
necessary general preparation for the studies 
that are to follow. In the second term of the 
second or sophomore year the course of 
"economic botany" (following that of general 
botany had during the preceding term) begins 
the properly agricultural studies; it continues 
through the first half term of the third or 
junior year and is illustrated throughout, both 
by figures thrown on the screen by the magic 
lantern, by dried specimens, and, so far as 
practicable, by living plants grown in the garden 
of economic botany, lately established and in 
the experimental grounds. The student will 
thus see in actual cultivation all practically im- 
portant plants capable of being grown in this 
climate; including also a standard orchard con- 
taining about 500 varieties of fruit. Excursions 
in the neighborhood are made with the class 
for the study of the native plants; a full repre- 
sentation of which is also intended to be placed 
on the agricultural grounds of the University. 

After the conclusion of the course of economic 
botany the remaining three-fourths of the ses- 
sion of the third year is devoted to the study of 
agricultural chemistry, the physiology of plants, 
the nature and functions of soils, their improve- 
ment, the maintenance of fertility, the general 
policy of culture and preparation and use of 

The fourth year is devoted altogether to the 
detailed study of the several crops and other 
agricultural products by lectures, demonstration 
on the grounds and occasional excursions to 
farms and other establishments. The course of 
" practical agriculture " is under the charge of 
Mr. Chas. H. Dwinelle, whose practical experi- 
ence as a farmer in California, together with a 
full course of study under Prof. Johnson of Yale 
college, render him especially competent in the 
premises. Other lecturers specially versed in 
particular departments will, however, be re- 
quested to deliver special courses from time to 
time as may be practicable. Among these I 
am now at liberty to mention the name of Mr. 
E. J. Wickson, editor of the Rural Press, who 
has consented to deliver a few lectures on dairy- 
ing at an early period in the coming session. 
The course on dairying will be preceded by 
one of about ten lectures on stock breeding 
by Mr. Dwinelle at the beginning of the 

The lectures on practical agriculture will be 
delivered at the rate of about three a week, 
presumably at 11 o'clock, that hour having been 
found most convenient for persons, not students 
at the University, who may desire to attend. 
The days of the week will be announced here- 
after with the subjects to be treated of in the 
columns of the Press and of such other papers 
as may desire to do so. 

It should be distinctly understood that these 
lectures, as well as the rest of the agricultural 
course proper, are open to the public; and, that 
while students dfsiring to graduate, must con- 
form to the requirements for admission as given 
in the University register, those desiring to at- 
tend onl3' a part of the course are at liberty to 
do so, subject only to the general regulations 
of the University regarding deportment, dili- 
gence and regularity of attendance. As a matter 
of course the entrance upon advanced studies 
without due prepaiation (such as is given in the 
full course) subjects the learner to disadvan- 
tages; but as regards, especially the course of 
"special cultures" of the fourth year, it will be 
found interesting and useful even to those pos- 
sessing only a very limited degree of prepara- 
tion, but instead a certain amount of actual 
farm experience; therefore to farmers and their 
sons who can spare but a year or a part thereof 
from their business. 

Farm operations on a small scale, illustrative 
of the best methods, may be witnessed and 
participated in by the students whenever the 
season permits. Manual labor is not imposed 
as a part of the course of instruction at the 
University, it being found that it encroaches 
too much upon the limited time the student can 
usually devote to his education, and can be 
more usefully learned on a business farm, but 
opportunity and encouragement is given to the 
student to engage in such labor; and on Satur- 
days, as well as during vacation or recesses, 
many have availed themselves of the chance at 
fair wages. That this has been, and is being 
done, not only by students of the agricultural 
college proper, but by others having no special 
connection therewith, is proof sutticient that 
labor is honored at the University. 

EUO. W. HlI.OARl), 

Professor of Agriculture and Botany, 

The disturbances in the Rumpa district, 
Madras Presidency, against the tax of palm 
trees, have assumed the form of an open rebel- 
lion. Of four companies of Sepoys sent there, 
only four men remain faithful. 

News in Briei 

The Nihilists have applied the torch to Nijni 

Spain will be requested by England to abol- 
ish slavery in Cuba. 

A FIRE at Merced on the 21st inst. destroyed 
$15,000 of property. 

The Zulus seem to be desirous of peace,' and 
many have surrendered. 

The utmost alarm prevails at the prospect of 
a bad harvest in France. 

The attempt to get cheap marble into the 
new City Hall was a failure. 

A Napoleon V. and a Henri V. will make it 
interesting in France shortly. 

Affairs in Peru since the death of Harry 
Meiggs have been topsy-turvy. 

Sitting Bull meditates an attack upon the 
army with 4,000 hostile Indians. 

The entire capital of the Panama Canal Com- 
pany will be 600,000,000 francs. 

A railroad strike is progressing in East St. 
Louis among the freight handlers. 

Prince Jerome Napoleon has been declared 
to be the head of the Bonaparte family. 

All must register by the 9th of August or 
become like unto Chinamen, without a vote. 

Arizona points with pride to its climate, it 
is a way-up climate— up to 120° in the shade. 

Friends of the dumb brutes in San Francisco 
investigated 720 cases of cruelty during the 

Suffering Memphis is again afflicted with the 
yellow fever. The disease is spreading alarm- 

Three men were drowned in S. F. bay last 
Sunday, while attempting to manage a small, 
leaky boat. 

Students in the Canadian military college are 
to be allowed to compete for appointment in the 
English army. 

Russia has made the Caucasus a military 
basis for Central Asia, and is expelling the 

A NEW musical fandango entitled "H. M. S. 
Pinafore" has been introduced in San Fran- 
cisco. It will never take. 

The Sultan of Turkey is being coerced by 
England and France to extend the rights of 
Tewfik, Khedive of Egypt. 

The Porte refuses to allow the United States 
steamer Quiniiehaufj to enter the Black sea be- 
cause her tonnage exceeds 800. 

The criminals of Chicago have resolved to 
emigrate, the Chief of Police having issued an 
order to run them in on sight. 

Serious agitation exists in Westmeath and 
Mayo against the payments of rents, and in- 
timidation and lawlessness are increasing. 

TnB Piutes, says the Virginia Enterprise, are 
used as bait for leeches at Pyramid lake. 
Leeches were never very particular about their 

A cyclone at Tucson, July 17th, struck the 
office of the Weekly Star, completely demolish- 
ing the outside of the paper and giving the in- 
side a vorticose twist of 180°. 

Bonner's trotter, "Edwin Forrest," made 
2:15] to wagon on a three-quarter-mile track at 
Tarrytown the other day; carrying Bonner him- 
self, who weighs 180 pounds. 

The first train crossed the Colorado river 
and entered Arizona, on the morning of Sep- 
tember 30th, 1877, drawn by the Engine 31, 
.lohn L. Fitzpatrick, engineer. 

Geo. H. Pendleton is said to be scheming 
for the Presidency in 188't, by killing Sherman 
or putting in Tilden who will not outlive the 
term. This is too dreadful to be true. 

There is considerable obiter dicta in the 
Chinese queue business, and the opinion seems 
to obtain credence that if the Pocasset murderer 
is to be punished, the queue of a Chinaman 
should be cut off to restore the equilibrium. 

India pays annually to England 15,000,000 
sovereigns for interest on debt, pensions, sal- 
aries and other charges. But she has no sove- 
reigns. The coin she possesses, provided by 
her government, is in silver rupees. To pay 
these sovereigns she must buy them iu London 
with her silver rupees. She does this at an an- 
nual loss of ,3,000,000 sovereigns. 

The century plant, better known in Arizo- 
na as maijaa or mescal, is just now decked out 
in its finest suit. Au abundance can be found 
in the hills surrounding Prescott, and the blos- 
som which only comes once in a century, killing 
the plant for that period, is no curiosity to Ari- 
zonians. The nectar distilled from the above 
plant has an electrical effect on the human sys- 

Electric Inscription of Words. — The trans- 
mitting apparatus is a microphonic speaker, the 
carbons of which instead of being pressed by a 
spring, are simply maintained in contact by the 
pressure of a small piece of paper folded in the 
form of a V. The vibrations of the diaphragm 
of the receiving apparatus cannot be written, 
since the movements of the style, however deli- 
cate the apparatus, can scarcely be distinguished 
upon the lamp-black. To enlarge the magnetic 
vibrations of the receiver the cover and the 
diaphragm of a liell's telephone are taken away, 
and on the wood of the instrument there is fixed 
the end of a small, stiff steel spring. The other 
end of the spring abuts on the surface of the 
magnetic nucleus surrounded by its coil; to 
this extremity is soldered a small mass of soft 
iron, weighing about 10 grms., and upon this 
mass and in the produced line of the axis of the 
spring is fixed a light style of bamboo, 10 centi- 
meters in length and terminating in a slender 
whale-bone pen. — M. Boudet. 



[July 26, 1879. 

A Farmer for President. 

At the recent Fourth of July celebration at 
Woodstock, Conn., a poem was read by Rev. A. 
J. Hough, entitled "The BelU." The poem 
consisted of ringing comments upon the events 
and needs of the day. The writer struck a 
clear note in the following lines: 

And, lastly, I have now to state 

The bells intend to nominate, 

Witlior wiiliout your kind consent. 

A caudidaU- for President! 

No master of tlie thousand tricks 

That trouble party politica; 

No iubile pleader from tho bar. 

No platform pel or pulpit star. 

No Huldier with a bloody fame. 

Or merchant with a moneyed name. 

The bells in solemn council hung, 

And now, without discordant tongue. 

Their choice for President proclaim, 

Withholding nothing but his name. 

Far from the world's debasing strife 

He leads a quiet, blameloss life. 

Four themes he loved since thought began; 

Hie eouulrv, nature, God and man! 

The first has filled him with a grand 

Devotion to his native land; 

The second ma le him rarely wise. 

With wisdom of the earth and skies; 
The third, though faintly, dimly seen. 

Has touched his soul and made it dean. 
And, studying well the human race, 
He knows a man to see his face. 
The hills, the vales, tlie streams impart 
Their strength and freshness to his heart. 
His dress is liomespun, modest, neat; 
His face is browned bv summer heat; 
His hands the mark of labor wear; 
His back is broad and uted to bear 
The precious burdens which ordain 
For plenty an eternal reigii. 
He fills the place his f.ither filled; 
He tills the farm his father tilled; 
He represents the sober thought. 
The solid worth, the power which wrought 
Through peace and war the nation's fame 
And guards to-day her honored name. 
By right of service duly paid; 
By right of worth, if justJy weighed; 
By right of numbers, fairly told; 
By right of fitness, grit, and gold; 
A fanner, blunt, outspoken, shrewd, 
Ainbiliuus for bis country's good. 
The bells with ringing peals present 
As candidate for President! 

Woman's Influence in Society. 

[Written for the Rural by Rhoda Dkkdrok ) 
A lady writes to me that she wishes mo to 
gay something about "Woman in her home, and 
the influence she exercises over society." I 
take exceptions to the words "over society.'' 
Do you know we have a little influence in soci- 
ety, but not a bit oi'er it 7 Well, it is so. Look 
about you and see if it is not as I say. When 
has our protest been heeded, or our wishes con- 
sulted by society 7 Do you not know that 
women would, if they could, have a very diflFer- 
ent state of public morals from that which now 
prevails, and that they cannot have what they 
wish ? Wo want honesty in business, we want 
purity in politics, we desire the administration of 
justice in the courts, we see the need of reforms 
in educational affairs; but who heeds our wishes 
in these respects ? We would have, long ago, 
banished from society the vice that saps its 
moral and physical health, if it had been pos- 
sible for us to do it: but is it? On the contra- 
ry, we are brought face to face with it every 
day, until we have ceased to blush at it. Every 
youngest maiden has heard that whole streets 
of our cities are given up to it; and matrons 
know that the money that should go to the em- 
bellishment or comfort of their home-life, goes 
to procure the embellishment of that other life 
that is the poison of society. Mothers know 
that their sons and daughters are familiar with 
newspaper advertisements that offer exemption 
from the penalties of vice, and are therefore 
tantamount to a temptation to tamper with it. 
Women are woefully familiar with the sorrows 
that come from the licensing of all manner of 
hot-beds of evil, such as liquor saloons, gamb- 
ling houses, dance cellars, and the like. Some 
of them have been so deluded as to think that 
by a combined effort with the womanly weapon 
of prayer and entreaty they might do some- 
thing toward abolishing such things. We all 
know how they succeeded. Oh, uo; we have 
no iufluence over society! Society snaps its 
fingers at us. Not only that, it drags us into 
the whirlpool, and bears us along on the irre- 
sistible current, until by-and-by we yield from 
weariness of useless effort. Pope never wrote 
a truer couplet than that oft-quoted one of vice, 

"Seen too oft, familiar with her face 

We first endure, then pity, then embrace." 

The very religion of this gushing age is pity 
of vice. If then, religion has reached the 
second stage, it is easy to see how society has 
reached the stage where vice is embraced with- 
out protest. I know that all this is very shock- 
ing, but the most shocking part of it is its 

Woman In her Home. 
Well, here certainly, we ought to have some 
influence that should extend into society; and 
oat of courtesy to a trite belief, I will assume 

that we have. Tho ideal wife and mother is a 
woman of the household exclusively, whose 
thoughts, time and attention are divided about 
equally between kitchen and nursery. She is 
thoughtful as to buttons, and careful as to pud- 
ding recipes. In the brief intervals that occur 
between these duties she goes out to the church 
sociables, and makes calls upon the other ladies 
in her set. On Sundays she goes to meeting. 
What, with the annual irruption of infantile 
diseases, the semi-annual house cleanings, the 
quarterly set-to on the family sewing, and her 
own occasional illness, the years do not seem 
long enough to give time for thinking. How 
can she think with all the little cares of a whole 
household chasing each other through her tired 
brain day after day, year after year. How can 
she read, with the baby crying fretfully with its 
teething, and Johnny clamoring for a string to 
his kite. .She cannot do it, and after a hasty 
glance at the morning paper in the middle of 
the afternoon, she gives it up. What is the 
outside world to her, with this restless, vocifer- 
ous, exigeant little world under her own roof ? 
She asks papa when he comes home to dinner, 
"What is the news 7" but papa is too tired and 
too careless to give an intelligent answer. If 
he stays at home during the evening she may 
renew the questioning, but ten to one he is wholly 
absorbed in the evening paper, or dozing off to 
sleep upon the sofa, while she sits and sews in 
resigned silence. How is this woman to have 
any influence on society 7 

You say, through her husband and children. 
But how can she influence her husband when he 
only comes home to eat and sleep 7 and when it 
is he that controls every affair of importance 
that relates to the welfare of the whole family^ 
including herself? Negatively she does, of 
course. If he had no home he might spend his 
leisure in less sanctified places; and by furnish- 
ing a cheerful, quiet, cosy haven of rest for him 
.after the day's business, she does truly some- 
thing for his good. If she is a woman gifted 
with intellectual charms and with tact, she 
may gain quite a strong hold upon him, so that 
he pays attention to what she says, and learns 
really to value her opinions. Even in this case, 
she is quite as likely to be influenced by his 
views, as he to accept hers. In any case he 
will convey to her the knowledge in a manner 
more or less decisive, that he expects to take 
charge of all affairs of importance outside of the 
family, if not in it, too. 

But, you say, she must coax him, and flatter 
and wheedle him, and so gain her ends in that 
way. Well the coaxing is all very pleasant to 
both parties where they are lond of each other, 
and that sort of influence is sufficient to pro- 
cure a new dress or bonnet; but it does not 
often go any farther than that. In short a 
man's character is formed usually before he is 
married, and the most that a wife, under the 
most favorable influences, can do towards 
governing his actions is to make him indulgent 
to her personally. Possibly she may persuade 
him to attend the church which she prefers in- 
stead of the one he was brought up in. But 
the most devoted wife I ever knew in my whole 
circle of observation was never able to get her 
husband inside of a church at all; and another 
woman of the same style who is a Congregation- 
alist never has succeeded in getting her husband 
(an excellent man by the way) to go to her 
church when there were services at the Baptist 
church, to which he belonged; though she often 
went with him to his. 

Women very often marry men to " save them 
from ruin. " There is love between them, and 
the man tells the woman that undoubtedly he 
shall go to the bad unless she consents to act as 
his redeeming angel. Her friends oppose the 
sacrifice; but she believes him before all the 
world, and the marriage takes place. For a 
short time the novel pleasures of love and home 
hold the young husband steady, and the wife 
feels all the pride and joy of having successfully 
used her "influence" on the man she loves to 
keep him in the path of right. But by-and-by 
there comes a time when she learns with bit- 
terest certainty that she might as well expect 
to hold the winds with jetties as to keep her 
husband from the courses to which he is tempted 
either l)y appetite or evil associations. Of the 
children of such a marriage as many are likely 
to inherit the base appetites of the father as the 
gentle self-sacrifice of the mother; and the re- 
sult is her happiness ruined with that of all 
her children, half of whom may repeat their 
father'ji faults. Instead, therefore, of saving 
one man, she has given the world several more 
like him to go to ruin. Is this the kind of in- 
fluence that will save society 7 If any of your 
friends have it in mind to "save" any worthless 
young men by marrying them, tell them they 
had better take a "cup of cold poison" at once. 
But first represent to them how much safer 
would be the experiment of "saving" honest, 
industrious, upright young men; and how much 
better such an enterprise would pay in money, 
in comfort and respectability. 

Nevertheless there is security for men in the 
quiet pleasures of home; and inasmuch as wo- 
men make the home, and contribute to its 
attractiveness by a thousand feminine devices, 
in so much do they exercise an influence over 
men. But a recipe for making happy homes is 
much in style of that one for cooking a hare : 
"First catch your hare." First you must have 
a husband who can be attracted by your pretty 
little artifices. There are thousands of women 
who would s(ive their eyes to have their husbands 
acknowledge the charms of the place that passes 
for his home, but is not, because his heart ia 
not there. In vain are all the cunning orna- 
ments, the sweet smelling flowers, the dainty 

dress and bright aspect of things generally. He 
comes and goes fitfully; his breath, when he 
gives the hasty kiss of home-coming or parting, 
is redolent of stimulants. Up to the present 
the wife is in ignorance of any positive public 
shame; but her heart is wildly troubled lest 
the dreaded truth should burst upon her at any 
moment. She knows she is doomed, and the 
poor little pretence of affecting to believe she is 
still his darling, is horribly hard to support. 

Then there are poorer homes that might be 
happy if the husband could be made to see more 
pleasure init than he finds in the boorish company 
outside. But he does not. The small house, with 
the noise of children, and the jaded looks of the 
tired motherand housekeeper are not agreeable to 
him; while the woman's entire ignorance of the 
ward politics and kindred subjects forces him to 
go outside for sympathy in his views, whatever 
they may be ; and there he finds the strong, 
coarse mental aliment suited to his wants, the 
relish of which is hightened by the pipe and the 
glass of beer or whisky. Where is the infiuence 
in this case 7 

I'erhaps you will say the woman should have 
been so intelligent as to have overborne the at- 
tractions of the outside company, or that her 
house should have been so complete a picture of 
comfort as to have held the strong man away 
from vicious associations. I shall not say no to 
the first proposition, but I shall inquire as to 
the second, by what supernatural strength one 
poor, uncultivated woman is to be wife, mother, 
housekeeper, cook, laundry-woman, governess, 
ward politician, and charming center of an at- 
tractive home at one and the same time 7 I do 
not say that I never saw a woman who was all 
this ; but I do say she who accomplished this 
marvel was a very intellectual and considerably 
cultivated person. Her husband took great 
comfort in her society and was very proud of 
her ; but I never knew him to take her advice 
in a single case of any importance to their mutual 
interests, though by neglecting to do so, he sev- 
eral times lost all their common property and 
brought very severe trials and want upon her. 

Oh, no : it is all a mistake about the "influ- 
ence" — one of those pleasant humbugs I would 
gladly see exploded, because very unjustly it is 
made a cause of reproach to us. And it is done 
in this way: A man falls into bad habits, and 
his wife who loves him, very gently, with secret 
tears and a public proud forbearance, tries to 
persuade him to give up the dangerous vice. 
He listens half impatiently, kisses her as if he 
were conferring a pardon upon her for being so 
disagreeable as to mention the matter to him, 
and tells her she must be very loving and patient 
with him, and try to exercise a strong influence 
over him through his affections ! She takes this 
disinterested advice, not knowing what else to 
do, and forgives him sweetly over and over 
again. But by-and-by, when the evil habits are 
confirmed, she is aroused to a sense of the 
uselessness of patience and shows a little spirit 
upon occasions. What does my lord say to that 7 
He makes it the excuse for behaving more 
wickedly than before, telling her with lofty as- 
surance that her cold, unloving w.-jys have driven 
him to dissipation, and will be the ruin of him 
yet. So it goes on from to worse continu- 
ally, until there comes a time when she says, 
"1 can no longer endure this ; we shall have to 
live apart." And then he says, "why, what's 
the matter? You didn't use to take these things 
so seriously ! " 

Behold the reward of your sweetness — to be 
told that you used not to care about these 
abominable practices, but of late you are quite 
putting on airs ! Let me inquire in this case, 
who used the controlling influence 7 Was it the 
patient woman 7 Yet you are required by society 
to keep up this delusion. 

Let me inquire again, who is " society," that 
we are trying to influence it 7 Not other women, 
for I say it with abasement, we women care 
nothing about each other. Men constitute 
society. Men have physical strength, political 
power, money, education, rank. They own the 
homes we preside in by courtesy. They bring 
into those homes whom they choose, with one 
exception. They have by common consent 
voted it an outrage to introduce a bad woman 
to their wives and daughters ; but a bad man 7 
Why, that is different. Men have money, and 
rank, and "influence," therefore men must be 
courted, and we must help do the agreeable, 
affecting a polite ignorance of the characters of 
these influential fractions of society. If the 
wife or the daughter falls under the baleful fas- 
cinations of the combined attractions of rank, 
power, money and pretended devotion, and is 
whirled away into ruin by them, is it her in- 
fluence over society, or society's influence over 
her that has prevailed 7 Talk about the power 
of women over this m;elstrora of the world 1 
The wonder to me is, that any of us are left 
without blemish. How do we contrive to stand 
up against all the combined influences of society 
to pull us down 7 

We hear a great deal about the temptations 
of men. What has a great, strong, rich and 
powerful man to tempt him, except his own de- 
sires? If he could change places with some 
weak, dependent, poverty-stricken, yet strug- 
gling woman, he would find, in place of the one 
temptation in his own heart, a host of tempta- 
tions in the guise of necessities urging him to 
forget his fidelity to principle and to virtue. 
And are we to protect not only ourselves from 
men, but men from themselves? Assuming that 
we were upon an equality, should yon not say, 
"let every one stand or fall for himself?" But, 
being as it is, should we not rather say, "help 
us!" than "we will help you?" 

Consider this thing society, and who con- 

stitute it? There is the powerful rich man; 
what does he do to promote virtue? There is 
the successful politician; what does he for the 
purity of society? or the men in civil or military 
offices? What does the great lawyer do? or the 
legislator? What does the physician, who most 
of all comprehends the full amount of injury 
done society by its vices? What does the priest 
of Ood, who feels that he must build up a great 
and influential congregation? None of these are 
going to meddle with the ways of society, lest 
society should turn and rend them. But we, 
who are not of the least consequence in the 
world's a*^airs, are asked to influence society. 

Am I too doubtful; too terribly discouraging 
to my sisters who yet have faith in their in- 
fluence? I am sorry to take away one prop, 
however insecure, of woman's belief in her moral 
power. Nor shall I, if I say, as I feel, that in 
spite of our weakness we are strong, if we 
choose, in one way. Not to influence men by 
amiably condoning their offences against us; 
but by firmly requiring of them the same purity 
of character that they exact from us, or that we 
maintain in ourselves. It is the most dignified, 
the most rational, the most just, and certain 
way. It is better for us, for them and for pos- 
terity. I suppose if the women of this country, 
whose husbands are on the downward road, 
were, with one consent, to rise up and say, 
"either we will do as you do, or you must con- 
sent to live as we live," that there would be a 
great commotion. But the tempest would clear 
the air considerably. Those who are worth 
saving would be saved, and those who are worth- 
less would simply declare themselves, and all 
further trouble about saving them by "influ- 
ence" be dispensed with. 

But then the wives of the real society men 
would fail to come up bravely to the issue, and 
the others, discouraged, would falter and fail, 
and the mischief would go on. The roots of the 
evil lie too far back in the past to yield to any 
sudden pressure. The only way to a true 
power over men, lies in ourselves, nevertheless. 
Each individual woman for herself may erect a 
standard of purity, to which, keeping herself, 
she can require those who seek her favor to 
reach. In tliis way we may, by long effort, in- 
fluence society; for men, though they may care 
nothing for the personal iufluence of any indi- 
vidual woman, do recognize the might of the 
riglit in a general way, and do respect a consist- 
ent and reiterated demand for it at last, how- 
ever much they may try to ignore it at first. 

I presume that I have but half auswertd my 
correspondent in the foregoing remarks, for she 
meant to include the home influences from the 
cradle upward, no doubt. Some other time we 
ni.iy consider woman's influence in the relation 
of mother, as we cannot do to-day, having ex- 
hausted the space that has been graciously ac- 
corded to us in this journal. 

Clergymen Like the Stand-bt-s. — The sim- 
ple presence of such persons in the church is of 
itself to every minister a powerful help and en- 
couragement. He is glad, of course, to see new 
faces coming in from time to time. The poor 
mother, the stand-by at home, who has a break- 
fast and a husband and half a dozen children to 
get ready in the morning, so that she herself 
can come out only now and then, whenever she 
does come is seen with pleasure. The young 
men of his flock, flowers of the kingdom, whose 
eyes and religious natures open usually only in 
the latter part of the day, but who occasionally 
under the inspirations of a new suit of Sunday 
clothes blossom out in the forenoon, excite in 
him, till he learns better, a gleam of hope. The 
religious casual, the small and unfrequent wor- 
shiper described by Horace, owning a pew, but 
occupying it so seldom that when he does use it 
it has to be found for him by the sexton, is not 
by any means unwelcome, and there is always 
an inspiration of some sort in the great crowd 
of strangers who appear Sunday nights when it 
has been advertised that he is going to speak on 
the kingdom of Satan, or the doings of the devil, 
or the sowing of wild oats, or some kindred 
theme. But after all it is the stand-bys, the 
men — usually old ones— and the women living 
often furthest from the church, who are abso- 
lutely sure of being in their places punctually 
every Sunday, Thanksgfving and even fast day, 
whatever the season or the weather or the sub- 
ject may be — these that he looks upon with 
special delight and finds to be the fountains of 
his great earthly inspiration. — Hiindatj Ajlfr- 

Act OF Love. — Each one of a thousand acta 
of love costs very little by itself, and yet when 
viewed altogether, who can estimate their 
value 7 What is it that secures for one the 
name of a kind neighbor? Not the doing of 
half a dozen gi-eat favors in as many years, but 
the little everyday kindnesses, neither of which 
seems of much consequence, considered in 
itself, but their continued repetition sheds a 
sunlight over the whole neighborhood. It is so, 
too, in the family. The child whose good 
offices are always ready when they are wanted — 
to run up stairs or down — to get chips or rock 
the cradle, or to mn on an errand and "right 
back," — and all with a pleasant look and a 
pleasant temper, has a reward along with such 
good deeds. If a little girl cannot take her 
grandfather on her lap, as he takes her on his, 
she can get his slippers, or put away his book, 
or gently comb his thin locks; and, whether she 
thinks of it or not, these little kindnesses that 
come from a loving heart, are the sunbeams 
that lighten up a dark And woful world.— i,Ort. 
don Header, 

July 26, 1879.') 



Husbands and Wives. 

The writer of "Home Interests," in the New 
York Tribune discourses as follows: There is 
one law for all, one rule, one duty, one reward; 
but there are all sorts of husbands, and there 
are all sorts of wives. There are husbands who 
without holding thenoselves to any high stand- 
ard in the marital relation, hold their wives to 
the highest standard, and are aggrieved if they 
do not come up to it. There are wives who 
do precisely the same thing. There are selfish 
husbands who regard their wives as mere instru- 
ments of convenience, created solely for their 
service, and there are wives who regard their 
husbands precisely in the same manner. There 
are jealous husbands who cannot endure shar- 
ing with another even a pleasant word or look, 
who think that they should have a total monop- 
oly of their wives, and that whatever they can- 
not use and enjoy should be kept under glass or 
under lock and key from everybody else; and 
tliere are wives of precisely the same pattern. 
There are husbands who married for money, for 
position, for convenience, and there are wives 
who married for a home, for a support, and to 
escape the odium of being old maids. There 
are husbands who honestly try to bo good hus- 
bands and faithful and kind and true, but who 
meet with no corresponding return from their 
wives; and there are just such wives who meet 
with no response from their husbands. There 
are big-souled men married to but not mated 
with small-souled women, and there are noble, 
generous women married to, but not mated with 
narrow-minded men. There are perverse, un- 
reasonable, impracticable husbands, and there 
are perverse, unreasonable, impracticable wives. 
And there are true, noble, intelligent, warm- 
hearted, pure-lived husbands married to and 
mated with true, noble, intelligent, warm- 
hearted, pure-lived wives — these are e([ually 
yoked and move along the highway of life as 
two well-matched horses, pulling evenly and 
keeping step and mutually steadying and en- 
couraging each other. 

In those States most enlightened with regard 
to marriage the law contemplates the wife as 
every way the equal and the partner of the hus- 
band. It proceeds upon the ground that in that 
intimate and sacred relation the aid and cheer- 
ing influence of the wife conduces to the pecu- 
niary success of the husband as effectually as 
his own more direct and strenuous exertions. 
Therefore it creates a commercial partnership 
between the two spouses, subject to the same 
rijles that govern ordinary partnerships in the 
usual course of business between jnan and man. 
When those contracting parties have no money- 
capital to invest they may yet invest such valu- 
able and otiioient virtues as industry, economy, 
frugality, cheerfulness, patience, hope, courage; 
and the law, based as it is on profound views of 
human nature and borrowing all the wisdom of 
actual life, presumes that each party invests the 
same amount of those means or of those virtues 
by which success is won. It further presumes 
that so kind and sympathetic are the feelings of 
the wife toward her partner that she will do all 
in her power for the common good of both, and 
if her husband has been endowed with greater 
strength and courage so that his exertions ai-e 
more efficient and his labors more directly suc- 
cessful in money-results, yet the law rewards 
her for that not less effective co-operation which 
contributes to his power as the rain fills the 
rivers, and makes his interest equal with her's 
in the results of his enterprise and labors, di- 
viding the net profits equally between them. 

Y^iJflQ F©Lks' C@nJp*iJN. 

Our Puzzle Box. 

Numerical Enigma. 

1 am composed of fifty-four letters. 

My 2fi, 37, 28, 41, 12, is a native of Europe. 

My 6, 21, 29, 46, 23, is a fruit. 

My 32, 3. 30, 35, 2, 51, is a masculine name. 

My 10, 16, 34, 31, .52, is a city. 

My 43, 9, 5, is a useful article. 

My 1, 14, 19, 48, is a part of the body. 

My 33, 4, 45, 47, 7, is a masculine name. 

My 50, 27, 40, 44, 54, is junction. 

My 17, 38, 22, 36 is an animal. 

My 49, 25, 13, 11, is oraer. 

My 24, 15, is part of flyinef. 

My 18, 20, abides always witli you. 

My wliolo is an old proverb. M. T. H. 


1. When the captain arrived in he procured a 

of paint with which to paint his life-boat. 

2. The lad sat under a tall eating a 

3. At tlie the lady stopped to buy a 

[The above blanks are to be filled with some words with 

a letter or syllable omitted.) Uncle Claude. 


A farmer has two square gardens, the side of one ,of 
which exceeds that of the other by 4 rods, while the con- 
tents of both are 208 square rods. How ni,any square rods 
does the larger garden contain more than the smaller? 

F. W F. 


Half of a bird that chattering flies 

Across the wood is half of me. 
My other half your food supplies. 

Though daily cast into the sea. 

A wondrous power pervades my whole — 
I'm shown to stretch from pole to pole, 
In which the sailor finds a guide 
To lead him o'er the ocean wide. 

Old English. 

Concealed Song. - 
[One word of the title of a popular song is hidden in 
each sentence.] 

1. The fragments of rock were blown through the roof. 

2. "Please bring the book to me, John," said the lady. 

3. The future is never revealed to mortal eye. 

4. "Sleep, darling, sleep," sang the mother, softly. 

5. "Mother, I'm atheep," lisped the child. 


Answers to Last Puzzles. 
Ni .merical Enigma— Grace Darling. 
PR0BLE.M— 22 rods long, 20 rods wide. 
Charade— Flying Dutchman. 

Transpositions— 1, town, won't; 2, smile, miles; 3, 
mates, steam; 4, mate, tame, meat; 5, made, dame; 6, 
I>aste, tapes. 

Word Scil ARK— MART 
R E A R 


Taking persons — Policemen. 

A TABLE of interest — The dinner-table. 

One thing in which two heads are better than 
one — A barrel. 

The frog is the only animal that gives up tale 
bearing after its period of adolescence. 

The compositor who made it read, "In the 
midst of life we are in debt," wasn't much out 
of the way. 

A pretty girl won a musket in a lottery. 
When they gave it to her she asked, "Don't 
they give a soldier with it?" 

TuEBE is no disgrace in being poor — the 
thing is to keep it quiet, and not let your 
neighbors know anything about it. 

An Aberdeen critic writes: "We read in 
Longfellow that he wishes man could make love 
like a bird. Man does, Mr Longfellow; he 
makes love like a goose." 

When President Lincoln was taken down 
with the small-pox he wrote to Colfax that he 
might let the army of office seekers approach, as 
he had now something that he would give 

"0, YES," said an old lady, "the modern 
cookstove is a great invention, and when my 
boy James gets through his studies in practical 
engineering, so he can come home and run it, 
I'll buy one of 'em, but not afore." 

A Kansa.s farmer purchased a revolver for 
his wife, and insisted on target practice, so that 
she might be able to defend the house in his 
absence. After the bullet was dug out of his 
leg, and the cow buried, he said he guessed 
she'd better shoot with an ax, 

A Philadelphia dry goods merchant has 
added a children's room to his store, where 
mothers may leave their children to be amused 
with rocking horses, pictures, and toys, while 
they do their shopping. Babes in arms jye not 
admitted, lest they should not be called for 

Kitty's Lunch at Midnight. 

I want to tell you how Miltiades Peterkin 
Paul, that's our kitty, called 'Tides for short 
earned his midnight lunch. 

The door bell wire of our house ran through 
the. cellar, and at a certain point it crossed a 
beam. Now 'Tides was often punished for 
some naughtiness by being shut in the darkness 
below stairs, and as he was a great lover of 
society, this was decidedly against his taste, 
and in a very little time he learned to scratch 
and pull at this wire so as to ring the bell in 
the hall above, when some one .vho chanced to 
pass would open the door and let him out. 

And now I will tell you about the midnight 

It was a stormy night in late November, and 
'Tides was sleeping on the beam in the cellar 
with his nose warmly wrapped in his own fur, 
he dreamed happily of the summer-time, and 
the foolish birds that he loved to chase in the 

In this fairy land of dreams 'Tides was wan- 
dering, when a sudden crash dispelled the beau- 
tiful vision, and with a start, every hair erect 
and his ears quivering, he awoke to find himself 
still in the winter time and darkness. What 
was that terrible noise ? 

Crouching low upon the beam he opened both 
eyes very wide, and waited. For a moment all 
was still, and then from the further cellar where 
the coal-bin was, and the great outside doors, 
there came a low sound, a whisper, a soft foot 
fall, and an instant later a little ray of light 
darted along the floor, and two ugly-looking 
men, one of them carrying a dark lantern, ap- 
peared 1 

'Tides' eyes followed them, but he hardly 
breathed in his excitement ; what were they 
going to do ? With careful steps they passed 
the beam where he lay, slowly ascended the 
cellar stairs, opened the door into the kitchen 
and disappeared. 'Tides waited. What passed 
through his furry head cannot be known ; per 
haps as he heard them a moment later rattling the 
silver spoons in the pantry, the idea of some- 
thing to eat flashed into his little brain, and 
with nimble feet he ran to the bell-wire aud 
pulled it sharply. If it was breakfast-time ne 
wanted his breakfast, too. 

Jingle, jingle, jingle, jingle ; the bell never 
stopped, and 'Tides heard sudden angry voices 
and cries, and the sound of many feet running 
across the floor over his head. Doors were 
opened and shut with a slam, and a great noise 
was made, but still the bell rang, jingle, jingle. 

Suddenly the cellar-door opened, aud a bright 
light flashed in upon him. 

" Why, 'Tides, 'Tides 1 You splendid old 
kitty, come here 1 ' and his mistress stretched 
her arms toward him; "you shall have a whole 
beefsteak and a cup of cream right off now, for 
you have frightened the robbers away, and saved 
all my silver 1 You are a splendid fellow 1 " 

And so kitty enjoyed his midnight lunch. 
Don't you think that he earned it?- Wide Aira'-c. 


The limitation of epidemic pestilential dis- 
eases, as the yellow fever, typhus and typhoid, 
diphtheria, etc. , is at all times a question of in- 
tense interest to every thoughtful person. The 
.luly number of the New York Sanitarian con- 
tains interesting and valuable matter upon the 
subject of epidemics, which we unhesitatingly 
appropriate : 

The cholera is a product of the jungles of 
India and Burmah, and the yellow fever is as 
surely of West Indian origin. That it is an ex- 
otic as relates to the United States is the opin- 
ion of the last national commission; and that it 
never originates rfe novo, except in its primal 
birth-place, whatever elsewhere may be the ex- 
cess of heat moisture, filth, and vegetable and 
animal decomposition, is almost demonstrated, 
perhaps established. As to communicability, it 
is certainly conveyed from individual to indi- 
vidual, not precisely by what we understand to 
be direct contagion, but through various media, 
especially by bed and body clothing, by articles 
of furniture, by a.partments, cars and steam and 
sailing vessels, by baggage and by cargoes; and 
these propagators, deriving from the sick the 
pestilential material (intentionally not called 
germ), hold it with wonderful tenacity, and con- 
vey it to mankind with intense effect. Both 
may be held at bay by quarantine and literally 
"fenced out." In 18.51 cholera prevailed in 
Southern Europe and in Algeria, but not one 
case occurred that year in Spain by reason of vig- 
orous quarantine. Two years later, when the 
embargo was not strictly maintained, it ravaged 
the Spanish peninsula. It always followed the 
lines of travel and was always carried by man- 
kind. The infectious germ might be long in 
germinating, but it could always be traced to 
individuals. Quarantine, to be effectual, how- 
ever, must have a very wide applicability. It 
will not suffice to limit it to vessels from foreign 
ports. It must extend to all conveyances for 
the transportation of passengers and merchan- 
dise — must have relations with municipal, State 
and national authority. It is estimated that 
the cost of the late yellow fever epidemic in 
loss amounted to $200,000,000. 

Typhoid fever is certainly communicated 
through a tainted water supply exposed to the 
taint of infected vaults. Poisoned springs have 
been traced to this infection, and in a celebrated 
English dairy case, where poisoned milk was 
claimed to have been sold, scientific examina- 
tion disclosed the fact that the milk had been 
contaminated through the cows having lain 
upon ground manured from infected vaults. 
Another source is in the ice supply, often taken 
from shallow ponds in the neighborhood of large 
cities, freezing not destroying the germ as 
supposed. The air in localities becomes con- 
taminated from sewage deposits; and Budd 
states, as early as 1859, that the germ of this 
disease never originates de novo, but proceeds 
from a special and specific poison, capable of 
great diffusion and preserving its noxious quali- 
ties for a long period, even if buried for 
many months. In England the preventability 
of typhoid fever is so thoroughly established 
that an innkeeper who has a guest ill with it, is 
held criminally responsible if any other case 
could be traced to the one under his roof. By 
this means infectious substances are destroyed 
and the spread of the disease prevented. Boil- 
ing water applied to the discharges is said to de- 
stroy the infection. But when the substance is 
allowed to escape as sewage it must be disin- 
fected by prompt means. 

Diphtheria is much more prevalent and much 
worse in localities supplied with bad water. 
The microscope can detect a few of the germs of 
epidemic diseases either in the water or in the 
system, and the only sure method is to watch 
the slightest approaches of disease and investi- 
gate the sources of our water supply, whether in 
city or country. Chlorine gas, from recent ex- 
periments, seems to be a disinfectant as well as 
a deodorizer. This greenish-colored gas effectu- 
ally seizes upon and destroys any hidden germs 
existing in dwellings, ships, etc. This gas has 
been used successfully at Bellevue hospital aud 
other places. We must purify and quarantine. 
Mediums of communication have been made 
available to epidemics as well as to mankind in 
his business affairs. 

The Fluids of the Body. — Prof. Jager, of 
Lcipsic, has recently published a work in which 
he maintains that an increased proportion of 
water in the tissues and humors of the body is 
one of the most essential conditions of liability 
to disease. To guard against disease, there- 
fore, it is necessary to make the body 
yield as much water as possible through 
skin and lungs, aud to avoid ail that favors 
the accumulation of water. To this end he 
recommends the wearing of close-fitting 
woolen clothing throughout the year; all bodily 
movements which promote perspiration; on out- 
break of disease the use of vapor or sweating 
baths, of drinks that excite perspiration, and of 
foods that do the same; constant ventilation of 
sitting and bod rooms, so that the moisture of 
the air may not become great. Dr Jager asserts 
that the specific gravity of a living body is an 
accurate criterion of the strength of constitution 
of a man or a domestic animal — that is to say, 
for its capability of resistance to causes of 
diseases, such as chills, infection, etc., and its 
power of work, bodily and mental, 

A Department of Domestic Economy. 

The Bureau of Education at Washington, 
state that there is such a loud call for informa- 
tion concerning the progress of schools of 
domestic economy which have been lately in- 
stituted, that they have included inquiries in the 
circulars which they send out to the heads of 
educational institutions. In answer to these 
inquiries, Mary B. Welch, "lecturer on domes- 
tic economy and superintendent of the experi- 
mental kitchen" at the Iowa Agricultural col- 
lege, replies as follows: 

The first instruction in our department of do- 
mestic economy was given in 1872, by a course 
of lectures to the junior girls, on matters con- 
nected with house-keeping. In 1877, the 
Trustees added a course in cookery, and pro- 
vided and furnished a kitchen for the use of the 
class. P^or the last two years, therefore, lessons 
in i)lain cooking have been given to the junior 
class in connection with lectures on such topics 
as "House Furnishing," "Care of the Sick," 
"Management of Help," "Care of Children," 
"Dress," etc., etc. Domestic chemistry forms 
also a part of the course in domestic economy. 

Our facilities are still farther increased thig 
year by the addition of a laundry wherein the 
girls of the sophomore class are now learning to 
wash and iron. During March and April two 
afternoons a week are spent in this laundry un- 
der the the careful supervision of competent 
teachers. In May the class are to receive in- 
struction twice a week in plain sewing, and are 
to be taught to sewing machines. In June 
an experienced dressmaker is to teach the art of 
cutting and fitting dresses. The kitchen will be 
opened the middle of July, and the class will re- 
ceive instruction in cookery two afternoons 
weekly until the last of October. We are to 
use, this year, Miss Juliet Corson's "Cooking 
School Text Book," giving the class the "Plain 
Cooks' Course." Each student will be re- 
quired to do the work explained in every lesson 
so that, when the course is finished, she will 
have cooked every article described. 

A constant and increasing interest and en- 
thusiam have marked our progress in this de- 
partment of study, aud no one of our college 
courses has attracted more attention or received 
more encouragement from the State at large. 

Amber Pudding.— In preparing this use two 
pounds of raw apples, three ounces of sugar, a 
gill of cold water, several drops of lemon juice, 
four eggs, six ounces of flour, two ounces of 
butter, one-half teaspoonful of baking powder 
and a pinch of salt. The sugar and one-half 
gill of water are placed over the fire and 
allowed to come to a boil. At this point add 
the apples, which should be cut into lumps, 
and the lemon juice, and cook until the apples 
are quite soft. Weigh out six ounces of flour 
in a basin, and mix in well two ounces of but- 
ter; then add the baking powder, a pinch of 
salt and one- half gill of watei, and work the 
whole into a firm dough, aud roll out to thick- 
ness of one-third of an inch. Then dampen the 
sides of a pie dish with cold water and line it 
with narrow strips of the dough. After trim- 
ming the edge nicely, brush them lightly with 
cold water, and garnish the outer edge with 
small circular pieces of pastry laid close to- 
gether. The apples, when soft, are removed 
and strained through a sieve into a clean dish. 
The yolks of four eggs are then mixed in, and 
in this condition it is placed into the pie plate 
that has been prepared. In order to cook the 
newly introduced eggs and the dough the dish 
is put in the oven for ten minutes. The whites 
of the eggs, to which salt has been added, are 
beaten stiff, and when the pudding is done this 
is piled high up in the center, and is well 
sprinkled with sugar. After smoothing the 
white of the egg into a cone shape, it can be 
neatly garnished with pieces of Angelica or 
dried berries. It is again placed in the oven 
to brown for two minutes, and is then ready for 
the table. 

A Spiced Round of Beef.— Take a largo 
prime round of beef; extract the bone and close 
the hole. Tie a tape all round it to keep it 
firm. Take four ounces of finely-powdered 
saltpeter, and rub it well into the beef. Put 
the meat into a very clean pickling-tub that has 
a close'fitting cover, and let it rest for two 
days. Next rub it thoroughly with salt, and 
return to the tub for eight days. Then take an 
ounce of powdered mace, a large nutmeg pow- 
dered, a half ounce of pepper, not more. Mix 
these spices well together, and then mix them 
with a ijouud of fine brown sugar. Rub the 
spices and sugar thoroughly all over the beef, 
which will be ready to cook next day. Then 
fill the opening with minced sweet herbs, sweet 
basil and sweet marjoram, laid in loosely and 
lightly. Take half a pound of nice beef suet. 
Divide it in two, and flatten each half of the 
suet by beating it with a rolling-pin. Lay it in 
a broad earthen pan, with one sheet of suet 
under the meat, aud the other pressed over it. 
Above this place a sheet of clean white paper, 
and above all a large plate. Set it in a hot 
oven, bake it five hours or more, till, hy prob- 
ing it to the bottom with a sharp knife, you 
find it thoroughly cooked. It is excellent as a 
cold standing dish for a large family. 



[July 26, 1879. 

DEWEY <& CO., Publishers. 

Office, 202 Samome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 

Annual Subscriptioxs, 84; six months, $2; three 
months, S1.25. When paid fully one year in advance, 
Fmv CEXT8 will be ileilucted. No kkw names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regjis- 
tered letters or P. C. orders at our risk. 
AvKKTisiNO UaTKB. 1 Week. 1 month. S mos. 12 mos. 

Per lino 25 . 80 «2.00 $5.00 

Half inch (1 square).. $1.00 $3.00 7.50 24.00 

One inch 2.00 5.00 14.00 40.00 

"Hie Scientific Press Patent Agency . 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 


W. B. SWRK. 

e. H. 8TR0N0 


Saturday, July 26, 1879. 


EDITORIALS.— Curinj; Kuoms for Cheese; Honey 
East and West; One-Horsc Kanches; Nates on Geysers, 
4S-57. Subterranean Irrigation at Los Angeles, 53. 
The Week; Rust and its Effect upon Men and Animals, 
56. The Salmon Berry; Subsidiary Dairy Products; 
Is the Farm a Field for Skill; Uainfail in Australia and 
California, 57. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.-Ceyser, Showing Ornamental 
Character of liorder, 49. (irain Rust, as Seen With the 
.Mii roscopc, 56. Cevser Theories Illustrated, 57 

QUERIES AND REPLIES.-Fruit Growing^I.irne 
for lloavv Soils; Hatllcsnake Weed; Rooting out Wild 
.Moniin;; tiiories; Ca\ cnne for Gai>e3, 56. 

CORRESPONDBNCJE. -Agriculture on the Hnm- 
biiitlt. Ki\er; e'liar.icteristics of Santa Cruz County. 50. 
Agricultural Instruction at the State Universitv, 53. 

SHEEP AND WOOL.— Constitution in Sheep, 50. 

POULTRY YARD. -Extracting Gape Worms; Lang- 
shan Fowls, 50. 

PISCICULTURE.— Pacific Coast Halibut; Carp Cul- 
ture in San Bernardino County, 51. 

HORTICULTURE. -Apple vs. Citrus Fniits, 51. 

THE FIELD. -Quality of Wheat and Time of Cut- 
ting, 51. 

THE DAIRY.— Parsnips as Dairy Feed. 51. 

Grange; Making all Property Shoulder its Burdens; The 
Insurance Company Suit and Asscsetnent; Items from 
the "I'atron." 5*3. ' 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of Calif(,niia, Nev'ada, Orciion and Arizona, 52-53. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on page 53 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE — A Farmer for President (poetrj); 
Woman's Influence in Society; Clergymen Like the 
Stand-bys; Act of Love, 54. Husbands and Wives; 
Chaff 55 

YOUNG POLKS' COLUMN. -Our Puzzle Box; 

Kilt\'9 Lunch at Midnight, 55. 
GOOD HEALTH.— Epidemics; Tlie Fluids of the 

H.Kly, 55. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— A Department of Do- 
mestic Economy; Amber I'udding; A Spiced Round 
of Beef, 55. 

MISCELLANEOUS. -State Fair Prenuumsfor Field 
and Orchard Prwlucts, 58. 

Business Announcements. 

Mechanics' Fair, J. H. Culver, Secretary, S. F. 
Tosemite and the Geysers, Mattcsoii k Harrison. S. F. 
Bodia Stage Line, Matteson & Harrison, S. F. 
Thoroughbred Berkshire Swine, A. L. Sayre, Borden, Cal. 

The Week, 

Again the aonual concert of harvest sounds 
and panorama of harvest sights are at their 
highest estates, and newer zest is given to the 
busy work as each new fraction is recorded in 
the markets. The English reports show how 
the value of imported grain is appreciating, and 
again, as is often the case, California wheat goes 
up in a little balloon by itself above the genenal 
up-rising. This special lead of California grain 
is quite likely to be maintained during the year, 
because of our reduced surplus for shipment, 
and unfavorable conditions in other white wheat 

Mail advices from England bring the details 
of the more than dismal weather which the 
telegraph has hinted at, and the widespread 
destruction of harvest prospects plays a doleful 
second to the leading parts in industrial deijres- 
sion. It may be doubted whether any equal 
area of the globe has been more severely af- 
flicted during the last few years. But one 
harvest in five has been respectable, all being 
ruined by the excess of water at unseasonable 
times. The proportion of success is hardly as 
gooil as in our drouth-disposed regions, and 
England's is the harder problem to obviate the 
evU, for it is easier to bring water upon land 
than to keep it off when the clouds are bent on 
generous deeds. 

The days beneath our skies are warm, dry and 
sunny, and the harvest march is unrestrained. 
The reports of disappointment at the outturn of 
the fields in some sections continue, but the 
general verdict is a hap])y one. Again, owing 
to the partial drouth in certain counties, there 
are new indications of the advantage of a full 
year's work even on wheat ranches, and we 
imagine that many a plow which has hitherto 
waited for the rain will be pushed into dry soil 
as soon as the harvest is over. It will be for- 
tunate for all our people if it can be shown that 
profit lies in continued rather than fitful en- 

Rust and its Effect upon Men and Animals. 

Editors Press: — I have forwarded to j ou a sample of 
the dust or powder known as rust on wheat. I scud also 
a specimen of the grain affected thereby. From my ob- 
servation the rust seems to stop the circulation of the 
"sap" to the head of the grain, and as you will see it 
withers and dries the same as if cut for hay. The greatest 
damage wasdone in this countrj' during three days of hot 
sultr)' weather in June. Thousands of acres of grain that 
promised from 30 to 40 bushels per acre are now worth- 
less; a great deal of it will not [Xiy for cutting. The loss 
to farmers from the effects of rust in this county will be 
at least 1,000,000 bushels, and a great depreciation in the 
value of the remainder of the crop. Therefore you can 
easily comprehend why the farming community wish all the 
light possible on the subject. This dust seems to be odor- 
less and tasteless, yet it affects man and beast strangely. 
Men who are working in grain badly affected are unable 
to retain food eaten at times, and unless a thorough bath 
is taken every night they are unable to sleep, and it affects 
the eyes of men, and animals under the very best of treat- 
ment lottse flesh and become stupid. What we wish to 
know is what constitutes its death-dealing properties and 
a general knowledge of its constituent parts.— A. IIenrv, 
President Upper Sacramento Agricultural Society. 

The specimens sent by our querist show well 
the character of the destructive fungus ( Puc- 
chiia tjraminis ), commonly called "rust," and 
its efi'ect upon the grain which it attacks. 
Studies of the fungus by microscopists have 
yielded many satisfactory points on the nature 
of the parasitic fungus and its method of repro- 
duction after it has obtained a hold upon the 
foster plant, but the way by which it gains ac- 
cess to the tissue of the plant and a successful 
way of preventing its inroads are as yet un- 

In order to show the manner in which the 
rust insinuates its mycelium (answering to the 
roots of other orders of plants) into the snb- 
stance of the grain,, disrupts the epidermis and